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Neonatal thermal regulation

María Belén Acevedo, Ana Fabiola Macchione, Florencia Anunziata, Olga Beatriz Haymal, Juan Carlos Molina
Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between ...
August 19, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Vincenzo Zanardo, Gianluca Straface
Numerous functional features that promote the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum are concentrated in the human female's areolar region. The aim of this study was to look more closely into the thermal characteristics of areola, which are said to regulate the local evaporation rate of odors and chemical signals that are uniquely important for the neonate's 'breast crawl'. A dermatological study of the areolae and corresponding intern breast quadrants was undertaken on the mothers of 70 consecutive, healthy, full-term breastfed infants...
2015: PloS One
Huan Wang, Bonnie Wang, Kieran P Normoyle, Kevin Jackson, Kevin Spitler, Matthew F Sharrock, Claire M Miller, Catherine Best, Daniel Llano, Rose Du
Brain temperature, as an independent therapeutic target variable, has received increasingly intense clinical attention. To date, brain hypothermia represents the most potent neuroprotectant in laboratory studies. Although the impact of brain temperature is prevalent in a number of common human diseases including: head trauma, stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, mood disorders, headaches, and neurodegenerative disorders, it is evident and well recognized that the therapeutic application of induced hypothermia is limited to a few highly selected clinical conditions such as cardiac arrest and hypoxic ischemic neonatal encephalopathy...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michael P Jankowski, Jessica L Ross, Jonathon D Weber, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins
BACKGROUND: It is well-documented that neonates can experience pain after injury. However, the contribution of individual populations of sensory neurons to neonatal pain is not clearly understood. Here we characterized the functional response properties and neurochemical phenotypes of single primary afferents after injection of carrageenan into the hairy hindpaw skin using a neonatal ex vivo recording preparation. RESULTS: During normal development, we found that individual afferent response properties are generally unaltered...
2014: Molecular Pain
Nicoletta Doglioni, Francesco Cavallin, Veronica Mardegan, Silvia Palatron, Marco Filippone, Luca Vecchiato, Massimo Bellettato, Lino Chiandetti, Daniele Trevisanuto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a polyethylene total body wrapping (covering both the body and head) is more effective than conventional treatment (covering up to the shoulders) in reducing perinatal thermal losses in very preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial of infants<29 weeks' gestation age, comprising two study groups: experimental group (total body group; both the body and head covered with a polyethylene occlusive bag, with the face uncovered) and control group (only the body, up to the shoulders, covered with a polyethylene occlusive bag)...
August 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
Smita Srivastava, Amit Gupta, Anjoo Bhatnagar, Sanjeev Dutta
CONTEXT: Birth and immediate postpartum period pose many challenges for the newborn. The neonatal mortality rates are high in India, whereas the breastfeeding rates are still low. Hence, need exists for a simple and easily applicable intervention, which may counter these challenges. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of very early skin-to-skin contact (SSC), in term babies with their mothers, on success of breastfeeding and neonatal well-being...
January 2014: Indian Journal of Public Health
Kevin Tran, Aaron Gibson, Don Wong, Dagmawi Tilahun, Nicholas Selock, Theresa Good, Geetha Ram, Leah Tolosa, Michael Tolosa, Yordan Kostov, Hyung Chul Woo, Michael Frizzell, Victor Fulda, Ramya Gopinath, J Shashidhara Prasad, Hanumappa Sudarshan, Arunkumar Venkatesan, V Sashi Kumar, N Shylaja, Govind Rao
Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat...
June 2014: Journal of Laboratory Automation
Ihssane Zouikr, Melissa A Tadros, Javad Barouei, Kenneth W Beagley, Vicki L Clifton, Robert J Callister, Deborah M Hodgson
The neonatal period is characterized by significant plasticity where the immune, endocrine, and nociceptive systems undergo fine-tuning and maturation. Painful experiences during this period can result in long-term alterations in the neurocircuitry underlying nociception, including increased sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stimuli. Less is known about the impact of neonatal exposure to mild inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on subsequent inflammatory pain responses. Here we examine the impact of neonatal LPS exposure on inflammatory pain sensitivity and HPA axis activity during the first three postnatal weeks...
March 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
A N Pierce, J M Ryals, R Wang, J A Christianson
Early life stress can permanently alter functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the stress response and influences the perception of pain. Chronic pelvic pain patients commonly report having experienced childhood neglect or abuse, which increases the likelihood of presenting with comorbid chronic pain and/or mood disorders. Animal models of neonatal stress commonly display enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, colorectal hypersensitivity, and disruption of proper neuro-immune interactions in adulthood...
March 28, 2014: Neuroscience
Mengmeng Li, Huisheng Chen, Jiaguang Tang, Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that inflammatory pain at the neonatal stage can produce long-term structural and functional changes in nociceptive pathways, resulting in altered pain perception in adulthood. However, the exact pattern of altered nociceptive response and associated neurochemical changes in the spinal cord in this process is unclear. METHOD: In this study, we used an experimental paradigm in which each rat first received intraplantar bee venom (BV) or saline injection on postnatal day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, or 28...
June 2014: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Zheng Wang, Hong-Liang Lu, Li Ma, Xiang Ji
Viviparous Phrynocephalus lizards (Agamidae) are mainly restricted to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. In this study, we used Phrynocephalus vlangalii females kept under seven thermal regimes for the whole gestation period to test the hypothesis that viviparity in high-altitude Phrynocephalus lizards is adaptive because embryos cannot fully develop without maternal thermoregulation. All females at 24 °C and 93% of the females at 28 °C failed to give birth or produced stillborns, and proportionally fewer females gave birth at 29 or 35 °C than at 32 °C...
March 2014: Oecologia
Robin B Knobel, Janet Levy, Laurence Katz, Bob Guenther, Diane Holditch-Davis
OBJECTIVE: To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low-birth-weight (EBLW) infants. DESIGN: A case study design. SETTING: The study took place in a Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Four ELBW infants, fewer than 29 weeks gestational age at birth...
September 2013: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Longsheng Xu, Yanyan Pan, Qi Zhu, Shan Gong, Jin Tao, Guang-Yin Xu, Xinghong Jiang
The tyrosine kinases of Src family play an important role in the central sensitization following peripheral inflammation. However, whether the Src family in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mediobasal hypothalamus is involved in central sensitization remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of tyrosine kinases of Src family in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the ARC following peripheral inflammation. Peripheral inflammation was induced by unilateral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into rat hindpaw...
December 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Lavenia Carpenter, Curtis L Baysinger
Anesthesia and surgery interfere with normal thermoregulation, and nearly all patients will become hypothermic unless compensatory measures are used. Preoperative patient warming and intraoperative methods using forced air and warmed intravenous fluids are important methods for maintaining patient's core temperature during the perioperative period. The benefits of maintaining normothermia include reductions in postoperative wound infection, the risk of perioperative coagulopathy, and myocardial ischemia. These advantages, demonstrated in patients undergoing general surgery, would be expected in patients undergoing gynecological surgery but have not been specifically studied in that population...
July 2012: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Bobby Mathew, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Shaon Sengupta, Vivien Carrion
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of vinyl bags and thermal warming mattresses in preventing hypothermia during delivery room resuscitation and stabilization of extremely low-gestational-age neonates (ELGANs). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants 23 to 28 weeks' gestational age were randomly allocated to either vinyl bag or thermal mattress group at delivery to prevent hypothermia. The primary outcome of the study was the axillary temperature on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit...
April 2013: American Journal of Perinatology
Songkiat Chantaroj, Wilaiporn Techasatid
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia at birth has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of wrap with polyethylene bag at birth on admission temperatures and the incidences of hypothermia on admission in preterm infants gestational age < or = 32 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in thirty-eight preterm infants with gestational age < or = 32 weeks...
December 2011: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
K Lunze, D H Hamer
Appropriate thermal protection of the newborn prevents hypothermia and its associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Yet, current global birth practices tend to not adequately address this challenge. Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypothermia in the newborn, its prevention and therapeutic options with particular attention to resource-limited environments. Newborns are equipped with sophisticated mechanisms of body temperature regulation. Neonatal thermoregulation is a critical function for newborn survival, regulated in the hypothalamus and mediated by endocrine pathways...
May 2012: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Robin K Whyte
Late and moderate preterm infants form the majority of admissions for prematurity to special care neonatal nurseries. Although at risk for acute disorders of prematurity, they do not suffer the serious long term risks and chronic illnesses of the extremely premature. The special challenges addressed here are of transition and of thermal adaptation, nutritional compensation for postnatal growth restriction, the establishment of early feeding, and the avoidance of post-discharge jaundice or apnea. These 'healthy' premature infants provide challenges for discharge planning, in that opportunities may be available for discharge well before the expected date of delivery, which should be pursued...
June 2012: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
A F Soleimani, I Zulkifli, M Hair-Bejo, A R Omar, A R Raha
Environmental stressors may influence chicken performance and susceptibility to pathogens, such as Salmonella enteritidis. This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat shock protein (Hsp)70 expression on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection in broiler chickens subjected to heat exposure. Chicks were divided into 3 feeding regimens: ad libitum feeding (control); 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR60); and 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 plus 1,500 mg/kg of quercetin (FR60Q)...
February 2012: Poultry Science
Pauline Décima, Erwan Stéphan-Blanchard, Amandine Pelletier, Laurent Ghyselen, Stéphane Delanaud, Loïc Dégrugilliers, Frédéric Telliez, Véronique Bach, Jean-Pierre Libert
In closed incubators, radiative heat loss (R) which is assessed from the mean radiant temperature (Tr) accounts for 40-60% of the neonate's total heat loss. In the absence of a benchmark method to calculate Tr--often considered to be the same as the air incubator temperature-errors could have a considerable impact on the thermal management of neonates. We compared Tr using two conventional methods (measurement with a black-globe thermometer and a radiative "view factor" approach) and two methods based on nude thermal manikins (a simple, schematic design from Wheldon and a multisegment, anthropometric device developed in our laboratory)...
August 2012: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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