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lipids lowering drugs

Richard Mbundu Ilunga, Céline Helbling, Lucie Favre, Tinh-Hai Collet
Obesity is associated with elevated levels of triglycerides, sometimes LDL-cholesterol, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. Management should first focus on dietary advices and increased physical activity, while lipid-lowering drugs are indicated only in patients at intermediate or high cardiovascular risk. We summarize nutritional recommendations from scientific societies: although they do not always overlap, they agree on lowering consumption of dietary fat (20-35 % of total energy intake) and favoring non-saturated fatty acids...
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Anthony S Wierzbicki, Timothy M Reynolds, Adie Viljoen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of novel trials have assessed the efficacy of new lipid-lowering therapies in cardiovascular disease (CVD). RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 inhibitors reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 50-55%. A CVD outcome trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes with evolocumab achieved a LDL-C of 0.8 mmol/l (31 mg/dl) and a 20% relative risk reduction in CVD events in 2.2 years. Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and can lower LDL-C...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Robert M Stoekenbroek, John J P Kastelein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the pivotal role of genetic insights and technologies in the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and the rapid development of PCSK9 inhibitors - a revolutionary new class of lipid-lowering agents. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 was discovered as a the third gene implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia. Population genetics studies, enabled by technological advances, were instrumental in validating PCSK9 as a therapeutic target...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Mahtab Alam, Abul Kalam Najmi, Iqbal Ahmad, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Md Jawaid Akhtar, Syed Sarim Imam, Mohd Akhtar
The study performed molecular docking, formulated, characterized thymoquinone (TQ) loaded solid lipid nano particles (TQSLN) and exhibited comparative antidepressant activity. TQ loaded nano lipid formulations were prepared by solvent injection methods and characterize for different in-vitro parameters. The optimized formulation was evaluated for depression using unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model for a period of six weeks. TQSLN was assessed in modified forced swim test (MFST), tail suspension test (TST), locomotor activity followed by biochemical parameters such as monoaminesand brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
March 21, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Chien-Liang Fang, Yiwei Wang, Kevin H-Y Tsai, Hsin-I Chang
The dermis of human skin contains large numbers of fibroblasts that are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supporting skin integrity, elasticity and wound healing. Previously, an in vivo study demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts siting in the lower dermis are capable to convert into skin adipose layer and hence fibroblast lipogenesis may vary the structure and elasticity of dermis. In the present study, Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts were utilized as an in vitro model to study the lipogenesis via using adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hsin-Hua Li, Chih-Li Lin, Chien-Ning Huang
A growing body of evidence suggests that disruption of the homeostasis of lipid metabolism affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain has been reported to considerably increase the risk of developing AD. Thus, dysregulation of lipid homeostasis may increase the amyloid β (Aβ) levels by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage, which is the most important risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Previous research demonstrated that Aβ can trigger neuronal insulin resistance, which plays an important role in response to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Hongyun Zhao, Meng Wu, Leilei Zhu, Yi Tian, Mingxing Wu, Yizhen Li, Liming Deng, Wei Jiang, Wei Shen, Zhigang Wang, Zhechuan Mei, Pan Li, Haitao Ran, Zhiyi Zhou, Jianli Ren
Objective: Prepare a multifunctional ultrasound molecular probe, hyaluronic acid-mediated cell-penetrating peptide-modified 10-hydroxycamptothecin-loaded phase-transformation lipid nanoparticles (HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs), and to combine HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs with low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for precision theranostics against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs were prepared using thin-film dispersion, ultrasound emulsification, and electrostatic effects. HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency...
2018: Theranostics
J A Custodio-Mendoza, R A Lorenzo, I M Valente, P J Almeida, M A Lage, J A Rodrigues, A M Carro
A fast and effective method using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach which includes partitioned liquid-liquid extraction (PLLE) and dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up step for the determination of seven 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid diesters in vegetable oils is developed and validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. Due to the complexity of the matrices, combination of silica based sorbents (Silica Strong Anion Exchange (Si-SAX), Supel™ QuE Z-Sep+ (Z-Sep+) and Primary Secondary Amine (PSA) were tested for lipid removal...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Maha Saber-Ayad, Shaista Manzoor, Ahmed El-Serafy, Ibrahim Mahmoud, Salah Abusnana, Nabil Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Statin-induced myopathy has been linked to the C allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs4149056) of SLCO1B1 gene. This effect is more significant, but not restricted to simvastatin. Many studies have included European, American, African and Southeast Asian ancestries, but few were carried out on Middle Eastern population. AIM: To detect the prevalence of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (521T>C) in Emirati population. METHOD: We recruited 282 Emiratis through the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Project...
March 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
(no author information available yet)
Cardiovascular prevention represents a cornerstone of modern strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. It is of key importance to prevent cardiovascular diseases and associated events, not only to reduce morbidity and mortality, but also to increase the years of wellness in the aging population and to make the growing socio-economic burden imposed by cardiovascular events more sustainable.The current approach to prevention is based on an integrated use of effective lifestyle measures and, whenever appropriate, of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering agents and antiplatelet drugs...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Helmuth Haslacher, Hannelore Fallmann, Claudia Waldhäusl, Edith Hartmann, Oswald F Wagner, Werner Waldhäusl
BACKGROUND: T1D treatment requires informed self-responsible patients, who, however, frequently miss their therapeutic goals, providing considerable potential for improvement. METHODS: This observational report evaluates T1D patients [N = 109], aged ≥18 years (range 22-82), poorly controlled at home, at and 3 weeks after their admission to our diabetes rehabilitation clinic [DRC], where they were offered standardized, but unmonitored life-style modification. RESULTS: At admission, patients displayed elevated HbA1c values (66 mmol/mol [57; 81]), a high prevalence of co-morbidities (88%), lipodystrophies due to monolocal insulin injections (42%), a low rate of influenza (16%) and pneumococcal (7%) immunization, and underuse of lipid-lowering drugs (-38%)...
2018: PloS One
Itsuko Miyazawa, Aya Kadota, Katsuyuki Miura, Motozumi Okamoto, Takashi Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Ikai, Hiroshi Maegawa, Atsushi Ohnishi
The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to examine 12-year trends of increasing obesity in Japanese patients with diabetes, and their clinical features. The study used results of the Shiga Diabetes Clinical Survey, which recorded medical performance in diabetic patients in 2000, 2006 and 2012. Data were analyzed from 14,205, 14,407 and 21,449 adult patients in these three years, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence and the clinical features of diabetes patients were examined, stratified by body mass index (BMI) and age...
March 10, 2018: Endocrine Journal
W Masson, M Lobo, D Siniawski, M Huerín, G Molinero, R Valéro, J P Nogueira
BACKGROUND: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are a class of drugs that targets the CETP enzyme to significantly increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. As HDL-C has potential antidiabetic properties, and the beneficial effects of CETP drugs on glucose homoeostasis have not been sufficiently studied, the aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effect of CETP inhibitors on the incidence of diabetes; and (2) to assess the association between CETP inhibitor-induced changes in HDL-C levels and incidence of diabetes...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Chang Liu, Yan-Jun Shen, Qing-Bo Tu, Yan-Ran Zhao, Hao Guo, Juan Wang, Li Zhang, Hua-Wei Shi, Yun Sun
Pedunculoside (PE) is a novel triterpene saponin extracted from the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. The present study aims to explore lipid-lowering effects of PE on hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet. The rats were fed with the high-fat diet and subjected to intragastric administration of PE at doses of 30, 15, or 5 mg/kg daily for 7 weeks. The results demonstrated that treatment with PE for 7-week dramatically decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced liver TC in hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Haoran Wang, Chen Zhu, Ying Ying, Lingyu Luo, Deqiang Huang, Zhijun Luo
Metformin has been used as a glucose lowering drug for several centuries and is now a first-line drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the discovery that it activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduces risk of cancer, metformin has drawn great attentions. Another drug, berberine, extracted from berberis vulgaris L. (root), was an ancient herbal medicine in treating diarrhea. Ongoing experimental and clinical studies have illuminated great potential of berberine in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis, cancer growth and inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Camilla I Hatleberg, Lene Ryom, Wafaa El-Sadr, Amanda Mocroft, Peter Reiss, Stephane De Wit, Francois Dabis, Christian Pradier, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Helen Kovari, Matthew Law, Jens D Lundgren, Caroline A Sabin
INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS: Participants were followed from study enrolment until the earliest of death, six months after last visit or February 1, 2015. Initiation of CVD interventions [lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives, invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs) were investigated and Poisson regression models calculated whether rates were lower among women than men, adjusting for potential confounders...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Günter Klaus, Christina Taylan, Rainer Büscher, Claus Peter Schmitt, Lars Pape, Jun Oh, Joenna Driemeyer, Matthias Galiano, Jens König, Carsten Schürfeld, Ralf Spitthöver, Juergen R Schaefer, Lutz T Weber, Andreas Heibges, Reinhard Klingel
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) causes premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is recommended as first-line lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) for homozygous (ho) FH. METHODS: Efficacy of multimodal LLT including lifestyle counseling, drug treatment, and LA was analyzed in 17 pediatric hoFH or compound heterozygous (c-het) FH patients, who commenced chronic LA in Germany before the age of 18. RESULTS: At time of diagnosis, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was 19...
March 3, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Chen Peng, Ying Ding, Xin Yi, Yupei Shen, Zhiqiang Dong, Limei Cao, Qiang Li, Haiyan Ren, Lin He, Daizhan Zhou, Xu Chen
PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke (IS) is one of the most common neurologic diseases and is the main cause of death and disability in the Chinese population. This retrospective cohort study was performed to elucidate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 genes and the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin. METHODS: A total of 192 cases of IS were enrolled in the study. All patients were treated with atorvastatin, and their lipid levels and proportions were measured...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Jiří Laštůvka, Sabína Oreská, Michal Tomčík, Michal Vrablík
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with rheumatic diseases is increased by 50 % compared to the general population. This is a result of the increased inflammatory activity as well as modification of traditional CVD risk factors by the primary disease. So called lipid paradox, paradoxical decrease of concentrations of atherogenic plasma lipids due to increased inflammatory activity and their rise with successful anti-inflammatory treatment, is of particular importance. CVD risk in rheumatic diseases is further modified by drugs used for their treatment: while some treatment modalities increase the risk (e...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Vladimír Bláha, Milan Bláha, Miriam Lánská, Eduard Havel, Pavel Vyroubal, Zdeněk Zadák, Pavel Žák
PCSK9-inhibitors belong to the new class of hypolipidemic agents. They enhance catabolism of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) through inhibiting activity of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). They are monoclonal antibodies (alirocumab, evolocumab etc). Under clinical development are also other types of PCSK9-inhibitors which act at a subcellular level. The treatment with PCSK9-inhibitors can be beneficially combined with lipoprotein apheresis (LA). If such treatment using PCSK9-inhibitors is possible with regard to an individual patients genotype, the combination of LA and PCSK9-inhibitors leads to slowing the space of LDL-C increase between individual procedures of apheresis and enables attaining of the lowest possible values of LDL-cholesterolemia for the longest possible period of time...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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