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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349294/changes-in-seasonal-snow-water-equivalent-distribution-in-high-mountain-asia-1987-to-2009
#1
Taylor Smith, Bodo Bookhagen
Snow meltwaters account for most of the yearly water budgets of many catchments in High Mountain Asia (HMA). We examine trends in snow water equivalent (SWE) using passive microwave data (1987 to 2009). We find an overall decrease in SWE in HMA, despite regions of increased SWE in the Pamir, Kunlun Shan, Eastern Himalaya, and Eastern Tien Shan. Although the average decline in annual SWE across HMA (contributing area, 2641 × 103 km2) is low (average, -0.3%), annual SWE losses conceal distinct seasonal and spatial heterogeneities across the study region...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348632/climate-degradation-and-extreme-icing-events-constrain-life-in-cold-adapted-mammals
#2
J Berger, C Hartway, A Gruzdev, M Johnson
Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346532/what-color-should-glacier-algae-be
#3
Roman J Dial, Gerard Q Ganey, S McKenzie Skiles
Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#4
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334519/the-most-common-causes-of-eye-pain-at-2-tertiary-ophthalmology-and-neurology-clinics
#5
Randy C Bowen, Jan N Koeppel, Chance D Christensen, Karisa B Snow, Junjie Ma, Bradley J Katz, Howard R Krauss, Klara Landau, Judith E A Warner, Alison V Crum, Dominik Straumann, Kathleen B Digre
BACKGROUND: Eye pain is a common complaint, but no previous studies have determined the most common causes of this presenting symptom. Our objective was to determine the most common causes of eye pain in 2 ophthalmology and neurology departments at academic medical centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis and chart review at the departments of ophthalmology and neurology at the University Hospital Zurich (USZ), University of Zürich, Switzerland, and the University of Utah (UU), USA...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333198/response-of-pacific-sector-antarctic-ice-shelves-to-the-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation
#6
F S Paolo, L Padman, H A Fricker, S Adusumilli, S Howard, M R Siegfried
Satellite observations over the past two decades have revealed increasing loss of grounded ice in West Antarctica, associated with floating ice shelves that have been thinning. Thinning reduces an ice-shelf's ability to restrain grounded-ice discharge, yet our understanding of the climate processes that drive mass changes is limited. Here, we use ice-shelf height data from four satellite altimeter missions (1994-2017) to show a direct link between ice-shelf-height variability in the Antarctic Pacific sector and changes in regional atmospheric circulation driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation...
January 2018: Nature Geoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332396/an-electrochemical-system-for-the-study-of-trans-plasma-membrane-electron-transport-in-whole-eukaryotic-cells
#7
Harry G Sherman, Carolyn Jovanovic, Snow Stolnik, Frankie James Rawson
The development of new assays to study trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) in eukaryotic systems is paramount for a number reasons, which include the further understanding of the underlying biology which can then potentially be applied to innovate technological advancements in biosensing, microbial fuel, and pharmaceutical fields. The current literature provides methodology to study these systems that hinges upon mitochondrial knockout genotypes, or the detection of ferrocyanide using colorimetric methods...
January 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331925/overexpression-of-chrysanthemum-lavandulifolium-clcbf1-in-chrysanthemum-morifolium-white-snow-improves-the-level-of-salinity-and-drought-tolerance
#8
Wenjie Gao, Miao He, Jie Liu, Xin Ma, Yu Zhang, Silan Dai, Yunwei Zhou
This paper reports the first study on plant CBF transcription factors (TF) in salt and drought stress responses in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium. A CBF homolog gene, named as ClCBF1, from C. lavandulifolium was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced peptide is comprised of 210 amino acids (AA) containing an AP2 structural domain characteristic of the AP2 gene family. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that ClCBF1 gene exhibit differential expression patterns across root, leaf and stem tissues, and it was strongly induced under salt and drought treatments of C...
January 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329427/ozone-induced-vascular-contractility-and-pulmonary-injury-are-differentially-impacted-by-diets-enriched-with-coconut-oil-fish-oil-and-olive-oil
#9
Samantha J Snow, Wan-Yun Cheng, Andres Henriquez, Myles Hodge, Virgina Bass, Gail M Nelson, Gleta Carswell, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Brian Chorley, Kymberly M Gowdy, Haiyan Tong, Urmila P Kodavanti
Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326317/comparative-analysis-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-intracameral-cefuroxime-moxifloxacin-and-vancomycin-at-the-end-of-cataract-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#10
Randy C Bowen, Andrew Xingyu Zhou, Sailaja Bondalapati, Thomas W Lawyer, Karisa B Snow, Patrick R Evans, Tyler Bardsley, Mary McFarland, Matthew Kliethermes, Dallas Shi, Christina A Mamalis, Tom Greene, Christopher J Rudnisky, Balamurali Krishna Ambati
BACKGROUND: Current practice methods are unclear as to the most safe and effective prophylactic pharmacotherapy and method of delivery to reduce postoperative endophthalmitis occurrence. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis using Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines was performed to compare the efficacy of intracameral cefuroxime, moxifloxacin and vancomycin in preventing postphacoemulsification cataract surgery endophthalmitis...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324378/impact-evaluation-of-environmental-factors-on-respiratory-function-of-asthma-patients-living-in-urban-territory
#11
Lyudmila V Veremchuk, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Tatyana I Vitkina, Elena E Mineeva, Tatyana A Gvozdenko, Marina V Antonyuk, Valeri N Rakitskii, Karolina A Sidletskaya, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Kirill S Golokhvast
BACKGROUND: Environmental pollution, local climatic conditions and their association with the prevalence and exacerbation of asthma are topics of intense current medical investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air pollution in the area of Vladivostock was estimated both by the index of emission volumes of "air gaseous components" (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide) in urban atmosphere and by mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates in snow samples...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320564/a-time-lagged-effect-of-conspecific-density-on-habitat-selection-by-snowshoe-hare
#12
Toshinori Kawaguchi, André Desrochers
Ideal free distribution theory predicts that increased conspecific density redistributes individuals to low-density, suboptimal habitat. However, possible lags in response to population density remain poorly documented. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) may exhibit density-dependent habitat selection due to its marked variation in population density. Based on 11 years (2004-2014) of snow tracking in Quebec (Canada), we investigated snowshoe hares' short-term and delayed habitat selection responses to population density...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315676/aging-impairs-regulation-of-ryanodine-receptors-from-edl-but-not-soleus-muscles
#13
Angela J Gaboardi, Jochen Kressler, Teresa K Snow, Edward M Balog
INTRODUCTION: Because impaired excitation-contraction coupling and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release may contribute to the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle strength, we investigated the effect of aging on RyR1 regulation by physiological channel ligands. METHODS: [3 H]Ryanodine binding to membranes from 8 and 26 month old Fischer 344 extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles was used to investigate the effects of age on RyR1 modulation by Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM)...
January 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306843/early-thawing-after-snow-removal-and-no-straw-mulching-accelerates-organic-carbon-cycling-in-a-paddy-soil-in-northeast-china
#14
Hao Zhang, Jie Tang, Shuang Liang, Zhaoyang Li, Jingjing Wang, Sining Wang
Variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) have implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the greenhouse effect. However, the effects of snow cover and straw mulching on the variations in SOC fractions across winter remain largely unknown. In this study, soil samples were collected during different stages of winter from an in situ experiment comprising three treatments: 1) snow removal with no straw mulching (Sn-SM-); 2) snow cover with no straw mulching (SC), and; 3) snow cover with straw mulching (SC + SM+)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306827/climate-change-impact-assessment-on-the-hydrological-regime-of-the-kaligandaki-basin-nepal
#15
Ajay Ratna Bajracharya, Sagar Ratna Bajracharya, Arun Bhakta Shrestha, Sudan Bikash Maharjan
The Hindu Kush-Himalayan region is an important global freshwater resource. The hydrological regime of the region is vulnerable to climatic variations, especially precipitation and temperature. In our study, we modelled the impact of climate change on the water balance and hydrological regime of the snow dominated Kaligandaki Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for a future projection of changes in the hydrological regime of the Kaligandaki basin based on Representative Concentration Pathways Scenarios (RCP 4...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304798/-we-were-being-treated-like-the-queen-understanding-trial-factors-influencing-high-paediatric-malaria-treatment-adherence-in-western-kenya
#16
Caroline Jones, Ambrose O Talisuna, Robert W Snow, Dejan Zurovac
BACKGROUND: Adherence to anti-malarial medication is highly variable but frequently suboptimal. Numerous interventions with a variety of methodological approaches have been implemented to address the problem. A recently conducted, randomized, controlled trial in western Kenya evaluated the effects of short message service (SMS) reminders on paediatric adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and found over 97% adherence rates in both intervention and control arms. The current study was undertaken to explore participants' experiences in the trial and identify the factors contributing to the high adherence rates...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301212/a-review-of-oil-spill-remote-sensing
#17
REVIEW
Merv Fingas, Carl E Brown
The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow...
December 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299286/a-damped-precipitation-driven-bottom-up-model-for-deer-mouse-population-abundance-in-the-northwestern-united-states
#18
Irene L Gorosito, Richard J Douglass
Small-mammal population densities can be regulated by bottom-up (food availability) and top-down (predation) forces. In 1993, an El Niño Southern Oscillation event was followed by a cluster of human hantavirus with pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States. An upward trophic cascade hypothesis was proposed as an explanation for the outbreak: Increased plant productivity as a consequence of El Niño precipitations led to an unusual increase in distribution and abundance of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus; reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297812/canine-distemper-in-a-vaccinated-snow-leopard-panthera-uncia
#19
Sathya K Chinnadurai, Michael J Kinsel, Michael J Adkesson, Karen Terio
A 6-yr-old male snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) presented with acute seizures, hyperthermia, and tachypnea. Because of a diagnosis of anuric renal failure, the animal was euthanized. On histopathologic examination, numerous intralesional intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions were found in the lungs, lymph nodes, and stomach. Positive immunohistochemical staining for canine distemper virus (CDV) was found in the lungs and, to a lesser extent, in the lymph nodes and brain. Molecular testing yielded a CDV H gene sequence that was closely related to CDV isolates concurrently found in wild raccoons from adjacent forested areas...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297166/spatial-variations-and-sources-of-trace-elements-in-recent-snow-from-glaciers-at-the-tibetan-plateau
#20
Ju Huang, Yuefang Li, Zhen Li, Longfei Xiong
Trace elements (TEs) could pose a potential threat to the environment and human health and hence they have been paid attention increasingly at present. This study presents the acid-leached concentrations of TEs (e.g., Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V) and dust content sampled from Qiumianleike (QMLK), Meikuang (MK), Yuzhufeng (YZF), Xiaodongkemadi (XDKMD), Gurenhekou (GRHK) glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from April to May in 2013. A nonparametric Jonckheere-Terpstra Method was used to test the trend of spatial distribution of TEs...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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