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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432573/clinical-outcomes-in-trials-evaluating-lipid-lowering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Julie Butters, Alex Brown, Liddy Griffith, Susan Kim, Stephen J Nicholls
While statins have formed the cornerstone of strategies for cardiovascular prevention, the residual risk related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipoprotein factors provides a landscape for development of new therapies. However, a number of lipid-modifying therapies have failed to reduce cardiovascular event rates in contemporary clinical trials of statin-treated patients. The factors considered in outcome measure selection for clinical trials of novel lipid-lowering therapies are reviewed...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432513/the-relationship-between-statins-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-varies-by-statin-type-and-exposure-time-a-meta-analysis
#2
EDITORIAL
Binliang Liu, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Yi-Xin Zeng, Fei Ma
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females and the leading cause of death worldwide. The effects of statins on breast cancer prognosis have long been controversial; thus, it is important to investigate the relationship between statin type, exposure time, and breast cancer prognosis. This study sought to explore the effect of statins, as well as the different effects of statin solubility and variable follow-up times, on breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via OvidSP), Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases using combinations of the terms "breast neoplasms[MeSH]," "statins" or "lipid-lowering drug," "prognosis" or "survival," or "mortality" or "outcome" with no limit on the publication date...
April 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431913/use-of-medications-of-questionable-benefit-during-the-last-year-of-life-of-older-adults-with-dementia
#3
Lucas Morin, Davide L Vetrano, Giulia Grande, Laura Fratiglioni, Johan Fastbom, Kristina Johnell
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with the use of medications of questionable benefit throughout the final year of life of older adults who died with dementia. DESIGN: Register-based, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Entire Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All older adults (≥75 years) who died with dementia between 2007 and 2013 (n = 120,067). MEASUREMENTS: Exposure to medications of questionable benefit was calculated for each of the last 12 months before death, based on longitudinal data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428922/the-cost-benefit-balance-of-statins-in-hawai-i-a-moving-target
#4
Corey J Lum, Kazuma Nakagawa, Ralph V Shohet, Todd B Seto, Deborah A Taira
Statins are lipid-lowering medications used for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic disease and represent a substantial portion of drug costs in the United States. A better understanding of prescribing patterns and drug costs should lead to more rational utilization and help constrain health care expenditures in the United States. The 2013 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Part D Prescriber Public Use File for the State of Hawai'i was analyzed. The number of prescriptions for statins, total annual cost, and daily cost were calculated by prescriber specialty and drug...
April 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428116/cycloastragenol-improves-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor-signalling
#5
Ming Gu, Shiying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Shengjie Fan, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Qingchun Tong, Cheng Huang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a global health problem. However, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a potential drug target for treatment of NAFLD. In an attempt to screen FXR agonists, we found that cycloastragenol (CAG), a natural occurring compound in Astragali Radix, stimulated FXR transcription activity. In animal studies, we demonstrated that CAG treatment resulted in obvious reduction of high-fat diet induced lipid accumulation in liver accompanied by lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride levels and hepatic bile acid pool size...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427339/cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-chinese-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#6
Fuping Guo, Evelyn Hsieh, Wei Lv, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, however little is known about the burden of CVD among this population in Asia. We sought to quantify prevalence of CVD risk factors, 10-year CVD risk, and patterns of CVD risk factor treatment in a group of individuals with HIV in China. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed baseline data from treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults enrolled in two multicenter clinical trials in China...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426890/fine-mapping-of-lipid-regions-in-global-populations-discovers-ethnic-specific-signals-and-refines-previously-identified-lipid-loci
#7
Niha Zubair, Mariaelisa Graff, Jose Luis Ambite, William S Bush, Gleb Kichaev, Yingchang Lu, Ani Manichaikul, Wayne H-H Sheu, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, Suzette J Bielinski, Erwin P Bottinger, Petra Buzkova, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ren-Hua Chung, Barbara Cochran, Logan Dumitrescu, Omri Gottesman, Jeffrey W Haessler, Christopher Haiman, Gerardo Heiss, Chao A Hsiung, Yi-Jen Hung, Chii-Min Hwu, Jyh-Ming J Juang, Loic Le Marchand, I-Te Lee, Wen-Jane Lee, Li-An Lin, Danyu Lin, Shih-Yi Lin, Rachel H Mackey, Lisa W Martin, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Ulrike Peters, Irene Predazzi, Thomas Quertermous, Alex P Reiner, Jennifer Robinson, Jerome I Rotter, Kelli K Ryckman, Pamela J Schreiner, Eli Stahl, Ran Tao, Michael Y Tsai, Lindsay L Waite, Tzung-Dau Wang, Steven Buyske, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Iona Cheng, Dana C Crawford, Ruth J F Loos, Stephen S Rich, Myriam Fornage, Kari E North, Charles Kooperberg, Cara L Carty
Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci associated with lipid traits, however, no large-scale studies exist for Hispanics and other minority populations. Additionally, the genetic architecture of lipid-influencing loci remains largely unknown. We performed one of the most racially/ethnically diverse fine-mapping genetic studies of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides to-date using SNPs on the MetaboChip array on 54,119 individuals: 21,304 African Americans, 19,829 Hispanic Americans, 12,456 Asians, and 530 American Indians...
December 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426445/small-dense-ldl-an-update
#8
Philipp A Gerber, Dragana Nikolic, Manfredi Rizzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the latest findings on small, dense LDL (sdLDL) atherogenic particles, including their associations with other biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased sdLDL levels have been reported not only in different metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, but also in patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis as well as hypothyroidism. A wide range of lipid-lowering, as well as other drug classes, including novel antidiabetic agents and nutraceuticals, exert favourable effects on these atherogenic particles...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422955/low-cholesterol-level-associated-with-severity-and-outcome-of-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-results-from-taiwan-stroke-registry
#9
Yu-Wei Chen, Chen-Hua Li, Chih-Dong Yang, Chung-Hsiang Liu, Chih-Hung Chen, Jau-Jiuan Sheu, Shinn-Kuang Lin, An-Chih Chen, Ping-Kun Chen, Po-Lin Chen, Chung-Hsin Yeh, Jiunn-Rong Chen, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Ching-Huang Lin, Shih-Pin Hsu, Tsang-Shan Chen, Sheng-Feng Sung, Shih-Chieh Yu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chi Pang Wen, Fung-Chang Sung, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Chung Y Hsu
The relationship between cholesterol level and hemorrhagic stroke is inconclusive. We hypothesized that low cholesterol levels may have association with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) severity at admission and 3-month outcomes. This study used data obtained from a multi-center stroke registry program in Taiwan. We categorized acute spontaneous ICH patients, based on their baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC) measured at admission, into 3 groups with <160, 160-200 and >200 mg/dL of TC. We evaluated risk of having initial stroke severity, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >15 and unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score >2, 3-month mortality) after ICH by the TC group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415035/serum-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-concentration-and-functional-state-the-korean-urban-rural-elderly-kure-study
#10
Hansol Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Katherine M Stefani, Ju-Mi Lee, Young Mi Yoon, Eun Young Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Yumie Rhee, Yoosik Youm, Chang Oh Kim
BACKGROUND: Functional state and cholesterol metabolism are important for older adults; however, this association has not been fully investigated among community-dwelling older adults. Thus, we investigated the association of HDL cholesterol with multiple functional state measures in an elderly Korean population. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 3514 participants, aged 65 years or older, who participated in baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2015...
April 7, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411504/severe-insomnia-is-associated-with-hypertriglyceridemia-in-women-with-major-depression-treated-in-psychiatry-settings
#11
Jean-François Costemale-Lacoste, Séverine Trabado, Céline Verstuyft, Khalil El Asmar, Florence Butlen-Ducuing, Romain Colle, Florian Ferreri, Mircea Polosan, Emmanuel Haffen, Beverley Balkau, Bruno Falissard, Bruno Feve, Laurent Becquemont, Emmanuelle Corruble
BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a cardiovascular risk factor. In the general population, elevated fasting triglyceridemia (TG) is associated with insomnia. Since insomnia is a core symptom of Major Depressive Episodes (MDE), we studied the association of severe insomnia with HTG in major depression. METHODS: We used the baseline data of the METADAP cohort, comprising 624 patients with a current MDE in a context of Major Depressive Disorder treated in psychiatry settings, without current alcohol use disorders...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411172/computational-study-on-human-sphingomyelin-synthase-1-hsms1
#12
Stefano Piotto, Lucia Sessa, Pio Iannelli, Simona Concilio
Human sphingomyelin synthase 1 (hSMS1) is the last enzyme for sphingomyelin (SM) biosynthesis. It has been discovered that in different human tumor tissues the SM levels are lower compared to normal tissues and the activation of hSMS1, to restore the normal levels of SM, inhibits cell cycle proliferation of cancer cells. Since the importance of SM and other lipid metabolism genes in the malignant transformation, we decided to explore the hSMS1 mechanism of action. Enzymes capable to regulate the formation of lipids are therefore of paramount importance...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#13
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401072/the-investigation-of-insulin-resistance-in-two-groups-of-epileptic-patients-treated-with-sodium-valproate-and-carbamazepine
#14
Mohammad Reza Najafi, Bahareh Bazooyar, Mohammad Zare, Mohammad Reza Aghaghazvini, Behnaz Ansari, Ali Rajaei, Masoumeh Dashti
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug for therapy of generalized and focal epilepsies. Cross-sectional studies have suggested that valproate treatment may be associated with hyperinsulinemia. We decided to investigate hyperinsulinemia as a health-threatening side effect of VPA in Iranian epileptic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, fasting serum insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBS), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured in 30 VPA-treated epileptic patients and 30 controls (CBZ-treated)...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399694/development-of-essential-oils-as-skin-permeation-enhancers-penetration-enhancement-effect-and-mechanism-of-action
#15
Qiudong Jiang, Yeming Wu, Hui Zhang, Pei Liu, Junhong Yao, Peijun Yao, Jun Chen, Jinao Duan
CONTEXT: Essential oils (EOs) have shown the potential to reversibly overcome the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to enhance the skin permeation of drugs. OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of turpentine, Angelica, chuanxiong, Cyperus, cinnamon, and clove oils were investigated for the capacity and mechanism to promote skin penetration of ibuprofen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skin permeation studies of ibuprofen across rat abdominal skin with the presence of 3% w/v EOs were carried out; samples were withdrawn from the receptor compartment at 8, 10, 22, 24, 26, 28, 32, 36, and 48 h and analyzed for ibuprofen content by the HPLC method...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398564/statin-therapy-reduces-future-risk-of-lower-limb-amputation-in-patient-with-diabetes-and-peripheral-artery-disease
#16
Chien-Yi Hsu, Yung-Tai Chen, Yu-Wen Su, Chun-Chin Chang, Po-Hsun Huang, Shing-Jong Lin
Context: Although there is evidence to support the beneficial effects of statins on major cardiovascular events, few studies address the protection effect of statins on limb outcome. Objective: To investigate whether the use of statin is associated with a risk reduction in lower extremity amputation in type 2 diabetes (DM) patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Using a nationwide DM database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2011...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395555/alirocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolaemia
#17
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Albarosa Rivellese
Prescription of statins for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction is the standard of care in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease; nevertheless, a large number of patients treated with statins are unable to reach the recommended LDL-C targets. Therefore, there is need for safe and effective novel therapies for the pharmacological management of hypercholesterolaemia, in addition or as alternative to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) currently in use. Areas covered: In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved alirocumab (Praluent®; Sanofi), a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemic patients unable to meet LDL-C targets, as an adjunct to diet in addition/alternative to LLT...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395259/effects-of-18-pharmaceuticals-on-the-physiological-diversity-of-edaphic-microorganisms
#18
Mª Rosa Pino-Otín, Selene Muñiz, Jonatan Val, Enrique Navarro
Pharmaceutical residues can enter the terrestrial environment through the application of recycled water and contaminated biosolids to agricultural soils, were edaphic microfauna can would be threatened. This study thus assessed the effect of 18 widely consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to four groups: antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), blood lipid-lowering agents (BLLA) and β-blockers, on the physiology of soil microbial communities from a ecological crop field. Biolog EcoPlates, containing 31 of the most common carbon sources found in forest and crop soils, were used to calculate both the averaged well colour development (AWCD), as an indicator of the entire capacity of degrading carbon sources, and the diversity of carbon source utilization, as an indicator of the physiological diversity...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394933/the-acute-impact-of-high-dose-lipid-lowering-treatment-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-the-remedy-epc-early-substudy
#19
Rosalinda Madonna, Francesca Vera Renna, Paola Lanuti, Matteo Perfetti, Marco Marchisio, Carlo Briguori, Gerolama Condorelli, Lamberto Manzoli, Raffaele De Caterina
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a role in vascular repair, while circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are biomarkers of vascular damage and regeneration. Statins may promote EPC/CEC mobilization in the peripheral blood. We evaluated whether pre-procedural exposure to different lipid-lowering drugs (statins±ezetimibe) can acutely increase levels/activity of EPCs/CECs in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: In a planned sub-analysis of the Rosuvastatin For REduction Of Myocardial DamagE During Coronary AngioplastY (REMEDY) trial, 38 patients with stable CAD on chronic low-dose statin therapy were randomized, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, into 4 groups before PCI: i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393688/nanoscale-functional-biomaterials-for-cancer-theranostics
#20
Linying Liu, Xiaoshuang Li, Lei Chen, Xin Zhang
Nanomedicine is widely developed in recent years. In nanomedicine system, nanoscale and nanostructured functional materials are used to manipulate the human biology systems at the molecular level for cancer imaging and therapy. New nanostructure based functional materials consist of nanoscale liposomes, spheres, micelles, capsules, emulsion, suspension and phamacosomes. Several functional nanoparticles such as lipid-based and polymer-based materials are demonstrated to be drug delivery vehicles and imaging agents...
April 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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