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Neonatal thermal regulation

Stephen Blowers, Ian Marshall, Michael Thrippleton, Peter Andrews, Bridget Harris, Iain Bethune, Prashant Valluri
Macro-modeling of cerebral blood flow can help determine the impact of thermal intervention during instances of head trauma to mitigate tissue damage. This work presents a bioheat model using a 3D fluid-porous domain coupled with intersecting 1D arterial and venous vessel trees. This combined vascular porous (VaPor) model resolves both cerebral blood flow and energy equations, including heat generated by metabolism, using vasculature extracted from MRI data and is extended using a tree generation algorithm...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alia Sadiq, Ahmed Shah, Marc G Jeschke, Cassandra Belo, Muhammad Qasim Hayat, Sheeba Murad, Saeid Amini-Nik
Post-burn trauma significantly raises tissue serotonin concentration at the initial stages of injury, which leads us to investigate its possible role in post burn wound healing. Therefore, we planned this study to examine the role of serotonin in wound healing through in vitro and in vivo models of burn injuries. Results from in vitro analysis revealed that serotonin decreased apoptosis and increased cell survival significantly in human fibroblasts and neonatal keratinocytes. Cellular proliferation also increased significantly in both cell types...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Julien Genty, Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Early life stress (ELS) leads to a permanent reprogramming of biochemical stress response cascades that may also be relevant for the processing of chronic pain states such as neuropathy. Despite clinical evidence, little is known about ELS-related vulnerability for neuropathic pain and the possibly underlying etiology. In the framework of experimental studies aimed at investigating the respective relationships we used the established ELS model of maternal separation (MS). Rat dams and neonates were separated for 3 h/day from post-natal day 2-12...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Ian R G Black, Glenn J Tattersall
The regulation of body temperature is a critical function for animals. Although reliant on ambient temperature as a heat source, reptiles, and especially lizards, make use of multiple voluntary and involuntary behaviors to thermoregulate, including postural changes in body orientation, either toward or away from solar sources of heat. This thermal orientation may also result from a thermoregulatory drive to maintain precise control over cranial temperatures or a rostrally-driven sensory bias. The purpose of this work was to examine thermal orientation behavior in adult and neonatal bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), to ascertain its prevalence across different life stages within a laboratory situation and its interaction with behavioral thermoregulation...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Xiaohua Liu, Kathryn J Green, Zachary K Ford, Luis F Queme, Peilin Lu, Jessica L Ross, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins, Michael P Jankowski
Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. Growth hormone modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH affects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine whether GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyperresponsiveness during skin inflammation in young mice, we examined behavioral hypersensitivity and the response properties of cutaneous afferents using an ex vivo hairy skin-saphenous nerve-DRG-spinal cord preparation...
February 2017: Pain
Nathalie Charpak, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation, and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding, and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
María Belén Acevedo, Ana Fabiola Macchione, Florencia Anunziata, Olga Beatriz Haymal, Juan Carlos Molina
Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between ...
January 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
Vincenzo Zanardo, Gianluca Straface
Numerous functional features that promote the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum are concentrated in the human female's areolar region. The aim of this study was to look more closely into the thermal characteristics of areola, which are said to regulate the local evaporation rate of odors and chemical signals that are uniquely important for the neonate's 'breast crawl'. A dermatological study of the areolae and corresponding intern breast quadrants was undertaken on the mothers of 70 consecutive, healthy, full-term breastfed infants...
2015: PloS One
Huan Wang, Bonnie Wang, Kieran P Normoyle, Kevin Jackson, Kevin Spitler, Matthew F Sharrock, Claire M Miller, Catherine Best, Daniel Llano, Rose Du
Brain temperature, as an independent therapeutic target variable, has received increasingly intense clinical attention. To date, brain hypothermia represents the most potent neuroprotectant in laboratory studies. Although the impact of brain temperature is prevalent in a number of common human diseases including: head trauma, stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, mood disorders, headaches, and neurodegenerative disorders, it is evident and well recognized that the therapeutic application of induced hypothermia is limited to a few highly selected clinical conditions such as cardiac arrest and hypoxic ischemic neonatal encephalopathy...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michael P Jankowski, Jessica L Ross, Jonathon D Weber, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins
BACKGROUND: It is well-documented that neonates can experience pain after injury. However, the contribution of individual populations of sensory neurons to neonatal pain is not clearly understood. Here we characterized the functional response properties and neurochemical phenotypes of single primary afferents after injection of carrageenan into the hairy hindpaw skin using a neonatal ex vivo recording preparation. RESULTS: During normal development, we found that individual afferent response properties are generally unaltered...
2014: Molecular Pain
Nicoletta Doglioni, Francesco Cavallin, Veronica Mardegan, Silvia Palatron, Marco Filippone, Luca Vecchiato, Massimo Bellettato, Lino Chiandetti, Daniele Trevisanuto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a polyethylene total body wrapping (covering both the body and head) is more effective than conventional treatment (covering up to the shoulders) in reducing perinatal thermal losses in very preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial of infants<29 weeks' gestation age, comprising two study groups: experimental group (total body group; both the body and head covered with a polyethylene occlusive bag, with the face uncovered) and control group (only the body, up to the shoulders, covered with a polyethylene occlusive bag)...
August 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
Smita Srivastava, Amit Gupta, Anjoo Bhatnagar, Sanjeev Dutta
CONTEXT: Birth and immediate postpartum period pose many challenges for the newborn. The neonatal mortality rates are high in India, whereas the breastfeeding rates are still low. Hence, need exists for a simple and easily applicable intervention, which may counter these challenges. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of very early skin-to-skin contact (SSC), in term babies with their mothers, on success of breastfeeding and neonatal well-being...
January 2014: Indian Journal of Public Health
Kevin Tran, Aaron Gibson, Don Wong, Dagmawi Tilahun, Nicholas Selock, Theresa Good, Geetha Ram, Leah Tolosa, Michael Tolosa, Yordan Kostov, Hyung Chul Woo, Michael Frizzell, Victor Fulda, Ramya Gopinath, J Shashidhara Prasad, Hanumappa Sudarshan, Arunkumar Venkatesan, V Sashi Kumar, N Shylaja, Govind Rao
Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat...
June 2014: Journal of Laboratory Automation
Ihssane Zouikr, Melissa A Tadros, Javad Barouei, Kenneth W Beagley, Vicki L Clifton, Robert J Callister, Deborah M Hodgson
The neonatal period is characterized by significant plasticity where the immune, endocrine, and nociceptive systems undergo fine-tuning and maturation. Painful experiences during this period can result in long-term alterations in the neurocircuitry underlying nociception, including increased sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stimuli. Less is known about the impact of neonatal exposure to mild inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on subsequent inflammatory pain responses. Here we examine the impact of neonatal LPS exposure on inflammatory pain sensitivity and HPA axis activity during the first three postnatal weeks...
March 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
A N Pierce, J M Ryals, R Wang, J A Christianson
Early life stress can permanently alter functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the stress response and influences the perception of pain. Chronic pelvic pain patients commonly report having experienced childhood neglect or abuse, which increases the likelihood of presenting with comorbid chronic pain and/or mood disorders. Animal models of neonatal stress commonly display enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, colorectal hypersensitivity, and disruption of proper neuro-immune interactions in adulthood...
March 28, 2014: Neuroscience
Mengmeng Li, Huisheng Chen, Jiaguang Tang, Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that inflammatory pain at the neonatal stage can produce long-term structural and functional changes in nociceptive pathways, resulting in altered pain perception in adulthood. However, the exact pattern of altered nociceptive response and associated neurochemical changes in the spinal cord in this process is unclear. METHOD: In this study, we used an experimental paradigm in which each rat first received intraplantar bee venom (BV) or saline injection on postnatal day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, or 28...
June 2014: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Zheng Wang, Hong-Liang Lu, Li Ma, Xiang Ji
Viviparous Phrynocephalus lizards (Agamidae) are mainly restricted to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. In this study, we used Phrynocephalus vlangalii females kept under seven thermal regimes for the whole gestation period to test the hypothesis that viviparity in high-altitude Phrynocephalus lizards is adaptive because embryos cannot fully develop without maternal thermoregulation. All females at 24 °C and 93% of the females at 28 °C failed to give birth or produced stillborns, and proportionally fewer females gave birth at 29 or 35 °C than at 32 °C...
March 2014: Oecologia
Robin B Knobel, Janet Levy, Laurence Katz, Bob Guenther, Diane Holditch-Davis
OBJECTIVE: To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low-birth-weight (EBLW) infants. DESIGN: A case study design. SETTING: The study took place in a Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Four ELBW infants, fewer than 29 weeks gestational age at birth...
September 2013: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Longsheng Xu, Yanyan Pan, Qi Zhu, Shan Gong, Jin Tao, Guang-Yin Xu, Xinghong Jiang
The tyrosine kinases of Src family play an important role in the central sensitization following peripheral inflammation. However, whether the Src family in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mediobasal hypothalamus is involved in central sensitization remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of tyrosine kinases of Src family in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the ARC following peripheral inflammation. Peripheral inflammation was induced by unilateral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into rat hindpaw...
December 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Lavenia Carpenter, Curtis L Baysinger
Anesthesia and surgery interfere with normal thermoregulation, and nearly all patients will become hypothermic unless compensatory measures are used. Preoperative patient warming and intraoperative methods using forced air and warmed intravenous fluids are important methods for maintaining patient's core temperature during the perioperative period. The benefits of maintaining normothermia include reductions in postoperative wound infection, the risk of perioperative coagulopathy, and myocardial ischemia. These advantages, demonstrated in patients undergoing general surgery, would be expected in patients undergoing gynecological surgery but have not been specifically studied in that population...
July 2012: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
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