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Rebecca Van der Westen, Jelmer Sjollema, Robert Molenaar, Prashant K Sharma, Henny C Van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Models for bacterial adhesion to substratum surfaces all include uncertainty with respect to the (ir)reversibility of adhesion. In a model, based on vibrations exhibited by adhering bacteria parallel to a surface, adhesion was described as a result of reversible binding of multiple bacterial tethers that detach from and successively re-attach to a surface, eventually making bacterial adhesion irreversible. Here, we use Total Internal Reflection Microscopy to determine whether adhering bacteria also exhibit variations over time in their perpendicular distance above surfaces...
April 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sanaz Rasouli, Alireza Abdolvahabi, Corbin M Croom, Devon Plewman, Yunhua Shi, Bryan F Shaw
Interactions between superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and lipid membranes might be directly involved in the toxicity and intercellular propagation of aggregated SOD1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the chemical details of lipid-SOD1 interactions and their effects on SOD1 aggregation remain unclear. This paper determined the rate and mechanism of nucleation of fibrillar apo-SOD1 catalyzed by liposomal surfaces with identical hydrophobic chains (RCH2 (O2 C18 H33 )2 ), but headgroups of different net charge and hydrophobicity (i...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Mathijs van Ark, Ebonie Rio, Jill Cook, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, James E Gaida, Johannes Zwerver, Sean Docking
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week in-season exercise program of isometric or isotonic exercises on tendon structure and dimensions as quantified by Ultrasound Tissue Characterization (UTC). DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. Volleyball and basketball players (16-31 years, n=29) with clinically diagnosed patellar tendinopathy were randomized to a 4-week isometric or isotonic exercise program. The programs were designed to decrease patellar tendon pain...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Nikolaos A Afratis, Mordehay Klepfish, Nikos K Karamanos, Irit Sagi
Progressive loss of organ function in most organs is associated with fibrosis, a tissue state associated with abnormal matrix buildup. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process eventually leads to organ failure and death. Fibrosis is a basic connective tissue lesion defined by the increase in the amount of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components in a tissue or organ. In addition, intrinsic changes in important structural cells can induce the fibrotic response by regulating the differentiation, recruitment, proliferation and activation of extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts...
April 5, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Valentina Oliveri, Stefania Zimbone, Maria Laura Giuffrida, Francesco Bellia, Marianna Flora Tomasello, Graziella Vecchio
Although fibrillar amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) aggregates are one of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, increasing evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers are the primary toxic species. Targeting the oligomeric species could represent an effective strategy to interfere with Aβ toxicity. In this work, the biological properties of 5[4-(6-O-β-cyclodextrin)-phenyl],10,15,20-tri(4-hydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin and its zinc complex were tested, as new molecules that interact with Aβ and effectively prevent its cytotoxicity...
April 6, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fengfei Ma, Rui-Xiang Sun, Daniel Tremmel, Sara Sackett, Jon Odorico, Lingjun Li
3- and 4- hydroxyprolines (HyP) are regioisomers that play different roles in various species and organs. Despite their distinct functions inside cells, they are generally considered indistinguishable using mass spectrometry due to their identical masses. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that characteristic w ions can be produced by electron-transfer/higher energy collision dissociation (EThcD) dual fragmentation technique to confidently discriminate 3-HyP/ 4-HyP isomers. An integrated and high throughput strategy was developed which combined online LC separation with EThcD for large-scale differentiation of 3-HyP/4-HyP in complex samples...
April 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rita Del Giudice, Alessandra Pesce, Flora Cozzolino, Maria Monti, Annalisa Relini, Renata Piccoli, Angela Arciello, Daria Maria Monti
Specific mutations in APOA1 gene lead to systemic, hereditary amyloidoses. In ApoA-I related amyloidosis involving the heart, amyloid deposits are mainly constituted by the 93-residue N-terminal region of the protein, here indicated as [1-93]ApoA-I. Oxidative stress is known to be an enhancing factor for protein aggregation. In healthy conditions, humans are able to counteract the formation and the effects of oxidative molecules. However, aging and atmospheric pollution increase the concentration of oxidative agents, such as metal ions...
April 5, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Siyuan Zhang, Patricia Buttler-Buecher, Bernd Denecke, Victor E Arana-Chavez, Christian Apel
OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods are of high importance to studies of biological processes. This is particularly the case with spheroid cultures, which create 3D cell aggregates without the use of exogenous materials. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, cellular spheroid cultures have been demonstrated to improve multilineage potential and extracellular matrix production. To address this issue in depth, we present a more comprehensive analysis of 3D human dental pulp cell (hDPC) spheroids...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Mathew H Cumming, Alexandria R Leonard, Deborah S LeCorre-Bordes, Kathleen Hofman
The physical strength of the collagen fibre network in the extracellular matrix is due to the covalent crosslinks between the molecules within the fibres (intra-fibrillar crosslinks). Citric acid was investigated as an agent to introduce crosslinks within marine collagen electrospun fibres. We used collagen films to understand the ideal conditions for citric acid crosslinking. This information was used to develop an optimised method for intra-fibrillar crosslinking in electrospun marine collagen fibres, which increased the stability of these fibres in aqueous environments...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Feng Luo, Xinrui Gui, Heng Zhou, Jinge Gu, Yichen Li, Xiangyu Liu, Minglei Zhao, Dan Li, Xueming Li, Cong Liu
Thermostable cross-β structures are characteristic of pathological amyloid fibrils, but these structures cannot explain the reversible nature of fibrils formed by RNA-binding proteins such as fused in sarcoma (FUS), involved in RNA granule assembly. Here, we find that two tandem (S/G)Y(S/G) motifs of the human FUS low-complexity domain (FUS LC) form reversible fibrils in a temperature- and phosphorylation-dependent manner. We named these motifs reversible amyloid cores, or RAC1 and RAC2, and determined their atomic structures in fibrillar forms, using microelectron and X-ray diffraction techniques...
April 2, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Patrick R Blackburn, Zhi Xu, Kathleen E Tumelty, Rose W Zhao, William J Monis, Kimberly G Harris, Jennifer M Gass, Margot A Cousin, Nicole J Boczek, Mario V Mitkov, Mark A Cappel, Clair A Francomano, Joseph E Parisi, Eric W Klee, Eissa Faqeih, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Matthew D Layne, Nazli B McDonnell, Paldeep S Atwal
AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1-/- mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS)...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Suhrit Ghosh, Deep Sankar Pal
This communication reports photo-triggered supramolecular assembly of a naphthalene-diimide (NDI) derivative, appended with a photo-labile ortho-nitrobenzyl (ONB)-ester protected carboxylic acid. Photo-irradiation produces the free COOH group which facilitates H-bonding driven face-to-face stacking of the NDI chromophores producing an ultra-thin (height < 2.0 nm) two-dimensional (2D) nano-sheet. In contrast, spontaneous supramolecular assembly of the same active monomer exhibits entirely different features such as uncontrolled growth, J-aggregation and fibrillar morphology...
March 31, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anne S Wagner, Antonio Z Politi, Anne Ast, Kenny Bravo-Rodriguez, Katharina Baum, Alexander Buntru, Nadine U Strempel, Lydia Brusendorf, Christian Hänig, Annett Boeddrich, Stephanie Plassmann, Konrad Klockmeier, Juan M Ramirez-Anguita, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Jana Wolf, Erich E Wanker
Huntingtin (HTT) fragments with extended polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts self-assemble into amyloid-like fibrillar aggregates. Elucidating the fibril formation mechanism is critical for understanding Huntington's disease pathology and for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we performed systematic experimental and theoretical studies to examine the self-assembly of an aggregation-prone N-terminal HTT exon-1 fragment with 49 glutamines (Ex1Q49). Using high resolution imaging techniques such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ex1Q49 fragments in cell-free assays spontaneously convert into large, highly complex bundles of amyloid fibrils with multiple ends and fibril branching points...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Marina Pozzolini, Sonia Scarfì, Lorenzo Gallus, Maila Castellano, Silvia Vicini, Katia Cortese, Maria Cristina Gagliani, Marco Bertolino, Gabriele Costa, Marco Giovine
Collagen is involved in the formation of complex fibrillar networks, providing the structural integrity of tissues. Its low immunogenicity and mechanical properties make this molecule a biomaterial that is extremely suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies in human health issues. Here, for the first time, we performed a thorough screening of four different methods to obtain sponge collagenous fibrillar suspensions (FSs) from C. reniformis demosponge, which were then chemically, physically, and biologically characterized, in terms of protein, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans content, viscous properties, biocompatibility, and antioxidant activity...
March 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
Reinier Oropesa-Nuñez, Sandeep Keshavan, Silvia Dante, Alberto Diaspro, Benedetta Mannini, Claudia Capitini, Cristina Cecchi, Massimo Stefani, Fabrizio Chiti, Claudio Canale
The deposition of fibrillar protein aggregates in human organs is the hallmark of several pathological states, including highly debilitating neurodegenerative disorders and systemic amyloidoses. It is widely accepted that small oligomers arising as intermediates in the aggregation process, released by fibrils, or growing in secondary nucleation steps are the cytotoxic entities in protein-misfolding diseases, notably neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that cytotoxicity is triggered by the interaction between nanosized protein aggregates and cell membranes, even though little information on the molecular details of such interaction is presently available...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Ying Lu, Glen Thompson, Dong Lyu, Philip Caton-Rose, Phil Coates, Yongfeng Men
Orientation direction dependency of whitening activated at large strains was studied using four pre-oriented isotactic polypropylene (iPP) samples with different molecular weights stretched along different directions with respect to the pre-orientation (0°, 45°, and 90°) by means of in situ wide-, small-, and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. A macroscopic fracture of iPP materials was also observed following the stress whitening at large strains. These two associated processes in pre-oriented iPP samples at elevated temperatures were found to be governed by not only the molecular weight of iPP but also the pre-orientation direction...
March 28, 2018: Soft Matter
Hector Aguilar Vitorino, Priscila Ortega, Roxana Y Pastrana Alta, Flavia Pinheiro Zanotto, Breno Pannia Espósito
The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is a bioindicator of aquatic contamination. In this work, the iron availability and redox activity of saccharide-coated mineral iron supplements (for both human and veterinary use) and ferrocene derivatives in Saline Ucides Buffer (SUB) medium were assessed. The transport of these metallodrugs by four different hepatopancreatic cell types (embryonic (E), resorptive (R), fibrillar (F), and blister (B)) of U. cordatus were measured. Organic coated iron minerals (iron supplements) were stable against strong chelators (calcein and transferrin)...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nicoletta Zoppi, Nicola Chiarelli, Marco Ritelli, Marina Colombi
The αvβ3 integrin, an endothelial cells' receptor-binding fibronectin (FN) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood vessels, regulates ECM remodeling during migration, invasion, angiogenesis, wound healing and inflammation, and is also involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition. In vitro-grown human control fibroblasts organize a fibrillar network of FN, which is preferentially bound on the entire cell surface to its canonical α5β1 integrin receptor, whereas the αvβ3 integrin is present only in rare patches in focal contacts...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zohra Dhouafli, Manuela Leri, Monica Bucciantini, Massimo Stefani, Hamza Gadhoumi, Borhane Mahjoub, Hichem Ben Jannet, Jérôme Guillard, Riadh Ksouri, Moufida Saidani Tounsi, Claudio Soto, El Akrem Hayouni
Presently, misfolding and aggregation of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42 ) are considered early events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The use of natural products to inhibit the aggregation process and to protect cells from cytotoxicity of early aggregate grown at the onset of the aggregation path is one of the promising strategies against AD. Recently, we have purified a new powerful antioxidant and inhibitor of Aβ42 aggregation from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis. The new compound was identified as a new Lawsoniaside; 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (THNG)...
March 26, 2018: BioFactors
Raghav Bansal, Umer Syed, Jacob Walfish, Joshua Aron, Aaron Walfish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review the literature on small bowel amyloidosis. Our review focuses on the underlying etiology, histopathology, clinical features, endoscopic and radiologic findings, and the mainstay of management. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest research shows changing epidemiological trends of different types of amyloidosis. It also reveals a better understanding of its pathophysiology and shows improvement in treatment outcomes. Amyloidosis is a group of diseases of multiple etiologies and clinical presentations...
March 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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