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Neonatal ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332212/accuracy-of-sonographic-fetal-weight-estimation-prior-to-delivery-in-a-chinese-han-population
#1
Yao Shen, WeiXiu Zhao, JianHua Lin, FangSun Liu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the sonographic-estimated fetal weights (EFW) calculated with the Hadlock formula and with the Woo formula in a group of Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: We prospectively recruited term pregnancies for sonographic biometric examination. EFWs were calculated according to two formulas and compared with the corresponding birth weight (BW). We also assessed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EFW for the diagnosis of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#2
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329979/imaging-of-neck-masses-in-the-neonate
#3
Amina Ben Salem, Abir Khalfalli, Saida Jerbi, Wissem Harzallah, Fatma-Zohra Chioukh, Chiraz Hafsa, Ines Mezhoud
INTRODUCTION: Neck masses occurring in the neonatal period and early infancy consist of vascular tumors, vascular malformations, benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and other developmental lesions. Although some lesions can be diagnosed on clinical grounds, others can only be diagnosed by imaging. Beyond diagnosis, imaging plays a significant role in evaluating the location and extent of a lesion for possible intervention. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Clinical series descriptive study with a retrospective examination of neonates with masses of the neck...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327433/sonographic-prediction-of-outcome-of-vacuum-deliveries-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Birgitte H Kahrs, Sana Usman, Tullio Ghi, Aly Youssef, Erik A Torkildsen, Elsa Lindtjørn, Tilde B Østborg, Sigurlaug Benediktsdottir, Lis Brooks, Lotte Harmsen, Pål R Romundstad, Kjell Å Salvesen, Christoph C Lees, Torbjørn M Eggebø
BACKGROUND: Safe management of the second stage of labor is of great importance. Unnecessary interventions should be avoided and correct timing of interventions focused. Ultrasound assessment of fetal position and station has a potential to improve the precision in diagnosing and managing prolonged or arrested labors. The decision to perform vacuum delivery is traditionally based on subjective assessment by digital vaginal examination and clinical expertise and there is currently no method of objectively quantifying the likelihood of successful delivery...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326518/chorionic-thickness-and-plgf-concentrations-as-early-predictors-of-small-for-gestational-age-birth-weight-in-a-low-risk-population
#5
Anna Gąsiorowska, Marek Pietryga, Agnieszka Zawiejska, Piotr Dydowicz, Katarzyna Ziółkowska, Hubert Wolski, Jacek Brązert
OBJECTIVES: SGA is associated with higher incidence of postnatal complications, including suboptimal neurodevelopment and increased cardiovascular risk. Screening for SGA, carried out at 11-13 (+ 6d) gestational weeks enables to reduce or completely eliminate the above mentioned complications. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between chorionic thickness, concentration of PIGF protein and foetal birth weight in a single low-risk pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 76 patients at 11-13 (+ 6d) gestational weeks, monitored throughout preg-nancy...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#6
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320362/early-dynamic-ultrasound-for-neonatal-hip-instability-implications-for-rural-australia
#7
Susan L Charlton, Adrian Schoo, Lucie Walters
BACKGROUND: Neonatal instability of the hip (NIH), where the femoral head can move away from the acetabulum, in the first weeks of life, is an important risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). In rural areas in Australia, there is a recent trend to increased late diagnosis of DDH. Clinical screening of infant hips, a common practice in Australia, is experience dependent. Best practice early screening techniques are still debated with different techniques and timing used internationally...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304105/ultrasound-elastography-of-the-neonatal-brain-preliminary-study
#8
Hyun Gi Kim, Moon Sung Park, Jung-Dong Lee, Seon Young Park
OBJECTIVES: To determine the ultrasound elasticity of the brain in neonates METHODS: Strain elastography was performed in 21 healthy neonates (mean gestational age [GA], 34 weeks; range, 28-40 weeks). Elastographic scores were assigned to the following structures on a 5-point color scale (1-5): ventricle, periventricular white matter, caudate, subcortical, cortical gray matter, and subdural space. Three elastographic images were evaluated in each patient, and median elastographic scores were calculated...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302080/population-based-study-of-the-incidence-of-congenital-hip-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-from-the-survey-of-neonates-in-pomerania-snip
#9
A E Lange, J Lange, Till Ittermann, M Napp, Paul-Christian Krueger, H Bahlmann, R Kasch, M Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Some etiological factors involved in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) occur in the last trimester of pregnancy, which could result in a decreased incidence of DDH in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of DDH between preterm and term infants. METHODS: Ultrasound of the hip joint was performed in 2,534 term infants and 376 preterm infants within the population-based Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP) study. RESULTS: A total of 42 (1...
March 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298945/doppler-ultrasound-assessment-of-the-splanchnic-circulation-in-preterms-with-neonatal-sepsis-at-risk-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#10
Rania H Hashem, Yasmeen A Mansi, Nehal S Almasah, Shereen Abdelghaffar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of Doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of splanchnic circulation's hemodynamic changes in septic preterms at risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: A total of 51 septic preterms were divided into two groups: 25 preterms with clinical signs of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and 26 preterms with no clinical signs of NEC. Both groups were assessed with Doppler ultrasonography of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, and each septic preterm's peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistivity index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) was calculated and recorded...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297139/usefulness-of-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-dacryocystocele
#11
Igor Vázquez-Osorio, Angela Hernández-Martín
Neonatal dacryocystocele is an uncommon process that may evolve into acute dacryocystitis within the first weeks of life. Neonatal acute dacryocystitis must be treated promptly to avoid potential severe infectious complications. High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive method of diagnosing dacryocystocele, facilitating early therapeutic intervention.
March 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295792/biventricular-impact-of-mild-to-moderate-pulmonary-valve-stenosis-in-fetal-life
#12
L Guirado, F Crispi, N Masoller, M Bennasar, E Marimon, J Carretero, E Gratacós, J M Martínez, M K Friedberg, O Gómez
OBJECTIVES: to define the pattern of fetal echocardiographic changes associated with isolated pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) and to correlate the echocardiographic findings with the neonatal outcome and the need of postnatal pulmonary valvuloplasty within the first 12 months of life. METHODS: a prospective cohort study was designed on 16 fetuses with isolated PS and 48 controls matched by gestational age at scan (+/- 2 weeks). Fetal standard ultrasound and comprehensive echocardiography, which included cardiovascular morphometric parameters, systolic and diastolic functional and timing-measurements, were performed in all cases...
March 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295742/prognosis-of-isolated-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-using-lung-to-head-circumference-ratio-variability-across-centers-in-a-national-perinatal-network
#13
Marie-Victoire Senat, Hanane Bouchghoul, Julien Stirnemann, Pascal Vaast, Julia Boubnova, Laetitia Begue, Elizabeth Carricaburu, Agnes Sartor, Jacques Jani, Alexandra Benachi, Jean Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly. The observed to expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (o/e-LHR) has been shown to provide a useful prediction of subsequent survival in fetuses with CDH in reference centers with expertise and a large caseload. However, the accuracy of o/e-LHR measurements in unselected fetal medicine units or in centers with less expertise is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate o/e-LHR measurement in prognostic evaluation of postnatal survival when the measurement is performed in fetal medicine units with different levels of expertise...
March 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295722/cerclage-for-short-cervix-on-ultrasound-in-singleton-gestations-without-prior-spontaneous-preterm-birth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-trials-using-individual-patient-level-data
#14
REVIEW
Vincenzo Berghella, Andrea Ciardulli, Orion A Rust, Meekai To, Katsufumi Otsuki, Sietske Althuisius, Kypros Nicolaides, Amanda Roman, Gabriele Saccone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the efficacy of cervical cerclage in preventing preterm birth (PTB) in asymptomatic singleton pregnancies with a mid-trimester short transvaginal ultrasound cervical length (TVU CL) and without prior spontaneous PTB. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception of each database until February 2017. No language restrictions were applied. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton pregnancies without prior spontaneous PTB screened with TVU CL, found to have a midtrimester short CL <25 mm, and then randomized to management with either cerclage (i...
March 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291024/pavlik-harness-treatment-for-pathological-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-meeting-the-standard
#15
Qaisar Choudry, Robin W Paton
In the UK, the Pavlik harness is generally the accepted treatment technique for the treatment of neonatal and infant pathological developmental dysplasia of the hip. In 2013, the success rate of the Pavlik harness became an outcome measure from the British Society of Children's Orthopaedic Surgery for appraisal and revalidation with the GMC for paediatric orthopaedic surgery. The standard set requires an 80% success rate, with less than 20% requiring surgery. This study evaluated the outcomes of Pavlik harness treatment in neonates/infants with 'pathological hips' diagnosed by ultrasound imaging in a district general hospital setting...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286898/the-molecular-biology-of-pelvi-ureteric-junction-obstruction
#16
REVIEW
Laura Jackson, Mark Woodward, Richard J Coward
Over recent years routine ultrasound scanning has identified increasing numbers of neonates as having hydronephrosis and pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). This patient group presents a diagnostic and management challenge for paediatric nephrologists and urologists. In this review we consider the known molecular mechanisms underpinning PUJO and review the potential of utilising this information to develop novel therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers to improve the care of children with this disorder...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283827/prenatal-ultrasound-genotype-and-outcome-in-a-large-cohort-of-prenatally-affected-patients-with-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-other-hereditary-cystic-kidney-diseases
#17
Florian Erger, Nadina Ortiz Brüchle, Ulrich Gembruch, Klaus Zerres
PURPOSE: To investigate the sonographic and clinical genotype-phenotype correlations in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and other cystic kidney diseases (CKD) in a large cohort of prenatally detected fetuses with hereditary CKD. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical and diagnostic data of 398 patients referred with prenatal ultrasound findings suggestive of CKD between 1994 and 2010. Cases with confirmed hereditary CKD (n = 130) were analyzed as to their prenatal ultrasound findings, genotype, and possible predictors of clinical outcome...
April 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277911/fetal-growth-pathology-score-a-novel-ultrasound-parameter-for-individualized-assessment-of-third-trimester-growth-abnormalities
#18
Russell L Deter, Wesley Lee, John C P Kingdom, Roberto Romero
OBJECTIVES: To study fetal growth in pregnancies at risk for growth restriction using, for the first time, the Fetal Growth Pathology Score [FGPS1]. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of growth restriction [GR] was carried out in 184 selected SGA singletons using a novel, composite measure of growth abnormalities termed the FGPS1. Serial fetal biometry was used to establish 2(nd) trimester Rossavik size models and determine FGPS1 values prior to delivery. FGPS1 data were compared to neonatal growth outcomes assessed using Growth Potential Realization Index [GPRI] values [average negative pathological GPRI {av -pGPRI}]...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275563/neonatal-cranial-sonography-ultrasound-findings-in-neonatal-meningitis-a-pictorial-review
#19
REVIEW
Nishant Gupta, Hemal Grover, Itisha Bansal, Kusum Hooda, Joshua M Sapire, Rama Anand, Yogesh Kumar
Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a common manifestation of late onset neonatal sepsis. Cranial sonography (CRS) has a crucial role in assessment of infants with clinical suspicion of bacterial meningitis as well as follows up of its complications. CRS is performed with high frequency transducer through anterior fontanelle in both coronal and sagittal planes. Various sonographic findings range from echogenic and widened sulci, ventriculomegaly, ventriculitis, hydrocephalus, extra-axial fluid collections, cerebritis and brain abscess...
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267443/balloon-removal-after-fetoscopic-endoluminal-tracheal-occlusion-for-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Julio A Jiménez, Elisenda Eixarch, Philip Dekoninck, João R Bennini, Roland Devlieger, Cleisson F Peralta, Eduard Gratacos, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: Isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) defect allows viscera to herniate into the chest, competing for space with the developing lungs. At birth, pulmonary hypoplasia leads to respiratory insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension that is lethal in up to 30% of patients. Antenatal measurement of lung size and liver herniation can predict survival after birth. Prenatal intervention aims at stimulating lung development, clinically achieved by percutaneous fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) under local anesthesia...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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