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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756305/bcsz-inhibits-biofilm-phenotypes-and-promotes-virulence-by-blocking-cellulose-production-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#1
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560365/physiological-perturbation-reveals-modularity-of-eyespot-development-in-the-painted-lady-butterfly-vanessa-cardui
#2
Heidi Connahs, Turk Rhen, Rebecca B Simmons
Butterfly eyespots are complex morphological traits that can vary in size, shape and color composition even on the same wing surface. Homology among eyespots suggests they share a common developmental basis and function as an integrated unit in response to selection. Despite strong evidence of genetic integration, eyespots can also exhibit modularity or plasticity, indicating an underlying flexibility in pattern development. The extent to which particular eyespots or eyespot color elements exhibit modularity or integration is poorly understood, particularly following exposure to novel conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495953/atrazine-alters-expression-of-reproductive-and-stress-genes-in-the-developing-hypothalamus-of-the-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina
#3
Kathryn L G Russart, Turk Rhen
Atrazine is an herbicide used to control broadleaf grasses and a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. Snapping turtles lay eggs between late May and early June, which could lead to atrazine exposure via field runoff. Our goal was to determine whether a single exposure to 2ppb or 40ppb atrazine during embryogenesis could induce short- and long-term changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus of snapping turtles. We treated eggs with atrazine following sex determination and measured gene expression within the hypothalamus...
July 29, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383003/nematodes-mermithidae-parasitizing-grasshoppers-orthoptera-acrididae-in-the-pampean-region-argentina
#4
J M Rusconi, N B Camino, M F Achinelly
This work provides the results of a survey of entomonematodes parasites of grasshoppers in grasslands of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Nymphs of Staurorhectus longicornis Giglio-Tos, Laplatacris dispar Rhen, 1939, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, 1894 and Metaleptea brevicornis (L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) were collected. Mermithidae was the only family registered with seven species: Agamermis decaudata Cobb, Steiner and Christie, 1923, Amphimermis bonaerensis Miralles and Camino, 1983, Amphimermis dichroplusi Camino and Lange, 1997, Amphimermis ronderosi Camino and Lange, 1997, Hexamermis coclhearius Stock and Camino, 1992, Hexamermis ovistriata Stock and Camino, 1992, and Longimermis acridophila Camino and Stock, 1989...
July 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101296/periods-of-cardiovascular-susceptibility-to-hypoxia-in-embryonic-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#5
Kevin B Tate, Turk Rhen, John Eme, Zachary F Kohl, Janna Crossley, Ruth M Elsey, Dane A Crossley
During embryonic development, environmental perturbations can affect organisms' developing phenotype, a process known as developmental plasticity. Resulting phenotypic changes can occur during discrete, critical windows of development. Critical windows are periods when developing embryos are most susceptible to these perturbations. We have previously documented that hypoxia reduces embryo size and increases relative heart mass in American alligator, and this study identified critical windows when hypoxia altered morphological, cardiovascular function and cardiac gene expression of alligator embryos...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055274/the-typhoid-toxin-promotes-host-survival-and-the-establishment-of-a-persistent-asymptomatic-infection
#6
Lisa Del Bel Belluz, Riccardo Guidi, Ioannis S Pateras, Laura Levi, Boris Mihaljevic, Syed Fazle Rouf, Marie Wrande, Marco Candela, Silvia Turroni, Claudia Nastasi, Clarissa Consolandi, Clelia Peano, Toma Tebaldi, Gabriella Viero, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Mikael Rhen, Teresa Frisan
Bacterial genotoxins, produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, induce DNA damage in the target cells. While the responses induced in the host cells have been extensively studied in vitro, the role of these effectors during the course of infection remains poorly characterized. To address this issue, we assessed the effects of the Salmonella enterica genotoxin, known as typhoid toxin, in in vivo models of murine infection. Immunocompetent mice were infected with isogenic S. enterica, serovar Typhimurium (S...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030049/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-painted-lady-butterfly-vanessa-cardui-during-wing-color-pattern-development
#7
Heidi Connahs, Turk Rhen, Rebecca B Simmons
BACKGROUND: Butterfly wing color patterns are an important model system for understanding the evolution and development of morphological diversity and animal pigmentation. Wing color patterns develop from a complex network composed of highly conserved patterning genes and pigmentation pathways. Patterning genes are involved in regulating pigment synthesis however the temporal expression dynamics of these interacting networks is poorly understood. Here, we employ next generation sequencing to examine expression patterns of the gene network underlying wing development in the nymphalid butterfly, Vanessa cardui...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936926/a-novel-candidate-gene-for-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-the-common-snapping-turtle
#8
Anthony L Schroeder, Kelsey J Metzger, Alexandra Miller, Turk Rhen
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) was described nearly 50 years ago. Researchers have since identified many genes that display differential expression at male- vs. female-producing temperatures. Yet, it is unclear whether these genes (1) are involved in sex determination per se, (2) are downstream effectors involved in differentiation of ovaries and testes, or (3) are thermo-sensitive but unrelated to gonad development. Here we present multiple lines of evidence linking CIRBP to sex determination in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina We demonstrate significant associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c63A > C) in CIRBP, transcript levels in embryonic gonads during specification of gonad fate, and sex in hatchlings from a thermal regime that produces mixed sex ratios...
May 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608655/phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina-long-term-physiological-effects-of-chronic-hypoxia-during-embryonic-development
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Oliver H Wearing, John Eme, Turk Rhen, Dane A Crossley
Studies of embryonic and hatchling reptiles have revealed marked plasticity in morphology, metabolism, and cardiovascular function following chronic hypoxic incubation. However, the long-term effects of chronic hypoxia have not yet been investigated in these animals. The aim of this study was to determine growth and postprandial O2 consumption (V̇o2), heart rate (fH), and mean arterial pressure (Pm, in kPa) of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) that were incubated as embryos in chronic hypoxia (10% O2, H10) or normoxia (21% O2, N21)...
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25858881/maternal-low-protein-diet-causes-body-weight-loss-in-male-neonate-sprague-dawley-rats-involving-ucp-1-mediated-thermogenesis
#10
Kate J Claycombe, Emilie E Vomhof-DeKrey, James N Roemmich, Turk Rhen, Othman Ghribi
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3 weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring...
July 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25730266/critical-windows-of-cardiovascular-susceptibility-to-developmental-hypoxia-in-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina-embryos
#11
Kevin B Tate, Zachary F Kohl, John Eme, Turk Rhen, Dane A Crossley
Environmental conditions fluctuate dramatically in some reptilian nests. However, critical windows of environmental sensitivity for cardiovascular development have not been identified. Continuous developmental hypoxia has been shown to alter cardiovascular form and function in embryonic snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), and we used this species to identify critical periods during which hypoxia modifies the cardiovascular phenotype. We hypothesized that incubation in 10% O2 during specific developmental periods would have differential effects on the cardiovascular system versus overall somatic growth...
March 2015: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25662229/molecular-and-morphological-differentiation-of-testes-and-ovaries-in-relation-to-the-thermosensitive-period-of-gonad-development-in-the-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina
#12
Turk Rhen, Ruby Fagerlie, Anthony Schroeder, Dane A Crossley, Jeffrey W Lang
Ambient temperatures during embryonic development determine gonadal sex in many reptiles. The temperature sensitive period for sex determination has been defined by shifting eggs between female- and male-producing temperatures in a few species. This phase spans 20-35% of embryogenesis in most species, which makes it difficult to define the mechanisms that transduce temperature into a signal for ovarian versus testicular development. We present an extensive set of studies that define a brief period when high temperature specifies, and then determines, ovarian fate in a northern population of snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina...
January 2015: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25643613/cd244-is-expressed-on-dendritic-cells-and-regulates-their-functions
#13
Anna-Maria Georgoudaki, Sorosh Khodabandeh, Speranta Puiac, Catrine M Persson, Maria K Larsson, Max Lind, Oscar Hammarfjord, Tara H Nabatti, Robert P A Wallin, Ulf Yrlid, Mikael Rhen, Vinay Kumar, Benedict J Chambers
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptors have an important role in the development of immune responses because of their roles, for exampe, in NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine production by NK, T cells and myeloid cells. The SLAM receptor CD244 (2B4, SLAMf4) is expressed on a variety of immune cell types but most of its functions have been examined on NK and T cells. In the present study, we investigated expression and function of CD244 in murine subsets of dendritic cells (DCs). We report that all subsets of murine DCs examined expressed CD244, although the expression levels of CD244 varied between subsets...
July 2015: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25536637/traditional-chinese-medicine-and-herbal-hepatotoxicity-a-tabular-compilation-of-reported-cases
#14
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke, Li Zhang, Hongzhu Long, Alexander Schwarzenboeck, Wolfgang Schmidt-Taenzer, Alexander Genthner, Albrecht Wolff, Christian Frenzel, Johannes Schulze, Axel Eickhoff
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury...
January 2015: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25437188/regulation-of-biofilm-formation-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#15
REVIEW
Roger Simm, Irfan Ahmad, Mikael Rhen, Soazig Le Guyon, Ute Römling
In animals, plants and the environment, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium forms the red dry and rough (rdar) biofilm characterized by extracellular matrix components curli and cellulose. With complex expression control by at least ten transcription factors, the bistably expressed orphan response regulator CsgD directs rdar morphotype development. CsgD expression is an integral part of the Hfq regulon and the complex cyclic diguanosine monophosphate signaling network partially controlled by the global RNA-binding protein CsrA...
2014: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25362575/fitness-of-salmonella-mutants-resistant-to-antimicrobial-peptides
#16
Hava Lofton, Naeem Anwar, Mikael Rhen, Dan I Andersson
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of mutations in the waaY, phoP and pmrB genes, which confer resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), on fitness of Salmonella Typhimurium. METHODS: Survival during low pH, oxidative stress, stationary-phase incubation, exposure to serum and bile and growth in mice and laboratory media were determined by time-kills, disc inhibition assays, competition experiments and optical density measurements. RESULTS: Individual mutations in the waaY gene (involved in LPS core biosynthesis) and in the phoP and pmrB genes (part of two different two-component regulatory systems, phoPQ and pmrAB) conferred no or minor effects on bacterial survival during stressful in vitro conditions or in mice...
February 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25182314/ispad-clinical-practice-consensus-guidelines-2014-sick-day-management-in-children-and-adolescents-with-diabetes
#17
Stuart Brink, Dipesalema Joel, Lori Laffel, Warren Wei Rhen Lee, Birthe Olsen, Helen Phelan, Ragnar Hanas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25153529/modulation-of-biofilm-formation-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-by-the-periplasmic-dsba-dsbb-oxidoreductase-system-requires-the-ggdef-eal-domain-protein-stm3615
#18
Naeem Anwar, Syed Fazle Rouf, Ute Römling, Mikael Rhen
In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), biofilm-formation is controlled by the cytoplasmic intracellular small-molecular second messenger cyclic 3', 5'-di- guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) through the activities of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins. Here we describe that deleting either dsbA or dsbB, respectively encoding a periplasmic protein disulfide oxidase and a cytoplasmic membrane disulfide oxidoreductase, resulted in increased biofilm-formation on solid medium. This increased biofilm-formation, defined as a red, dry and rough (rdar) colony morphotype, paralleled with enhanced expression of the biofilm master regulator CsgD and the biofilm-associated fimbrial subunit CsgA...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25106687/adjustments-in-cholinergic-adrenergic-and-purinergic-control-of-cardiovascular-function-in-snapping-turtle-embryos-chelydra-serpentina-incubated-in-chronic-hypoxia
#19
John Eme, Turk Rhen, Dane A Crossley
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside that acts via G-protein coupled receptors. In vertebrates, arterial or venous adenosine injection causes a rapid and large bradycardia through atrioventricular node block, a response mediated by adenosine receptors that inhibit adenylate cyclase and decrease cyclic AMP concentration. Chronic developmental hypoxia has been shown to alter cardioregulatory mechanisms in reptile embryos, but adenosine's role in mediating these responses is not known. We incubated snapping turtle embryos under chronic normoxic (N21; 21 % O2) or chronic hypoxic conditions (H10; 10 % O2) beginning at 20 % of embryonic incubation...
October 2014: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25079958/independent-bottlenecks-characterize-colonization-of-systemic-compartments-and-gut-lymphoid-tissue-by-salmonella
#20
Chee Han Lim, Sabrina Voedisch, Benjamin Wahl, Syed Fazle Rouf, Robert Geffers, Mikael Rhen, Oliver Pabst
Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains...
July 2014: PLoS Pathogens
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