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D Kiernan, A Malone, T O'Brien, C K Simms
Kinematic analysis of the trunk during cerebral palsy (CP) gait has been well described. In contrast, movement of the lumbar spine is generally ignored. This is most likely due to the complex nature of the spine. As an alternative to using complex sensor protocols, this study modelled the lumbar region as a single segment and investigated characteristic patterns of movement during CP gait. In addition, the impact of functional level of impairment and the relationship with lower lumbar spinal loading were examined...
January 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
Anna Borgström, Pia Nerfeldt, Danielle Friberg, Ola Sunnergren, Joacim Stalfors
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to longitudinally describe the history of tonsil surgery in Swedish children and adolescents regarding incidence, indications for surgery, surgical methods and the age and gender distributions. SETTING: A retrospective longitudinal population-based cohort study based on register data from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) and population data from Statistics Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All Swedish children 1-<18 years registered in the NPR with a tonsil surgery procedure 1987-2013...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
Roxanne M Parslow, Sarah Harris, Jessica Broughton, Adla Alattas, Esther Crawley, Kirstie Haywood, Alison Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-ethnography. BACKGROUND: CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
David A Pettitt, Zeeshaan Arshad, Anuj Mishra, Paul McArthur
INTRODUCTION: Apert Syndrome is a congenital condition characterised by primary craniosynostosis, midfacial malformations and complex symmetrical malformations of the hands and feet. The hands demonstrate one of the most complex collections of congenital upper limb deformities, posing a significant challenge for the paediatric hand surgeon. This study examines the extant literature and current practice of the four UK specialist craniofacial units regarding the management of Apert hands in order to provide a basis for guideline development...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Irene Teixidor-Toneu, Gary J Martin, Rajindra K Puri, Ahmed Ouhammou, Julie A Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Although most Moroccans rely to some extent on traditional medicine, the practice of frigg to treat paediatric ailments by elderly women traditional healers known as ferraggat, has not yet been documented. We describe the role of these specialist healers, document the medicinal plants they use, and evaluate how and why their practice is changing. METHODS: Ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observations of medical encounters...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
H B Dick, T Schultz
Recent technological innovations in cataract surgery have made the procedure even more precise and safe and the odds of having a highly satisfied patient even higher. These innovations include visualisation systems - such as intraoperative aberrometry - which are particularly helpful when it comes to implanting toric IOLs, where even a slight rotation or misalignment can significantly reduce the postoperative visual quality. Another way to ensure the exact positioning of a toric IOL is to create a mark by making an intrastromal incision using the femtosecond laser...
January 13, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
V Tadić, J S Rahi
The purpose of this article is to summarise methodological challenges and opportunities in the development and application of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for the rare and complex population of children with visually impairing disorders. Following a literature review on development and application of PROMs in children in general, including those with disabilities and or/chronic condition, we identified and discuss here 5 key issues that are specific to children with visual impairment: (1) the conflation between theoretically distinct vision-related constructs and outcomes, (2) the importance of developmentally appropriate approaches to design and application of PROMs, (3) feasibility of standard questionnaire formats and administration for children with different levels of visual impairment, (4) feasibility and nature of self-reporting by visually impaired children, and (5) epidemiological, statistical and ethical considerations...
January 13, 2017: Eye
Melissa M Olen, Brynn Dechert-Crooks
Remote monitoring in the modern era has improved outcomes for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. There are many advantages to remote monitoring, including improved quality of life for patients, decreased need for in-office interrogation, and secondary reduced costs. Patient safety and enhanced survival remain the most significant benefit. With most of the published literature on this topic being focussed on adults, paediatric outcomes continue to be defined. This is a review of the benefits of remote monitoring in paediatrics and in patients with CHD...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Christine Chiu-Man
Paediatric pacemaker management is challenging because of the small patient size, complex cardiac anatomy, and unique programming considerations. Hardware placement options include epicardial and transvenous systems. When pacemaker malfunction is suspected, a systematic approach is required to determine whether there is malfunction in pacing, sensing, or no output due to hardware problem. In most cases, simple reprogramming may circumvent the problem and allow retention of the pacemaker system.
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Paul Stephens
Paediatric exercise stress testing has historically been used to assess the functional status of patients after repair of CHDs and to assess the efficacy of medical or device therapy in patients with arrhythmias. Exercise stress testing is one of very few hospital- or clinic-based tests that can assess the response of the cardiopulmonary system in an environment that simulates the body's response to vigorous play and competitive sport. Exercise stress testing is therefore a useful modality in the assessment of child and athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Dominic J Abrams
The investigation of the aetiology of sudden cardiac arrest or death in a young person combines features of a traditional clinical medical examination with those of forensic medicine. Nuances of the immediate peri-event history, when available, can be paramount. New genetic tools have greatly improved the yield of such investigations, but they must be carefully interpreted by genetic specialists. The approach to surviving patients, their family members, and to family members of non-survivors is best achieved in a structured programme that includes all appropriate specialists and support personnel...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Siba P Paul, Matthew Hoghton, Bhupinder Sandhu
The European guidelines for diagnosing coeliac disease in children were revised in 2012. These recommend that in symptomatic children, a diagnosis of coeliac disease can be made without small-bowel biopsies provided their anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) titre is >10 times of upper-limit-of-normal (>10×ULN) and anti-endomysial antibody is positive. In order to firm up the diagnosis in these children with very high anti-tTG titre, HLA-DQ2/DQ8 should be checked and be positive. Approximately 25-40% of white Caucasian population has HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: British Dental Journal
Betty S Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Nicholas A Buckley
CONTEXT: Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-folate drug that has been utilized in both malignant and chronic inflammatory conditions. Doctors are often concerned with a potential adverse outcome when managing patients with acute oral MTX poisoning given its potential for serious adverse reactions at therapeutic doses. However, there is surprisingly little data from acute poisoning cases and more data from the therapeutic use of high-dose MTX. OBJECTIVES: To review pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties of MTX and systematically review series of acute MTX poisonings and therapeutic studies on high-dose MTX that provide pharmacokinetic or clinical data...
February 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Sara Chami, Natalie Munro, Kimberley Docking, Karla McGregor, Joanne Arciuli, Elise Baker, Rob Heard
PURPOSE: Verbal fluency tests are often used as part of an assessment battery to investigate children's lexical knowledge as well as executive function skills. To date, however, issues surrounding consistency of measurement cloud comparisons across studies, with the developmental performance of Australian-English speaking children also currently lacking. This study tracked verbal fluency development as measured by two semantic fluency tasks that included coding of fluency, clustering and switching type responses...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous micafungin (Mycamine(®); Funguard(®)), an echinocandin, is approved in the EU for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in children (including neonates) and adolescents (<16 years of age) and as prophylaxis against Candida infections in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or who are expected to have neutropenia for ≥10 days. This narrative review focuses on the use of micafungin in paediatric indications approved in the EU, which may vary from those approved elsewhere in the world...
January 13, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
Chukwunonso E C C Ejike
Despite four decades of research, there is no systematic review and trend analysis on paediatric (pre)hypertension in Nigeria. This article reviewed data from cross-sectional studies on the subject. From the initial 9334 articles identified, 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed. Data from studies that defined hypertension as blood pressure (BP) greater than the 95th percentile for age, height and sex gave a prevalence of 8.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-28.2%] for prehypertension and 5...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Yvonne Zurynski, Amy Phu, Premala Sureshkumar, Sarah Cherian, Marie Deverell, Elizabeth J Elliott
OBJECTIVE: The WHO reports that female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is an ancient cultural practice prevalent in many countries. FGM/C has been reported among women resident in Australia. Our paper provides the first description of FGM/C in Australian children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted in April-June 2014. SETTING: Paediatricians and other child health specialists recruited through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit were asked to report children aged <18 years with FGM/C seen in the last 5 years, and to provide data for demographics, FGM/C type, complications and referral for each case...
January 12, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
N J Crabtree, S Chapman, W Högler, K Hodgson, D Chapman, N Bebbington, N J Shaw
Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by DXA is an accepted tool in adults. However, its use in children has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate DXA VFA and morphometric analysis (MXA) using a GE Lunar iDXA bone densitometer against spinal radiographic assessment (RA) for the identification of vertebral fractures in children. Spine RA and VFA (T3-L5) were acquired on the same day in 80 children. Forty children considered high risk for fracture by their metabolic bone specialist were referred for spinal RA...
January 7, 2017: Bone
A Mosquera Gorostidi, M Iridoy Zulet, G Azcona Ganuza, E Gembero Esarte, M E Yoldi Petri, S Aguilera Albesa
INTRODUCTION: The definition, associated aetiologies, diagnosis, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, or pseudotumour cerebri (PTC), are constantly being revised in the paediatric population. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Our study included children younger than 15 years old with PTC and attended at a reference hospital in the past 12 years. We analysed the clinical and epidemiological features of our sample and the diagnostic and treatment approaches...
January 9, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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