keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Latent hiv reservoir

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343582/hiv-replication-and-latency-in-a-humanized-nsg-mouse-model-during-suppressive-oral-combinational-art
#1
Sangeetha Satheesan, Haitang Li, John C Burnett, Mayumi Takahashi, Shasha Li, Shiny Xiaqin Wu, Timothy W Synold, John J Rossi, Jiehua Zhou
Although current combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) is therapeutically effective in the majority of HIV patients, interruption of therapy can cause a rapid rebound in viremia, demonstrating the existence of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. HIV latency is therefore considered a primary barrier to HIV eradication. Identifying, quantifying, and purging the HIV reservoir is crucial to effectively curing patients and relieving them from the lifelong requirement for therapy. Latently infected transformed cell models have been used to investigate HIV latency; however, they cannot accurately represent the quiescent cellular environment of primary latently infected cells in vivo...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343578/a-new-quinoline-brd4-inhibitor-targets-a-distinct-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-for-re-activation-from-other-shock-drugs
#2
Erik Abner, Mateusz Stoszko, Lei Zeng, Heng-Chang Chen, Andrea Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Tsuyoshi Konuma, Eduard Zorita, Elisa Fanunza, Qiang Zhang, Tokameh Mahmoudi, Ming-Ming Zhou, Guillaume J Filion, Albert Jordan
Upon HIV-1 infection, a reservoir of latently infected resting T cells prevents the eradication of the virus from patients. To achieve complete depletion, the existing virus-suppressing antiretroviral therapy must be combined with drugs that reactivate the dormant viruses. We previously described a novel chemical scaffold compound, MMQO (8-methoxy-6-methylquinolin-4-ol) that is able to reactivate viral transcription in several models of HIV latency including J-Lat cells through an unknown mechanism. MMQO potentiates the activity of known latency-reversing agents (LRAs) or 'shock' drugs such as PKC agonists or HDAC inhibitors...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343255/inducible-hiv-rna-transcription-assays-to-measure-hiv-persistence-pros-and-cons-of-a-compromise
#3
REVIEW
Johann Plantin, Marta Massanella, Nicolas Chomont
With the increasing number of therapeutic strategies tested in humans to reduce the size of the latent reservoir, the development of a robust, precise and clinical trial scalable assay that measures the frequency of infected cells carrying inducible replication-competent HIV is urgently needed. The size of the pool of cells carrying replication-competent HIV is largely overestimated by DNA assays, as a result of a large proportion of defective viruses, and underestimated by co-culture outgrowth assays. New culture methods that measure the inducible HIV reservoir have been developed during the past few years...
January 17, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298886/class-1-selective-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-enhance-hiv-latency-reversal-while-preserving-the-activity-of-hdac-isoforms-necessary-for-maximal-hiv-gene-expression
#4
Thomas D Zaikos, Mark M Painter, Nadia T Sebastian, Valeri H Terry, Kathleen L Collins
Combinations of drugs that affect distinct mechanisms of HIV latency aim to induce robust latency reversal leading to cytopathicity and elimination of the persistent HIV reservoir. Thus far, attempts have focused on combinations of PKC agonists and pan-histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) despite the knowledge that HIV gene expression is regulated by class 1 histone deacetylases. We hypothesized that class 1-selective HDIs would promote more robust HIV latency reversal in combination with a PKC agonist than pan-HDIs because they preserve the activity of pro-viral factors regulated by non-class 1 histone deacetylases...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287987/observations-on-bradyzoite-biology
#5
Vincent Tu, Rama Yakubu, Louis M Weiss
Tachyzoites of the Apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii cause acute infection, disseminate widely in their host, and eventually differentiates into a latent encysted form called bradyzoites that are found within tissue cysts. During latent infection, whenever transformation to tachyzoites occurs, any tachyzoites that develop are removed by the immune system. In contrast, cysts containing bradyzoites are sequestered from the immune system. In the absence of an effective immune response released organisms that differentiate into tachyzoites cause acute infection...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250325/modern-biotechnology-based-therapeutic-approaches-against-hiv-infection
#6
Muhammad Imran, Yasir Waheed, Ayesha Ghazal, Sajjad Ullah, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhsin Jamal, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Imran, Farman Ullah
The causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since its discovery before 30 years, a number of drugs known as highly active antiretroviral therapy have been developed to suppress the life cycle of the virus at different stages. With the current therapeutic approaches, ending AIDS means providing treatment to 35 million individuals living with HIV for the rest of their lives or until a cure is developed. Additionally, therapy is associated with various other challenges such as potential of drug resistance, toxicity and presence of latent viral reservoir...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246970/compounds-producing-an-effective-combinatorial-regimen-for-disruption-of-hiv-1-latency
#7
Pargol Hashemi, Kris Barreto, Wendy Bernhard, Adam Lomness, Nicolette Honson, Tom A Pfeifer, P Richard Harrigan, Ivan Sadowski
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the outlook for the HIV epidemic, but does not provide a cure. The proposed "shock-and-kill" strategy is directed at inducing latent HIV reservoirs, which may then be purged via boosted immune response or targeting infected cells. We describe five novel compounds that are capable of reversing HIV latency without affecting the general T-cell activation state. The new compounds exhibit synergy for reactivation of latent provirus with other latency-reversing agents (LRAs), in particular ingenol-3-angelate/PEP005...
December 15, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232209/recent-progress-in-understanding-hiv-reservoirs
#8
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Mathias Lichterfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells persist long-term despite highly effective antiretroviral suppression therapy and represent the main barrier against a cure for HIV-1. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the complexity and diversity of viral reservoir cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Latently infected memory CD4 T cells are the predominant cell compartment responsible for viral persistence, but some studies suggest that myeloid cells, and possibly hematopoietic progenitors, can also serve as long-term viral reservoirs...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228979/contrasting-effect-of-the-latency-reversing-agents-bryostatin-1-and-jq1-on-astrocyte-mediated-neuroinflammation-and-brain-neutrophil-invasion
#9
Alizé Proust, Corinne Barat, Mathieu Leboeuf, Jean Drouin, Michel J Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Despite effectiveness of the combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists in long-lived latently infected cells. Consequently, new therapeutic approaches aimed at eliminating this latent reservoir are currently being developed. A "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRA) to reactivate HIV-1 has been proposed. However, the impact of LRA on the central nervous system (CNS) remains elusive. METHODS: We used human fetal astrocytes and investigated the effects of several LRA on their functional and secretory activities...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228368/the-oncolytic-virus-mg1-targets-and-eliminates-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-implications-for-an-hiv-cure
#10
Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S Sandstrom, Stephanie C Burke Schinkel, Sandra C Côté, Jonathan B Angel
Latently HIV-infected cells evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbour intracellular signalling defects including impairment of the antiviral, type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers, and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate latently HIV-1-infected cells, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in latently HIV-1-infected cell lines...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212213/the-bromodomain-and-extraterminal-domain-inhibitor-bromosporine-synergistically-reactivates-latent-hiv-1-in-latently-infected-cells
#11
Hanyu Pan, Panpan Lu, Yinzhong Shen, Yanan Wang, Zhengtao Jiang, Xinyi Yang, Yangcheng Zhong, He Yang, Inam Ulla Khan, Muya Zhou, Bokang Li, Ziyu Zhang, Jianqing Xu, Hongzhou Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
The long-lived latent HIV-1 reservoir is the major barrier for complete cure of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Here we report that a novel bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor bromosporine which can broadly target BETs, is able to potently reactivate HIV-1 replication in different latency models alone and more powerful when combined with prostratin or TNF-α. Furthermore, the treatment with bromosporine induced HIV-1 full-length transcripts in resting CD4+ T cells from infected individuals with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) ex vivo, with no obvious cytotoxicity or global activation of T cell...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207194/quercetin-synergistically-reactivates-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-latency-by-activating-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#12
Xinyi Yang, Xiaoli Zhu, Haiyan Ji, Junxiao Deng, Panpan Lu, Zhengtao Jiang, Xian Li, Yibo Wang, Chuqiao Wang, Jingya Zhao, Yanan Wang, Yangcheng Zhong, He Yang, Huanzhang Zhu
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is very effective in suppressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‑1) replication. However, the treatment is required to be administered for the remainder of an individual's lifetime due to latent HIV‑1 reservoirs. The 'shock‑and‑kill' strategy, which involves using agents to reactivate latent HIV‑1 and subsequently killing latently infected cells in the presence of HAART, was recently proposed. Unfortunately, no agents have currently demonstrated an ability to reactivate latent HIV‑1 in vivo in the absence of toxicity...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206656/hiv-integration-sites-and-implications-for-maintenance-of-the-reservoir
#13
Jori Symons, Paul U Cameron, Sharon R Lewin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent research of how HIV integration relates to productive and latent infection and implications for cure strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: How and where HIV integrates provides new insights into how HIV persists on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Clonal expansion of infected cells with the same integration site demonstrates that T-cell proliferation is an important factor in HIV persistence, however, the driver of proliferation remains unclear...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194124/humanized-mouse-models-to-study-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#14
Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Hugo Mouquet, James P Di Santo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunodeficient mice that lack all lymphocyte subsets and have phagocytic cells that are tolerant of human cells can be stably xenografted with human hematopoietic stem cell as well as other human tissues (fetal liver and thymus) creating 'human immune system' (HIS) mice. HIS mice develop all major human lymphocyte classes (B, T, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cell) and their specialized subsets as well as a variety of myeloid cells (dendritic cell, monocytes, and macrophages) thereby providing a small animal model in which to interrogate human immune responses to infection...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192216/bet-inhibitors-rvx-208-and-pfi-1-reactivate-hiv-1-from-latency
#15
Panpan Lu, Yinzhong Shen, He Yang, Yanan Wang, Zhengtao Jiang, Xinyi Yang, Yangcheng Zhong, Hanyu Pan, Jianqing Xu, Hongzhou Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
Persistent latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells is a major obstacle in curing HIV-1 infection. Effective strategies for eradication of the HIV-1 reservoir are urgently needed. We report here for the first time that two BET inhibitors, RVX-208, which has entered phase II clinical trials for diverse cardiovascular disorders, and PFI-1, which has been widely studied in oncology, can reactivate HIV-1 from latency. RVX-208 and PFI-1 treatment alone or in combination with other latency reversing agents efficiently reactivated HIV-1 transcription through an up-regulation of P-TEFb by increasing CDK9 Thr-186 phosphorylation in latently infected Jurkat T cells in vitro...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170390/systems-analysis-of-latent-hiv-reversal-reveals-altered-stress-kinase-signaling-and-increased-cell-death-in-infected-t-cells
#16
Linda E Fong, Endah S Sulistijo, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Viral latency remains the most significant obstacle to HIV eradication. Clinical strategies aim to purge the latent CD4+ T cell reservoir by activating viral expression to induce death, but are undercut by the inability to target latently infected cells. Here we explored the acute signaling response of latent HIV-infected CD4+ T cells to identify dynamic phosphorylation signatures that could be targeted for therapy. Stimulation with CD3/CD28, PMA/ionomycin, or latency reversing agents prostratin and SAHA, yielded increased phosphorylation of IκBα, ERK, p38, and JNK in HIV-infected cells across two in vitro latency models...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164341/mathematical-models-of-hiv-latency
#17
Alison L Hill
Viral latency is a major barrier to curing HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and consequently, for eliminating the disease globally. The establishment, maintenance, and potential clearance of latent infection are complex dynamic processes and can be best understood and described with the help of mathematical models. Here we review the use of viral dynamics models for HIV, with a focus on applications to the latent reservoir. Such models have been used to explain the multiphasic decay of viral load during antiretroviral therapy, the early seeding of the latent reservoir during acute infection and the limited inflow during treatment, the dynamics of viral blips, and the phenomenon of posttreatment control...
November 22, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157283/the-mouse-viral-outgrowth-assay-avatars-for-the-detection-of-hiv-1-reservoirs
#18
REVIEW
Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Joel N Blankson
Sensitive assays are needed for the detection of residual viral reservoirs in HIV-1-infected subjects on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy regimens to determine whether eradication strategies are effective. Mouse viral outgrowth assays have recently been developed and have the potential to be more sensitive than traditional in vitro quantitative viral outgrowth assays. In this article we describe these assays and review several studies that have used them to measure the latent reservoir.
November 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#19
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135580/wake-me-up-before-you-go-a-strategy-to-reduce-the-latent-hiv-reservoir
#20
Nicolas Chomont, Afam A Okoye, David Favre, Lydie Trautmann
: In the quest to eliminate or reduce the HIV reservoir, shock and kill strategies require the combined administration of a latency reversing agent (LRA) to reactivate the latent reservoir and an intervention to boost effector functions to clear this reservoir. Both parts of this strategy are quite inefficient when LRAs are administered to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART for several years, possibly due to low levels of induced antigen expression, negative impact of LRAs on clearance mechanisms, and very low number of effective cytotoxic T cells (CTLs)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
keyword
keyword
44892
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"