keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Latent hiv reservoir

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520968/measuring-the-size-of-the-latent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir-the-present-and-future-of-evaluating-eradication-strategies
#1
Timothy J Henrich, Steven G Deeks, Satish K Pillai
One of the major barriers to the successful design and implementation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) curative strategies is the limited ability to sensitively, specifically, and precisely quantify and characterize the whole-body burden of replication-competent HIV in individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy. Here, we review the development and validation of assays that directly and indirectly measure the size and distribution of the reservoir in blood and tissues. We also discuss the role that treatment interruptions will have in validating these assays and ultimately as a "proof of cure...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520966/clonal-expansion-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-cells-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
James I Mullins, Lisa M Frenkel
The latent HIV-1 reservoir in blood decays very slowly, even during prolonged suppression of viral replication by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mechanisms for reservoir persistence include replenishment through low-level viral replication, longevity and homeostatic proliferation of memory T cells, and most recently appreciated, clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells. Clonally expanded cells make up a large and increasing fraction of the residual infected cell population on ART, and insertion of HIV proviruses into certain host cellular genes has been associated with this proliferation...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520963/humoral-and-innate-antiviral-immunity-as-tools-to-clear-persistent-hiv-infection
#3
Guido Ferrari, Justin Pollara, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 uses the CD4 molecule as its principal receptor to infect T cells. HIV-1 integrates its viral genome into the host cell, leading to persistent infection wherein HIV-1 can remain transcriptionally silent in latently infected CD4+ T cells. On reactivation of replication-competent provirus, HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are expressed and accumulate on the cell surface, allowing infected cells to be detected and targeted by endogenous immune responses or immune interventions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#4
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511815/signature-of-the-sleeper-cell-a-biomarker-of-hiv-latency-revealed
#5
Satish K Pillai, Steven G Deeks
HIV establishes a reservoir in latently infected T cells, and this reservoir has long hampered curative approaches. A recent study by Descours et al. identifies CD32a as a marker of latently infected T cells, potentially opening the way to the development of strategies that directly target this critical HIV reservoir.
May 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474225/trans-dissemination-of-exosomes-from-hiv-1-infected-cells-fosters-both-hiv-1-trans-infection-in-resting-cd4-t-lymphocytes-and-reactivation-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir
#6
Chiara Chiozzini, Claudia Arenaccio, Eleonora Olivetta, Simona Anticoli, Francesco Manfredi, Flavia Ferrantelli, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Ivan Schietroma, Mauro Andreotti, Maurizio Federico
Intact HIV-1 and exosomes can be internalized by dendritic cells (DCs) through a common pathway leading to their transmission to CD4(+) T lymphocytes by means of mechanisms defined as trans-infection and trans-dissemination, respectively. We previously reported that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells activate both uninfected quiescent CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which become permissive to HIV-1, and latently infected cells, with release of HIV-1 particles. However, nothing is known about the effects of trans-dissemination of exosomes produced by HIV-1-infected cells on uninfected or latently HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes...
May 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471170/resveratrol-reactivates-latent-hiv-through-increasing-histone-acetylation-and-activating-heat-shock-factor-1
#7
Xiaoyun Zeng, Xiaoyan Pan, Xinfeng Xu, Jian Lin, Fuchang Que, Yuanxin Tian, Lin Li, Shu-Wen Liu
The persistence of latent HIV reservoirs presents significant challenge to viral eradication. Effective latency reversing agents (LRAs) based on "shock and kill" strategy are urgently needed. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol has been demonstrated to enhance HIV gene expression while its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol was able to reactivate latent HIV without global T cell activation in vitro. Modes of action studies showed resveratrol-mediated reactivation from latency did not involve the activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), which belonged to class-3 histone deacetylase (HDAC)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467046/a-targeted-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-detection-of-hiv-gag-protein-following-induction-of-latent-viral-reservoirs
#8
Daniela Schlatzer, Aiman A Haqqani, Xiaolin Li, Curtis Dobrowolski, Mark R Chance, John C Tilton
During early infection, HIV-1 establishes a reservoir of latently infected cells that persist during antiretroviral therapy. These reservoirs are considered the primary obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients, and multiple strategies are being investigated to eliminate latently infected cells. Measuring the reservoir size using an affordable and scalable assay is critical as these approaches move into clinical trials: the current "gold-standard" viral outgrowth assay is costly, labor-intensive, and requires large numbers of cells...
May 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465838/a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-concerning-the-hiv-latency-reversing-effect-of-disulfiram-the-possible-explanations-for-its-inability-to-reduce-the-size-of-the-latent-reservoir-in-vivo-and-the-caveats-associated-with-its-use-in-practice
#9
REVIEW
Harry D J Knights
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), improves immune function, and decreases the morbidity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unable to eradicate the virus because it does not eliminate latently infected cells. The latent reservoir poses the major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to reactivate the virus and destroy latently infected cells. Many latency reversing agents (LRAs) reactivate HIV in vitro, but the absence of damaging side-effects and efficacy in vivo make disulfiram particularly promising...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464133/cell-marker-may-help-identify-latent-hiv-reservoirs
#10
Tracy Hampton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455216/impairment-of-the-type-i-interferon-response-by-hiv-1-potential-targets-for-hiv-eradication
#11
REVIEW
Teslin S Sandstrom, Nischal Ranganath, Jonathan B Angel
By interfering with the type I interferon (IFN1) response, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) can circumvent host antiviral signalling and establish persistent viral reservoirs. HIV-1-mediated defects in the IFN pathway are numerous, and include the impairment of protein receptors involved in pathogen detection, downstream signalling cascades required for IFN1 upregulation, and expression or function of key IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins. Despite this, the activation of IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins has been shown to facilitate the killing of latently HIV-infected cells in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446770/instability-of-8e5-calibration-standard-revealed-by-digital-pcr-risks-inaccurate-quantification-of-hiv-dna-in-clinical-samples-by-qpcr
#12
Eloise Busby, Alexandra S Whale, R Bridget Ferns, Paul R Grant, Gary Morley, Jonathan Campbell, Carole A Foy, Eleni Nastouli, Jim F Huggett, Jeremy A Garson
Establishing a cure for HIV is hindered by the persistence of latently infected cells which constitute the viral reservoir. Real-time qPCR, used for quantification of this reservoir by measuring HIV DNA, requires external calibration; a common choice of calibrator is the 8E5 cell line, which is assumed to be stable and to contain one HIV provirus per cell. In contrast, digital PCR requires no external calibration and potentially provides 'absolute' quantification. We compared the performance of qPCR and dPCR in quantifying HIV DNA in 18 patient samples...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#13
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435692/a-cd3-cd28-microbead-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay
#14
EDITORIAL
Yury V Kuzmichev, Rebecca T Veenhuis, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Caroline C Garliss, Victoria Ek Walker-Sperling, Joel N Blankson
AIMS: Latently infected resting CD4 T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication efforts. The standard assays used for measuring this reservoir induce activation of resting CD4 T cells with either phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) with irradiated feeder cells, or with anti-CD3 antibodies. We designed a study to compare the sensitivity of a new assay (based on the stimulation of CD4 T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 coated microbeads) with that of the traditional PHA- and feeder-based viral outgrowth assay...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435691/interrupting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-cure-research-scientific-and-ethical-considerations
#15
EDITORIAL
Samual A Garner, Stuart Rennie, Jintanat Ananworanich, Karine Dube, David M Margolis, Jeremy Sugarman, Randall Tressler, Adam Gilbertson, Liza Dawson
Over the past several years there has been intense activity directed at the possibility of achieving remission or eradication of HIV infection. Current assays for the measurement of latent HIV are insufficient to demonstrate complete clearance of replication-competent HIV. Therefore, the ultimate test for assessing whether investigational interventions have resulted in HIV remission or eradication is to interrupt standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a carefully controlled clinical trial setting. These procedures, known as analytic treatment interruptions (ATIs), raise important scientific and ethical questions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431490/new-challenges-in-therapeutic-vaccines-against-hiv-infection
#16
Lorna Leal, Constanza Lucero, Josep M Gatell, Teresa Gallart, Montserrat Plana, Felipe García
There is a growing interest in developing curative strategies for HIV infection. Therapeutic vaccines are one of the most promising approaches. We will review the current knowledge and the new challenges in this research field. Areas covered: PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov databases were searched to review the progress and prospects for clinical development of immunotherapies aimed to cure HIV infection. Dendritic cells (DC)-based vaccines have yielded the best results in the field. However, major immune-virologic barriers may hamper current vaccine strategies...
May 4, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426533/hiv-dna-content-in-different-cd4-t-cell-subsets-correlates-with-cd4-cd8-ratio-or-length-of-efficient-treatment
#17
Lara Gibellini, Simone Pecorini, Sara de Biasi, Elena Bianchini, Margherita Digaetano, Marcello Pinti, Gianluca Carnevale, Vanni Borghi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Milena Nasi
OBJECTIVES: HIV establishes a latent infection at different degrees within naïve (TN) or central (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4+ T cell. Studying patients in whom HIV production was suppressed by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), our main aim was to find which factors are related or can influence intracellular viral reservoir in different CD4+ T cell subsets. METHODS: We enrolled 32 HIV+ patients successfully treated for > 2 years, with a CD4+ T cell count > 500 cells/μL and plasma viremia undetectable from at least one year...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423333/hunting-down-the-hiv-1-reservoir-a-starring-role-for-antibodies
#18
Hugo Mouquet
The persistence of viruses "hidden" in a reservoir of latently infected CD4(+) T cells under antiretroviral therapy is the major obstacle to an HIV-1 cure. Recently published in Nature, two seminal studies from Descours et al. (2017) and Nishimura et al. (2017) bring hope for tracking and possibly eradicating the HIV-1 reservoir.
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388353/deficiency-in-dna-damage-response-a-new-characteristic-of-cells-infected-with-latent-hiv-1
#19
Dorota Piekna-Przybylska, Gaurav Sharma, Sanjay B Maggirwar, Robert A Bambara
Viruses can interact with host cell molecules responsible for the recognition and repair of DNA lesions, resulting in dysfunctional DNA damage response (DDR). Cells with inefficient DDR are more vulnerable to therapeutic approaches that target DDR, thereby raising DNA damage to a threshold that triggers apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that 2 Jurkat-derived cell lines with incorporated silent HIV-1 provirus show increases in DDR signaling that responds to formation of double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). We found that phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 (gamma-H2AX), a biomarker of DSBs, and phosphorylation of ATM at Ser1981, Chk2 at Thr68, and p53 at Ser15, part of signaling pathways associated with DSBs, are elevated in these cells...
April 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348204/hiv-persistence-through-division
#20
Lillian B Cohn, Michel C Nussenzweig
A long-lived latent reservoir for HIV-1 persists in CD4(+) T cells despite antiretroviral therapy and is the major barrier to cure. In this issue of JEM, Hosmane et al. show that T cell proliferation could explain the long-term persistence of this reservoir.
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
keyword
keyword
44892
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"