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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229044/lesser-snow-goose-helminths-show-recurring-and-positive-parasite-infection-diversity-relations
#1
Felipe Dargent, André Morrill, Ray T Alisauskas, J Daniel McLaughlin, Dave Shutler, Mark R Forbes
The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was associated with indices of parasite diversity (i...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225765/a-new-explanation-for-unexpected-evolution-in-body-size
#2
Loeske E B Kruuk
Bigger is apparently frequently fitter, and body size is typically heritable, so why don't animals in wild populations evolve towards larger sizes? Different explanations have been proposed for this apparent "paradox of stasis." A new study of snow voles in the Swiss Alps finds higher survival in animals with larger body mass and heritability of body mass, but, surprisingly, a genetic decline in body mass is also indicated. The authors suggest a novel explanation for this observation: the appearance of positive phenotypic selection is driven by a confounding variable of the age at which a juvenile is measured, whereas the evolutionarily relevant selection actually acts negatively on mass via its association with development time...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220100/season-and-weather-effects-on-travel-related-mood-and-travel-satisfaction
#3
Dick Ettema, Margareta Friman, Lars E Olsson, Tommy Gärling
This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities asking them to use smartphones to report their mood in their home before and directly after the commutes. These reports as well as satisfaction with the commute obtained in summer and winter are linked to weather data and analyzed by means of fixed-effects regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215796/restoration-of-nutrient-rich-forestry-drained-peatlands-poses-a-risk-for-high-exports-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus
#4
Markku Koskinen, Teemu Tahvanainen, Sakari Sarkkola, Meseret Walle Menberu, Ari Laurén, Tapani Sallantaus, Hannu Marttila, Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen, Miia Parviainen, Anne Tolvanen, Harri Koivusalo, Mika Nieminen
Restoration impact of forestry-drained peatlands on runoff water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient export was studied. Eight catchments were included: three mesotrophic (one undrained control, two treatments), two ombrotrophic (one drained control, one treatment) and three oligotrophic catchments (one undrained control, two treatments). Three calibration years and four post-restoration years were included in the data from seven catchments, for which runoff was recorded. For one mesotrophic treatment catchment only one year of pre-restoration and two years of post-restoration water quality data is reported...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215008/the-greater-snow-goose-anser-caerulescens-atlanticus-managing-an-overabundant-population
#5
Josée Lefebvre, Gilles Gauthier, Jean-François Giroux, Austin Reed, Eric T Reed, Luc Bélanger
Between the early 1900s and the 1990s, the greater snow goose Anser caerulescens atlanticus population grew from 3000 individuals to more than 700 000. Because of concerns about Arctic degradation of natural habitats through overgrazing, a working group recommended the stabilization of the population. Declared overabundant in 1998, special management actions were then implemented in Canada and the United States. Meanwhile, a cost-benefit socioeconomic analysis was performed to set a target population size. Discussions aiming towards attaining a common vision were undertaken with stakeholders at multiple levels...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209737/gaba-cells-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-promote-cataplexy
#6
Matthew B Snow, Jimmy J Fraigne, Gabrielle Thibault-Messier, Victoria L Chuen, Aren Thomasian, Richard L Horner, John Peever
Cataplexy is a hallmark of narcolepsy characterized by the sudden uncontrollable onset of muscle weakness or paralysis during wakefulness. It can occur spontaneously, but is typically triggered by positive emotions such as laughter. Although cataplexy was identified over 130 years ago, its neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that a newly identified GABA circuit within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) promotes cataplexy. We used behavioral, electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and chemogenetic strategies to selectively target and manipulate CeA activity in narcoleptic (orexin(-/-) ) mice to determine its functional role in controlling cataplexy...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209635/rosamund-snow
#7
David Payne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208688/the-impact-of-heat-exposure-and-sleep-restriction-on-firefighters-work-performance-and-physiology-during-simulated-wildfire-suppression
#8
Grace E Vincent, Brad Aisbett, Brianna Larsen, Nicola D Ridgers, Rod Snow, Sally A Ferguson
This study was designed to examine the effects of ambient heat on firefighters' physical task performance, and physiological and perceptual responses when sleep restricted during simulated wildfire conditions. Thirty firefighters were randomly allocated to the sleep restricted (n = 17, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Firefighters performed two days of simulated, intermittent, self-paced work circuits comprising six firefighting tasks...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208105/the-impact-of-damming-on-riverine-fluxes-to-the-ocean-a-case-study-from-eastern-iceland
#9
Eydis Salome Eiriksdottir, Eric H Oelkers, Jorunn Hardardottir, Sigurdur Reynir Gislason
Anthropogenic water management has extensively altered the world's river systems through impoundments and channel diversions to meet the human's need for water, energy and transportation. To illuminate the effect of such activities on the environment, this study describes the impact of the installation of the Kárahnjúkar Dam in Eastern Iceland on the transport of riverine dissolved- and particulate material to the ocean by the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers. This dam, completed in 2007, collects water into the 2...
December 19, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207766/climate-change-across-seasons-experiment-ccase-a-new-method-for-simulating-future-climate-in-seasonally-snow-covered-ecosystems
#10
Pamela H Templer, Andrew B Reinmann, Rebecca Sanders-DeMott, Patrick O Sorensen, Stephanie M Juice, Francis Bowles, Laura E Sofen, Jamie L Harrison, Ian Halm, Lindsey Rustad, Mary E Martin, Nicholas Grant
Climate models project an increase in mean annual air temperatures and a reduction in the depth and duration of winter snowpack for many mid and high latitude and high elevation seasonally snow-covered ecosystems over the next century. The combined effects of these changes in climate will lead to warmer soils in the growing season and increased frequency of soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) in winter due to the loss of a continuous, insulating snowpack. Previous experiments have warmed soils or removed snow via shoveling or with shelters to mimic projected declines in the winter snowpack...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207415/attitudes-skill-and-use-of-evidence-based-practice-among-us-western-herbal-medicine-providers-a-national-survey
#11
James E Snow, Matthew J Leach, Bevin A Clare
Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been the focus of increasing attention in the teaching and delivery of both complementary and conventional healthcare. Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a system of complementary healthcare rooted in tradition. How WHM practitioners perceive, are prepared for, and use EBP, has to date been largely ignored. We therefore examined the use, opinion, skills, and training in EBP, and barriers and facilitators of EBP uptake, among herbal practitioners in the United States (US)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193869/perplexing-cooperative-folding-and-stability-of-a-low-sequence-complexity-polyproline-2-protein-lacking-a-hydrophobic-core
#12
Zachary P Gates, Michael C Baxa, Wookyung Yu, Joshua A Riback, Hui Li, Benoît Roux, Stephen B H Kent, Tobin R Sosnick
The burial of hydrophobic side chains in a protein core generally is thought to be the major ingredient for stable, cooperative folding. Here, we show that, for the snow flea antifreeze protein (sfAFP), stability and cooperativity can occur without a hydrophobic core, and without α-helices or β-sheets. sfAFP has low sequence complexity with 46% glycine and an interior filled only with backbone H-bonds between six polyproline 2 (PP2) helices. However, the protein folds in a kinetically two-state manner and is moderately stable at room temperature...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193763/neurologic-involvement-in-patients-with-atypical-chediak-higashi-disease
#13
Wendy J Introne, Wendy Westbroek, Catherine A Groden, Vikas Bhambhani, Gretchen A Golas, Eva H Baker, Tanya J Lehky, Joseph Snow, Shira G Ziegler, May Christine V Malicdan, David R Adams, Heidi M Dorward, Richard A Hess, Marjan Huizing, William A Gahl, Camilo Toro
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the developmental and progressive neurodegenerative features in 9 young adults with the atypical form of Chediak-Higashi disease (CHD) enrolled in a natural history study. METHODS: Patients with atypical clinical features, but diagnostically confirmed CHD by standard evaluation of blood smears and molecular genotyping, underwent complete neurologic evaluation, MRI of the brain, electrophysiologic examination, and neuropsychological testing...
14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190895/clinical-question-in-post-partum-first-time-mothers-what-interventions-are-successful-for-helping-women-sustain-exclusive-breast-feeding-for-one-month-or-more
#14
Mai-Thao Nguyen, Gabriella Snow, Heather Wheeler, Tomas Owens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190686/role-of-snow-in-the-fate-of-gaseous-and-particulate-exhaust-pollutants-from-gasoline-powered-vehicles
#15
Yevgen Nazarenko, Sébastien Fournier, Uday Kurien, Rodrigo Benjamin Rangel-Alvarado, Oleg Nepotchatykh, Patrice Seers, Parisa A Ariya
Little is known about pollution in urban snow and how aerosol and gaseous air pollutants interact with the urban snowpack. Here we investigate interactions of exhaust pollution with snow at low ambient temperature using fresh snow in a temperature-controlled chamber. A gasoline-powered engine from a modern light duty vehicle generated the exhaust and was operated in homogeneous and stratified engine regimes. We determined that, within a timescale of 30 min, snow takes up from the exhaust a large mass of organic pollutants and aerosol particles, which were observed by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and aerosol sizers...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187385/paleo-environmental-record-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-polychlorobiphenyls-at-the-peripheral-site-gv7-in-victoria-land-east-antarctica
#16
Stefania Giannarelli, Alessio Ceccarini, Chiara Tiribilli, Rachele Spreafico, Sandro Francesconi, Roger Fuoco
In this paper we investigated the presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorobiphenyls in a 50-m deep snow/firn core collected at the peripheral site GV7 in East Antarctica during the 2013-2014 XXIX Italian expedition. The concentration depth profile was obtained on the basis of the total concentration of fourteen PAHs and seven PCBs individually determined by gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Both classes of pollutants showed synchronized concentration vs time profile throughout the whole period of time covered by the snow/firn core (1892-2012)...
January 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178279/snow-leopard-and-himalayan-wolf-food-habits-and-prey-selection-in-the-central-himalayas-nepal
#17
Madhu Chetri, Morten Odden, Per Wegge
Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177410/combining-restricted-grazing-and-nitrification-inhibitors-to-reduce-nitrogen-leaching-on-new-zealand-dairy-farms
#18
Alvaro J Romera, Rogerio Cichota, Pierre C Beukes, Pablo Gregorini, Val O Snow, Iris Vogeler
Intensification of pastoral dairy systems often means more nitrogen (N) leaching. A number of mitigation strategies have been proposed to reduce or reverse this trend. The main strategies focus on reducing the urinary N load onto pastures or reducing the rate of nitrification once the urine has been deposited. Restricted grazing is an example of the former and the use of nitrification inhibitors an example of the latter. A relevant concern is the cost effectiveness of these strategies, independently and jointly...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177398/evaluation-of-fecal-indicators-and-pathogens-in-a-beef-cattle-feedlot-vegetative-treatment-system
#19
Lisa M Durso, Daniel N Miller, Daniel D Snow, Christopher G Henry, Monica Santin, Bryan L Woodbury
Runoff from open-lot animal feeding areas contains microorganisms that may adversely affect human and animal health if not properly managed. One alternative to full manure containment systems is a vegetative treatment system (VTS) that collects runoff in a sediment basin and then applies it to a perennial vegetation (grass) treatment area that is harvested for hay. Little is known regarding the efficacy of large-scale commercial VTSs for the removal of microbial contaminants. In this study, an active, pump-based VTS designed and built for a 1200-head beef cattle feedlot operation was examined to determine the effects of repeated feedlot runoff application on fecal indicator microorganisms and pathogens over short-term (2 wk) and long-term (3 yr) operations and whether fecal bacteria were infiltrating into deeper soils within the treatment area...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176596/-at-last-we-are-delivering-a-gold-standard-service
#20
Tamsin Newton Snow
Dermatology consultant nurse Karina Jackson leads a team of nurses treating patients with severe psoriasis, severe eczema and hidradenitis suppurativa, a chronic skin condition that causes abscesses and scarring. Although the physical symptoms of these conditions can be distressing, it is their psychological impact that Ms Jackson describes as heartbreaking.
February 8, 2017: Nursing Standard
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