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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524190/establishing-the-link-between-fibril-formation-and-raman-optical-activity-spectra-of-insulin
#1
Jiří Kessler, Shigeki Yamamoto, Petr Bouř
Folding of proteins into insoluble amyloidal fibrils is implicated in a number of biological processes. Optical spectroscopy represents a convenient tool to monitor such structural variations. Recently, characteristic changes in Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of insulin during a pre-fibrillar stage were reported but not supported by a theoretical model. In the present study, molecular dynamics and the density functional theory are used to simulate the spectra and understand the connection between the structure, and ROA and Raman spectral intensities...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521203/3d-full-field-quantification-of-cell-induced-large-deformations-in-fibrillar-biomaterials-by-combining-non-rigid-image-registration-with-label-free-second-harmonic-generation
#2
Alvaro Jorge-Peñas, Hannelore Bové, Kathleen Sanen, Marie-Mo Vaeyens, Christian Steuwe, Maarten Roeffaers, Marcel Ameloot, Hans Van Oosterwyck
To advance our current understanding of cell-matrix mechanics and its importance for biomaterials development, advanced three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are necessary. Cell-induced deformations of the surrounding matrix are commonly derived from the displacement of embedded fiducial markers, as part of traction force microscopy (TFM) procedures. However, these fluorescent markers may alter the mechanical properties of the matrix or can be taken up by the embedded cells, and therefore influence cellular behavior and fate...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519899/hepatic-aa-amyloidosis-in-a-cat-cytologic-and-histologic-identification-of-aa-amyloid-in-macrophages
#3
Sakurako Neo-Suzuki, Takayuki Mineshige, Junichi Kamiie, Hideki Kayanuma, Yukako Mochizuki, Masaharu Hisasue, Ryo Tsuchiya, Kinji Shirota
A 3-year-old, spayed female, Domestic Shorthair cat presented with anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, probable hemoabdomen, and multiple masses on the right lateral liver lobe. Clinicopathologic and imaging abnormalities included anemia, azotemia, icterus, and hepatomegaly with hypoechoic masses. On cytologic evaluation of a fine-needle aspiration of a liver mass there was abundant extracellular pink- to purple-colored material between hepatocytes. The amorphous material was stained with direct fast scarlet (DFS), and green birefringent areas were observed under polarized light, confirming the presence of amyloid...
May 18, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512325/complex-hierarchical-microstructures-of-cambrian-mollusk-pelagiella-insight-into-early-biomineralization-and-evolution
#4
Luoyang Li, Xingliang Zhang, Hao Yun, Guoxiang Li
Shell microstructure and mineralogy of Pelagiella madianensis Zhou & Xiao, 1984, a globally distributed Cambrian micromollusk, are investigated based on abundant and extraordinarily well-preserved specimens from Xinji Formation, Longxian, Shaanxi, North China. Five types of aragonitic microstructures have been recognized. The lamello-fibrillar microstructure, previously known from Pelagiella, constructs the outermost shell layer, while the remaining four types are reported here for the first time in this genus...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508970/glomerulopathy-with-distinctive-fibrillar-deposits-but-lacking-glomerular-deposition-of-type-iii-collagen
#5
Tatsuo Yamamoto, Akashi Togawa, Masanobu Eguchi, Naro Ohashi, Hideo Yasuda, Yutaka Harita, Motoshi Hattori, Yutaka Yamaguchi, Kunio Ohyama
A 62-year-old woman with nephrotic syndrome underwent a renal biopsy. Under light microscopy, the biopsy findings included lobulation and enlargement of glomeruli, occasional thickening of glomerular capillary walls, and narrowing of the capillary lumen by swollen endothelial cells. Congo red staining was negative for amyloid. No significant intraglomerular fibrin deposition was found by phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin staining. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed no deposition of immunoglobulin G, A, or M; no κ or λ light chains; and no C3 or C1q...
November 2016: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507143/controllable-load-sharing-for-soft-adhesive-interfaces-on-three-dimensional-surfaces
#6
Sukho Song, Dirk-Michael Drotlef, Carmel Majidi, Metin Sitti
For adhering to three-dimensional (3D) surfaces or objects, current adhesion systems are limited by a fundamental trade-off between 3D surface conformability and high adhesion strength. This limitation arises from the need for a soft, mechanically compliant interface, which enables conformability to nonflat and irregularly shaped surfaces but significantly reduces the interfacial fracture strength. In this work, we overcome this trade-off with an adhesion-based soft-gripping system that exhibits enhanced fracture strength without sacrificing conformability to nonplanar 3D surfaces...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505967/nfatc2-modulates-microglial-activation-in-the-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Gunjan D Manocha, Atreyi Ghatak, Kendra L Puig, Susan D Kraner, Christopher M Norris, Colin K Combs
Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains are characterized by fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide containing plaques and associated reactive microglia. The proinflammatory phenotype of the microglia suggests that they may negatively affect disease course and contribute to behavioral decline. This hypothesis predicts that attenuating microglial activation may provide benefit against disease. Prior work from our laboratory and others has characterized a role for the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), in regulating microglial phenotype in response to different stimuli, including Aβ peptide...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505459/inhibition-of-hsa-fibrillation-by-two-dimensional-nanoparticles
#8
Sudipta Bag, Rishav Mitra, Sunando DasGupta, Swagata Dasgupta
The formation and deposition of amyloid fibrils have been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. Serum albumins serve as good model proteins for understanding the molecular mechanisms of protein aggregation and fibril formation. Graphene based nanotherapeutics appear to be promising candidates for designing inhibitors of protein fibrillation. The inhibitory effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles on the fibrillation of human serum albumin (HSA) in an in vitro mixed solvent system has been investigated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504340/a-single-spherical-assembly-of-protein-amyloid-fibrils-formed-by-laser-trapping
#9
Ken-Ichi Yuyama, Mariko Ueda, Satoshi Nagao, Shun Hirota, Teruki Sugiyama, Hiroshi Masuhara
Protein amyloids have received much attention owing to their correlation with serious diseases and to their promising mechanical and optical properties as future materials. Amyloid formation has been conducted by tuning temperature and chemical conditions, so that its nucleation and the following growth are analyzed as ensemble dynamics. A single spherical assembly of amyloid fibrils of cytochrome c domain-swapped dimer was successfully generated upon laser trapping. The amyloid fibrillar structure was confirmed by fluorescence characterization and electron microscopy...
May 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499631/extrafibrillar-collagen-demineralization-based-chelate-and-rinse-technique-bridges-the-gap-between-wet-and-dry-dentin-bonding
#10
Sui Mai, Chin-Chuan Wei, Li-Sha Gu, Fu-Cong Tian, Dwayne D Arola, Ji-Hua Chen, Yang Jiao, David H Pashley, Li-Na Niu, Franklin R Tay
Limitations associated with wet-bonding led to the recent development of a selective demineralization strategy in which dentin was etched with a reduced concentration of phosphoric acid to create exclusive extrafibrillar demineralization of the collagen matrix. However, the use of acidic conditioners removes calcium via diffusion of very small hydronium ions into the intrafibrillar collagen water compartments. This defeats the purpose of limiting the conditioner to the extrafibrillar space to create a collagen matrix containing only intrafibrillar minerals to prevent collapse of the collagen matrix...
May 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493523/fibrillar-collagen-genes-are-not-co-ordinately-up-regulated-with-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression-in-finasteride-treated-prostate
#11
Flávia Karina Delella, Fernanda Losi Alves de Almeida, Helga Caputo Nunes, Jaqueline Carvalho Rinaldi, Sérgio Luis Felisbino
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in older men. In this regard, recent studies have attempted to define the relationships between prostatic fibrosis, LUTS, and increased expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1) in BHP. Therapeutic approaches for BPH such as 5-α-reductase inhibitors and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents increase TGF β1 expression in the prostatic tissue. Here, we investigated the effects of the 5-α-reductase inhibitor-finasteride-on rat ventral prostate tissue, especially with regard to the tissue distribution and gene expression of fibrillar collagens...
May 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490052/effects-of-endogenous-cysteine-proteinases-on-structures-of-collagen-fibres-from-dermis-of-sea-cucumber-stichopus-japonicus
#12
Yu-Xin Liu, Da-Yong Zhou, Dong-Dong Ma, Zi-Qiang Liu, Yan-Fei Liu, Liang Song, Xiu-Ping Dong, Dong-Mei Li, Bei-Wei Zhu, Kunihiko Konno, Fereidoon Shahidi
Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488046/features-of-the-achilles-tendon-paratenon-and-enthesis-in-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-a%C3%A2-clinical-and-ultrasonographic-study
#13
H Harman, E Süleyman
AIM: We analyzed the ultrasonographic (US) features of the Achilles tendon (AT), paratenon (AP), and enthesis in patients with axial spondyloarthropathies (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared these to healthy subjects. Relationships between these findings and clinical and functional parameters were identified. METHODS: The study included 40 axial SpA and 27 RA patients, as well as 30 healthy subjects. Clinical evaluation relied on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), AS Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL), Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), as well as on a visual analog scale (VAS) for entheseal pain and the Madrid Sonographic Enthesistis Index (MASEI)...
May 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487820/recombinant-dna-technology-and-click-chemistry-a-powerful-combination-for-generating-a-hybrid-elastin-like-statherin-hydrogel-to-control-calcium-phosphate-mineralization
#14
Mohamed Hamed Misbah, Mercedes Santos, Luis Quintanilla, Christina Günter, Matilde Alonso, Andreas Taubert, José Carlos Rodríguez-Cabello
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for generating different phases and morphologies of calcium phosphate by elastin-like recombinamers is supreme for bioengineering of advanced multifunctional materials. The generation of such multifunctional hybrid materials depends on the properties of their counterparts and the way in which they are assembled. The success of this assembly depends on the different approaches used, such as recombinant DNA technology and click chemistry. In the present work, an elastin-like recombinamer bearing lysine amino acids distributed along the recombinamer chain has been cross-linked via Huisgen [2 + 3] cycloaddition...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487023/redefining-3dimensional-placental-membrane-microarchitecture-using-multiphoton-microscopy-and-optical-clearing
#15
Lauren Richardson, Gracie Vargas, Tyra Brown, Lorenzo Ochoa, Jayshil Trivedi, Marian Kacerovský, Martha Lappas, Ramkumar Menon
INTRODUCTION: Remodeling of human placental membranes (amniochorionic or fetalmembrane) throughout gestation, a necessity to accommodate increasing uterine volume, involves continuous alterations (replacement of cells and remodeling of extracellular matrix). Methodologic limitations have obscured microscopic determination of cellular and layer-level alterations. This study used a combination of advanced imaging by multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy along with tissue optical clearing to characterize the 3Dimensional multilayer organization of placental membranes...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482642/extracellular-tau-oligomers-induce-invasion-of-endogenous-tau-into-the-somatodendritic-compartment-and-axonal-transport-dysfunction
#16
Eric Swanson, Leigham Breckenridge, Lloyd McMahon, Sreemoyee Som, Ian McConnell, George S Bloom
Aggregates composed of the microtubule associated protein, tau, are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's tauopathies. Extracellular tau can induce the accumulation and aggregation of intracellular tau, and tau pathology can be transmitted along neural networks over time. There are six splice variants of central nervous system tau, and various oligomeric and fibrillar forms are associated with neurodegeneration in vivo. The particular extracellular forms of tau capable of transferring tau pathology from neuron to neuron remain ill defined, however, as do the consequences of intracellular tau aggregation on neuronal physiology...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482515/promoting-chondrocyte-cell-clustering-through-tuning-of-a-poly-ethylene-glycol-poly-peptide-thermosensitive-hydrogel-with-distinctive-microarchitecture
#17
Sydney Peng, Chih-Wei Wu, Ji-Yu Lin, Chin-Yu Yang, Ming-Huei Cheng, I-Ming Chu
Hydrogels are considered to be attractive cell-matrix for chondrocytes due to their similarity in properties to the natural cartilage. However, the formation of chondrocyte cell clusters in hydrogels has been mostly limited to naturally-derived or relatively fast degrading materials. In this study, a series of diblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(alanine) (mPEG-PA) was synthesized and investigated as injectable biomimic hydrogels for the culturing of chondrocytes. Depending on the poly(alanine) chain length, afforded hydrogels exhibited variable mechanical property and microarchitecture due to difference in secondary structure arrangement...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481447/solvent-geometry-regulated-cooperative-supramolecular-polymerization
#18
Suhrit Ghosh
This article discloses H-bonding driven supramolecular polymerization of a core-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative NDI-1 which exhibits J-aggregation in all tested hydrocarbon solvents however spontaneous gelation was noticed only in linear alkanes in contrast to free flowing solution in their cyclic analogues. Mechanistic investigation by variable temperature UV/Vis studies and analyzing the data using an appropriate model(s) elucidate a highly cooperative self-assembly pathway in linear hydrocarbons (heptane, octane, nonane or decane) in sharp contrast to cyclohexane or methyl-cyclohexane in which an ill-defined polymerization was noticed...
May 8, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475951/characterization-of-cadmium-transport-in-hepatopancreatic-cells-of-a-mangrove-crab-ucides-cordatus-the-role-of-calcium
#19
Priscila Ortega, Marcio R Custódio, Flavia P Zanotto
Cadmium is a toxic metal, present in batteries and discarded in estuaries and mangrove habitats. Apart from that, it is a non-essential metal that causes toxic effects in many organisms. Cadmium accumulates in gills and hepatopancreas of crustaceans and its route into the cell is unknown. It is possible that occurs by calcium channels or calcium transporters. The objective of this study was to characterize the transport of cadmium and the role of calcium in different cell types from hepatopancreas of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus...
April 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475575/age-gender-and-uv-exposition-related-effects-on-gene-expression-in-in-vivo-aged-short-term-cultivated-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#20
Wolfgang Kaisers, Petra Boukamp, Hans-Jürgen Stark, Holger Schwender, Julia Tigges, Jean Krutmann, Heiner Schaal
Ageing, the progressive functional decline of virtually all tissues, affects numerous living organisms. Main phenotypic alterations of human skin during the ageing process include reduced skin thickness and elasticity which are related to extracellular matrix proteins. Dermal fibroblasts, the main source of extracellular fibrillar proteins, exhibit complex alterations during in vivo ageing and any of these are likely to be accompanied or caused by changes in gene expression. We investigated gene expression of short term cultivated in vivo aged human dermal fibroblasts using RNA-seq...
2017: PloS One
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