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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088402/historical-relationships-of-three-enigmatic-phasianid-genera-aves-galliformes-inferred-using-phylogenomic-and-mitogenomic-data
#1
Ning Wang, Peter A Hosner, Bin Liang, Edward L Braun, Rebecca T Kimball
The phylogeny of the Phasianidae (pheasants, partridges, and allies) has been studied extensively. However, these studies have largely ignored three enigmatic genera because of scarce DNA source material and limited overlapping phylogenetic data: blood pheasants (Ithaginis), snow partridges (Lerwa), and long-billed partridges (Rhizothera). Thus, phylogenetic positions of these three genera remain uncertain in what is otherwise a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous studies using different data types place Lerwa and Ithaginis in similar positions, but the absence of overlapping data means the relationship between them could not be inferred...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088024/multi-year-record-of-atmospheric-and-snow-surface-nitrate-in-the-central-antarctic-plateau
#2
R Traversi, S Becagli, M Brogioni, L Caiazzo, V Ciardini, F Giardi, M Legrand, G Macelloni, B Petkov, S Preunkert, C Scarchilli, M Severi, V Vitale, R Udisti
Continuous all year-round samplings of atmospheric aerosol and surface snow at high (daily to 4-day) resolution were carried out at Dome C since 2004-05 to 2013 and nitrate records are here presented. Basing on a larger statistical data set than previous studies, results confirm that nitrate seasonal pattern is characterized by maxima during austral summer for both aerosol and surface snow, occurring in-phase with solar UV irradiance. This temporal pattern is likely due to a combination of nitrate sources and post-depositional processes whose intensity usually enhances during the summer...
December 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087721/joubert-syndrome-neuroimaging-findings-in-110-patients-in-correlation-with-cognitive-function-and-genetic-cause
#3
Andrea Poretti, Joseph Snow, Angela C Summers, Aylin Tekes, Thierry A G M Huisman, Nafi Aygun, Kathryn A Carson, Dan Doherty, Melissa A Parisi, Camilo Toro, Deniz Yildirimli, Meghana Vemulapalli, Jim C Mullikin, Andrew R Cullinane, Thierry Vilboux, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy. Neuroimaging findings have not been systematically evaluated in a large cohort of patients with Joubert syndrome in correlation with molecular genetic cause and cognitive function. METHODS: Brain MRI of 110 patients with Joubert syndrome was included in this study. A comprehensive evaluation of brain MRI studies for infratentorial and supratentorial morphological abnormalities was performed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087056/extraction-chromatographic-separations-of-tantalum-and-tungsten-from-hafnium-and-complex-matrix-constituents
#4
Mathew S Snow, Martha R Finck, Kevin P Carney, Samuel S Morrison
Tantalum (Ta), hafnium (Hf), and tungsten (W) analyses from complex matrices require high purification of these analytes from each other and major/trace matrix constituents, however, current state-of-the-art Ta/Hf/W separations rely on traditional anion exchange approaches that show relatively similar distribution coefficient (Kd) values for each element. This work reports an assessment of three commercially available extraction chromatographic resins (TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA) for Ta/Hf/W separations. Batch contact studies show differences in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values of up to 10(6) and 10(4) (respectively), representing an improvement of a factor of 100 and 300 in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values (respectively) over AG1×4 resin...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079148/modulation-of-snow-reflectance-and-snowmelt-from-central-asian-glaciers-by-anthropogenic-black-carbon
#5
Julia Schmale, Mark Flanner, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Yang Li, Margit Schwikowski, Daniel Farinotti
Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075520/long-term-enhanced-winter-soil-frost-alters-growing-season-co2-fluxes-through-its-impact-on-vegetation-development-in-a-boreal-peatland
#6
Junbin Zhao, Matthias Peichl, Mats B Nilsson
At high latitudes, winter climate change alters snow cover and, consequently, may cause a sustained change in soil frost dynamics. Altered winter soil conditions could influence the ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and, in turn, provide feedbacks to ongoing climate change. To investigate the mechanisms that modify the peatland CO2 exchange in response to altered winter soil frost, we conducted a snow exclusion experiment to enhance winter soil frost and to evaluate its short-term (1-3 years) and long-term (11 years) effect on CO2 fluxes during subsequent growing seasons in a boreal peatland...
January 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074403/commensal-in-conflict-livestock-depredation-patterns-by-free-ranging-domestic-dogs-in-the-upper-spiti-landscape-himachal-pradesh-india
#7
Chandrima Home, Ranjana Pal, Rishi Kumar Sharma, Kulbhushansingh R Suryawanshi, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Abi Tamim Vanak
In human-populated landscapes worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. Although dogs have been used for the protection of livestock from wild carnivores, they have also been implicated as predators of livestock. We used a combination of methods (field surveys, interview surveys, and data from secondary sources) to examine the patterns and factors driving livestock depredation by free-ranging dogs, as well as economic losses to local communities in a Trans-Himalayan agro-pastoralist landscape in India...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070281/multiscale-habitat-relationships-of-snowshoe-hares-lepus-americanus-in-the-mixed-conifer-landscape-of-the-northern-rockies-usa-cross-scale-effects-of-horizontal-cover-with-implications-for-forest-management
#8
Joseph D Holbrook, John R Squires, Lucretia E Olson, Rick L Lawrence, Shannon L Savage
Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1) assess the relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hares, (2) estimate how forest metrics vary across the gradient of snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover, and (3) model and map snowshoe hare occupancy and intensity of use...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070280/surviving-winter-food-but-not-habitat-structure-prevents-crashes-in-cyclic-vole-populations
#9
Kaja Johnsen, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin, Olivier Devineau, Charles J Krebs, Harry P Andreassen
Vole population cycles are a major force driving boreal ecosystem dynamics in northwestern Eurasia. However, our understanding of the impact of winter on these cycles is increasingly uncertain, especially because climate change is affecting snow predictability, quality, and abundance. We examined the role of winter weather and snow conditions, the lack of suitable habitat structure during freeze-thaw periods, and the lack of sufficient food as potential causes for winter population crashes. We live-trapped bank voles Myodes glareolus on 26 plots (0...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068564/distinct-patterns-of-increased-translocator-protein-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-amnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
William C Kreisl, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Jeih-San Liow, Joseph Snow, Emily Page, Kimberly J Jenko, Cheryl L Morse, Sami S Zoghbi, Victor W Pike, R Scott Turner, Robert B Innis
We sought to determine whether patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) demonstrate a pattern of binding to translocator protein 18 kDa, a marker of microglial activation, that is distinct from that in patients with amnestic presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Eleven PCA patients, 11 amnestic AD patients, and 15 age-matched controls underwent positron emission tomography with (11)C-PBR28 to measure translocator protein 18 kDa. PCA patients showed greater (11)C-PBR28 binding than controls in occipital, posterior parietal, and temporal regions...
December 16, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064192/leaf-anatomy-bvoc-emission-and-co2-exchange-of-arctic-plants-following-snow-addition-and-summer-warming
#11
Michelle Schollert, Minna Kivimäenpää, Anders Michelsen, Daan Blok, Riikka Rinnan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change in the Arctic is projected to increase temperature, precipitation and snowfall. This may alter leaf anatomy and gas exchange either directly or indirectly. Our aim was to assess whether increased snow depth and warming modify leaf anatomy and affect biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and CO2 exchange of the widespread arctic shrubs Betula nana and Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum METHODS: Measurements were conducted in a full-factorial field experiment in Central West Greenland, with passive summer warming by open-top chambers and snow addition using snow fences...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060386/concentrations-of-a-triplet-excited-state-are-enhanced-in-illuminated-ice
#12
Zeyuan Chen, Cort Anastasio
Photochemical reactions influence the fates and lifetimes of organic compounds in snow and ice, both through direct photoreactions and via photoproduced transient species such as hydroxyl radical (˙OH) and, perhaps, triplet excited states of organic compounds (i.e., triplets). While triplets can be important oxidants in atmospheric drops and surface waters, little is known of this class of oxidants in frozen samples. To investigate this, we examined the photoreaction of phenol with the triplet state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde ((3)DMB*), a product from biomass combustion, in illuminated laboratory ices...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054962/cosmo-skymed-image-investigation-of-snow-features-in-alpine-environment
#13
Simonetta Paloscia, Simone Pettinato, Emanuele Santi, Mauro Valt
In this work, X band images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) on alpine environment have been analyzed for investigating snow characteristics and their effect on backscattering variations. Preliminary results confirmed the capability of simultaneous optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images (Landsat-8 and CSK) in separating snow/no-snow areas and in detecting wet snow. The sensitivity of backscattering to snow depth has not always been confirmed, depending on snow characteristics related to the season...
January 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054124/-severe-blunt-thoracic-trauma-caused-by-ski-collision
#14
S J Lochner, M Scherr, M Perl, C Grove
An approximately 25-year-old skier collided in a ski-run intersection. At high speed, he first hit another skier and then smashed into a snow cannon. He died from his injuries a short time later in hospital. A whole-body CT scan was conducted under resuscitation conditions, which was followed by an autopsy. The investigation revealed a severe blunt thoracic trauma as cause of death. The detailed analysis was the result of the combination of the two methods of investigation, CT scan and autopsy. The methods complemented each other effectively and allowed for a detailed presentation of the injury pattern...
January 4, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053207/dynamics-of-weight-change-and-temperature-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-in-a-wintering-building-with-controlled-temperature
#15
E Stalidzans, A Zacepins, A Kviesis, V Brusbardis, J Meitalovs, L Paura, N Bulipopa, M Liepniece
Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052055/penitentes-as-the-origin-of-the-bladed-terrain-of-tartarus-dorsa-on-pluto
#16
John E Moores, Christina L Smith, Anthony D Toigo, Scott D Guzewich
Penitentes are snow and ice features formed by erosion that, on Earth, are characterized by bowl-shaped depressions several tens of centimetres across, whose edges grade into spires up to several metres tall. Penitentes have been suggested as an explanation for anomalous radar data on Europa, but until now no penitentes have been identified conclusively on planetary bodies other than Earth. Regular ridges with spacings of 3,000 to 5,000 metres and depths of about 500 metres with morphologies that resemble penitentes have been observed by the New Horizons spacecraft in the Tartarus Dorsa region of Pluto (220°-250° E, 0°-20° N)...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050151/eastern-canadian-gastrointestinal-cancer-consensus-conference-2016
#17
D Bossé, T Ng, C Ahmad, A Alfakeeh, I Alruzug, J Biagi, J Brierley, P Chaudhury, S Cleary, B Colwell, C Cripps, L A Dawson, M Dorreen, E Ferland, P Galiatsatos, S Girard, S Gray, F Halwani, N Kopek, A Mahmud, G Martel, L Robillard, B Samson, M Seal, J Siddiqui, L Sideris, S Snow, M Thirwell, M Vickers, R Goodwin, R Goel, T Hsu, E Tsvetkova, B Ward, T Asmis
The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents...
December 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042178/little-effects-on-soil-organic-matter-chemistry-of-density-fractions-after-seven-years-of-forest-soil-warming
#18
Jörg Schnecker, Werner Borken, Andreas Schindlbacher, Wolfgang Wanek
Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps...
December 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040910/decoupling-of-a-neutron-interferometer-from-temperature-gradients
#19
P Saggu, T Mineeva, M Arif, D G Cory, R Haun, B Heacock, M G Huber, K Li, J Nsofini, D Sarenac, C B Shahi, V Skavysh, W M Snow, S A Werner, A R Young, D A Pushin
Neutron interferometry enables precision measurements that are typically operated within elaborate, multi-layered facilities which provide substantial shielding from environmental noise. These facilities are necessary to maintain the coherence requirements in a perfect crystal neutron interferometer which is extremely sensitive to local environmental conditions such as temperature gradients across the interferometer, external vibrations, and acoustic waves. The ease of operation and breadth of applications of perfect crystal neutron interferometry would greatly benefit from a mode of operation which relaxes these stringent isolation requirements...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040339/novel-pollutants-in-the-moscow-atmosphere-in-winter-period-gas-chromatography-high-resolution-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-study
#20
D M Mazur, O V Polyakova, V B Artaev, A T Lebedev
The most common mass spectrometry approach analyzing contamination of the environment deals with targeted analysis, i.e. detection and quantification of the selected (priority) pollutants. However non-targeted analysis is becoming more often the method of choice for environmental chemists. It involves implementation of modern analytical instrumentation allowing for comprehensive detection and identification of the wide variety of compounds of the environmental interest present in the sample, such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, musks, nanomaterials, perfluorinated compounds, hormones, disinfection by-products, flame retardants, personal care products, and many others emerging contaminants...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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