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Adam Porter, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway, Ceri N Lewis
Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day-1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day-1...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gennady Erlikhman, Gideon P Caplovitz, Gennadiy Gurariy, Jared Medina, Jacqueline C Snow
Although object-related areas were discovered in human parietal cortex a decade ago, surprisingly little is known about the nature and purpose of these representations, and how they differ from those in the ventral processing stream. In this article, we review evidence for the unique contribution of object areas of dorsal cortex to three-dimensional (3-D) shape representation, the localization of objects in space, and in guiding reaching and grasping actions. We also highlight the role of dorsal cortex in form-motion interaction and spatiotemporal integration, possible functional relationships between 3-D shape and motion processing, and how these processes operate together in the service of supporting goal-directed actions with objects...
May 17, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Jodie Martin, Vincent Tolon, Nicolas Morellet, Hugues Santin-Janin, Alain Licoppe, Claude Fischer, Jérôme Bombois, Patrick Patthey, Elias Pesenti, Delphine Chenesseau, Sonia Saïd
This study aimed to (1) identify the scale of environmental drivers of seasonal movements on the migration - residency behavior continuum in a large herbivore species and to (2) test the hypothesis that the same environmental drivers and spatio-temporal scaling should influence spatial processes in both migrants (long distance migration) and residents (short distance range shifts). We performed a comparative analysis of the influence of plant phenology and snow cover duration on seasonal movements of five partially migrating red deer populations with contrasting environmental conditions, at the seasonal range scale and at the study area scale...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hao Zhou, Chuanlong Zhou, Philip K Hopke, Thomas M Holsen
Measurements of ambient speciated mercury (Hg) concentrations and Hg wet deposition were made at two urban sites (Bronx, NY and Rochester, NY) and one rural site (Potsdam, NY) in New York State in 2013 and 2014 to: 1) determine the factors influencing Hg wet deposition concentrations, 2) identify the contribution of gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) and particulate bound Hg (PBM) scavenging to Hg wet deposition concentrations, and 3) identify potential source areas associated with high concentration events. The Bronx had the highest mean gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and GOM concentrations, Rochester had the highest mean PBM and the lowest GOM concentrations, and Potsdam had the lowest mean GEM and PBM concentrations...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eric Blomgren, Jenny C Hesson, Martina L Schäfer, Jan O Lundström
Major nuisance species are found among the floodwater mosquitoes and snow-pool mosquitoes, with the former being the main reason for mosquito control in most areas. Nuisance species vary with the area, and previous reports from northern areas conclude that the nuisance is most often caused by snow-pool mosquitoes. We investigated the mosquito fauna and abundances of host-seeking females using CDC traps baited with carbon dioxide, in Övertorneå city near the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden, after earlier complaints about massive mosquito nuisance...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Lenka Procházková, Daniel Remias, Andreas Holzinger, Tomáš Řezanka, Linda Nedbalová
Based on analyses of multiple molecular markers (18S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2 rDNA, rbc L), an alga that causes red snow on the melting ice cover of a high-alpine lake in the High Tatras (Slovakia) was shown to be identical with Chlainomonas sp. growing in a similar habitat in the Tyrolean Alps (Austria). Both populations consisted mostly of smooth-walled quadriflagellates. They occurred in slush, and shared similar photosynthetic performances (photoinhibition above 1300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 ), very high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 64% and 74% respectively) and abundant astaxanthin accumulation, comparable to the red spores of Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille...
2018: European Journal of Phycology
Jøran Solnes Skaar, Erik Magnus Ræder, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Lutz Ahrens, Roland Kallenborn
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Muhammad Babar Javed, William Shotyk
Employing protocols developed for polar snow and ice, water samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream of open pit bitumen mines and upgraders along the Lower Athabasca River (AR). The purpose was to: i) estimate the bioaccessibility of trace elements associated with particulate matter in the AR using sequential extraction, and ii) determine whether their forms have been measurably impacted by industrial activities. Of the trace metals known to be enriched in bitumen (V, Ni, Mo and Re), a substantial proportion of V (78-93%) and Ni (35-81%) was found in the residual fraction representing stable minerals...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sarah Takach Lapner, Scott M Stevens, Scott C Woller, Gregory Snow, Clive Kearon
INTRODUCTION: A low D-dimer can exclude suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in cases with low or intermediate clinical probability of disease. Yet D-dimer is nonspecific, so many cases without PE require imaging. D-dimer's specificity is improved by increasing the threshold for a positive test with age (age × 10 ng/mL; age-adjusted D-dimer; AADD) or clinical probability of PE (1000 ng/mL if low and 500 ng/mL if intermediate clinical probability; clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer; CPADD)...
May 5, 2018: Thrombosis Research
J W Sutherland, S A Norton, J W Short, C Navitsky
Road salt mitigates winter highway icing but accumulates in watershed soils and receiving waters, affecting soil chemistry and physical, biological, and ecological processes. Despite efforts to reduce salt loading in watersheds, accumulated cations and Cl- continue to impact tributaries and lakes, and the recovery process is not well understood. Lake George, New York (USA) is typical of many temperate lakes at risk for elevated Cl- concentrations from winter deicing; the lake salt concentration increased by ~3...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Diego A Riveros-Iregui, Theresa M Lorenzo, Liyin L Liang, Jia Hu
In mountainous landscapes, soil moisture is highly dynamic due to the effects of topography and the temporal variability imposed by seasonal precipitation, including rainfall and snow. Soil moisture is known to affect ecosystem carbon exchange both aboveground and belowground, as well as the stable isotopic composition of exchanged CO2. In this study we used an extensive suite of measurements to examine the effects of seasonal changes in soil moisture on the isotopic composition of soil CO2 production at the landscape level...
2018: PloS One
Zhi Jie Li, Wan Qin Yang, Ruo Yang He, Li Yan Zhuang, Kai Jun Yang, Qun Liu, Ting Ting Li, Zhen Feng Xu
Warming-induced decrease in seasonal snow cover has a great potential to affect soil nitrogen cycle in alpine cold forest ecosystems. In this study, a wooden-shelter method was used to remove the snow accumulation. Soil nitrogen pools and mineralization rates in the snow removal and control plots were measured synchronously in three critical periods (early snow cover, deep snow cover and snow cover melting) in a subalpine spruce forest of western Sichuan, China. Seasonal snow cover kept soil from cold air temperature...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Lingyi Tang, Xiaofang Duan, Fanjin Kong, Fan Zhang, Yangfan Zheng, Zhen Li, Yi Mei, Yanwen Zhao, Shuijin Hu
Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most sensitive region to global warming on Earth. Qinghai Lake, the largest lake on the plateau, has experienced evident area variation during the past several decades. To quantify the area changes of Qinghai Lake, a satellite-based survey based on Landsat images from the 1980s to 2010s has been performed. In addition, meteorological data from all the seven available stations on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been analyzed. Area of Qinghai Lake shrank ~2% during 1987-2005, and then increased ~3% from 2005-2016...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shoji Imai, Yuhei Yamamoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Kenji Kodama, Jun Nishimoto, Yoichi Kikuchi
Using a commercially available wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer, the chemical composition and S-Kα spectrum of rime and snow samples collected in remote and rural areas of Japan were measured with a membrane filter sample technique to investigate the long-range transport of aerosol from the East Asian continent. Insoluble substances are derived into three categories: 1) conventional mineral origin (crustal substance), 2) urban dust origin (Fe-Zn-Ca) and 3) coal origin (S-As). Assuming that (i) S(VI) was found as a plaster-like substance in hard rime, depending on [Ca], and that (ii) S(-II) was found as non-crustal sulfur compounds, fractions of S(VI) and S(-II) in rime could be calculated as 35 ± 6 and 66 ± 7% by [Ca], which is in agreement with 32 ± 8 and 68 ± 8%, respectively, by the chemical shift of the S-Kα line...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Hayden A Snow, Michael S Hofman, Catherine A Mitchell, David E Gyorki, Myles J F Smith
A 78-year-old man with a history of surgically treated prostate cancer and melanoma underwent Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT for biochemical recurrence of his prostate cancer. This revealed locoregionally recurrent prostate cancer and a separate PSMA-avid nodule in his left arm. Subsequent F-FDG PET/CT and excision confirmed this to be an in-transit melanoma metastasis. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT has become a widely used and valuable tool in the assessment of prostate cancer, particularly biochemically recurrent...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Kathleen B Digre
Migraine has long been associated with disturbances of vision, especially migraine with aura. However, the eye plays an important role in sensory processing as well. We have found that the visual quality of life is reduced in migraine. In this review, we discuss how the migraine and eye pain pathways are similar and affect many of the common complaints which are seen in ophthalmology and neuro-ophthalmology offices, such as dry eye and postoperative eye pain. We also review other related phenomena, including visual snow and photophobia, which also are related to altered sensory processing in migraine...
June 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Mark B Green, John L Campbell, Ruth D Yanai, Scott W Bailey, Amey S Bailey, Nicholas Grant, Ian Halm, Eric P Kelsey, Lindsey E Rustad
The design of a precipitation monitoring network must balance the demand for accurate estimates with the resources needed to build and maintain the network. If there are changes in the objectives of the monitoring or the availability of resources, network designs should be adjusted. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA, precipitation has been monitored with a network established in 1955 that has grown to 23 gauges distributed across nine small catchments. This high sampling intensity allowed us to simulate reduced sampling schemes and thereby evaluate the effect of decommissioning gauges on the quality of precipitation estimates...
2018: PloS One
Wenhui Zhao, Cheng Zeng, Qiqi Jia, Xiaoyi Yang
To investigate the preventive effect of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum polysaccharides (KSCP) on acetaminophen (AP) induced liver damage and its possible mechanism. Mice acute liver injury model was established via intraperitoneal injection of AP (300 mg/kg). The biochemical indicators of plasma and liver tissue were tested. The effects of KSCP on the liver index were examined. The liver pathological changes were investigated. The expressions of related protein were detected via Western blotting. In our study, compared with model group, the concentrations and contents of ALT, AST, TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA were reduced and activities of SOD were increase in H-KSCP (1...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
K Doiron, L Beaulieu, R St-Louis, K Lemarchand
There is an important need for the development of new "environmentally-friendly" antifouling molecules to replace toxic chemicals actually used to fight against marine biofouling. Marine biomass is a promising source of non-toxic antifouling products such as natural antimicrobial peptides produced by marine organisms. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficiency of antimicrobial peptides extracted from snow crab (SCAMPs) to reduce the formation of marine biofilms on immerged mild steel surfaces...
April 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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