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Kok-Ann Gwee, Warren Wei-Rhen Lee, Khoon Lin Ling, Choon Jin Ooi, Seng Hock Quak, Yock Young Dan, Kewin Tien-Ho Siah, James Guoxian Huang, Andrew Seng Boon Chua, Ida Normiha Hilmi, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Christina Ong, Marcellus Simadibrata, Murdani Abdullah, Jose D Sollano, Somchai Leelakusolvong, Sutep Gonlachanvit, Yeong Yeh Lee, Jane D Ricaforte-Campos, Yee Kian Yin, Kuck-Meng Chong, Chong Yuen Wong
The concept of consuming microorganisms in the treatment of a medical condition and in health maintenance has gained much attraction, giving rise to an abundance of medical claims and of health supplements. This study identified relevant clinical questions on the therapeutic use of probiotics and reviewed the literature in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, impaired intestinal immunity, liver disease, intestinal infections, and common childhood digestive disorders. Statements were developed to address these clinical questions...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sarah Guerin, Aimee Stapleton, Drahomir Chovan, Rabah Mouras, Matthew Gleeson, Cian McKeown, Mohamed Radzi Noor, Christophe Silien, Fernando M F Rhen, Andrei L Kholkin, Ning Liu, Tewfik Soulimane, Syed A M Tofail, Damien Thompson
Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V-1 , limiting technological applications...
February 2018: Nature Materials
Salvador Gomez-Carretero, Ben Libberton, Mikael Rhen, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
Biofouling is a major problem caused by bacteria colonizing abiotic surfaces, such as medical devices. Biofilms are formed as the bacterial metabolism adapts to an attached growth state. We studied whether bacterial metabolism, hence biofilm formation, can be modulated in electrochemically active surfaces using the conducting conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). We fabricated composites of PEDOT doped with either heparin, dodecyl benzene sulfonate or chloride, and identified the fabrication parameters so that the electrochemical redox state is the main distinct factor influencing biofilm growth...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Lei Guo, Turk Rhen
Sex is determined by temperature during embryogenesis in snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Previous studies in this species show that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces ovarian development at temperatures that normally produce males or mixed sex ratios. The feminizing effect of DHT is associated with increased expression of FoxL2, suggesting that androgens regulate transcription of FoxL2. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the proximal promoter (1.6kb) and coding sequence for snapping turtle FoxL2 (tFoxL2) in frame with mCherry to produce a fluorescent reporter...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Turk Rhen, Anthony L Schroeder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Christin Rhén, Andreas Isacsson
The harmonic oscillator is one of the most widely used model systems in physics: an indispensable theoretical tool in a variety of fields. It is well known that an otherwise linear oscillator can attain novel and nonlinear features through interaction with another dynamical system. We investigate such an interacting system: a superconducting LC-circuit dispersively coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We find that the SQUID phase behaves as a classical two-level system, whose two states correspond to one linear and one nonlinear regime for the LC-resonator...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Heidi Connahs, Turk Rhen, Rebecca B Simmons
Butterfly eyespots are complex morphological traits that can vary in size, shape and color composition even on the same wing surface. Homology among eyespots suggests they share a common developmental basis and function as an integrated unit in response to selection. Despite strong evidence of genetic integration, eyespots can also exhibit modularity or plasticity, indicating an underlying flexibility in pattern development. The extent to which particular eyespots or eyespot color elements exhibit modularity or integration is poorly understood, particularly following exposure to novel conditions...
2016: PloS One
Kathryn L G Russart, Turk Rhen
Atrazine is an herbicide used to control broadleaf grasses and a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. Snapping turtles lay eggs between late May and early June, which could lead to atrazine exposure via field runoff. Our goal was to determine whether a single exposure to 2ppb or 40ppb atrazine during embryogenesis could induce short- and long-term changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus of snapping turtles. We treated eggs with atrazine following sex determination and measured gene expression within the hypothalamus...
July 29, 2016: Toxicology
J M Rusconi, N B Camino, M F Achinelly
This work provides the results of a survey of entomonematodes parasites of grasshoppers in grasslands of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Nymphs of Staurorhectus longicornis Giglio-Tos, Laplatacris dispar Rhen, 1939, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, 1894 and Metaleptea brevicornis (L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) were collected. Mermithidae was the only family registered with seven species: Agamermis decaudata Cobb, Steiner and Christie, 1923, Amphimermis bonaerensis Miralles and Camino, 1983, Amphimermis dichroplusi Camino and Lange, 1997, Amphimermis ronderosi Camino and Lange, 1997, Hexamermis coclhearius Stock and Camino, 1992, Hexamermis ovistriata Stock and Camino, 1992, and Longimermis acridophila Camino and Stock, 1989...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Kevin B Tate, Turk Rhen, John Eme, Zachary F Kohl, Janna Crossley, Ruth M Elsey, Dane A Crossley
During embryonic development, environmental perturbations can affect organisms' developing phenotype, a process known as developmental plasticity. Resulting phenotypic changes can occur during discrete, critical windows of development. Critical windows are periods when developing embryos are most susceptible to these perturbations. We have previously documented that hypoxia reduces embryo size and increases relative heart mass in American alligator, and this study identified critical windows when hypoxia altered morphological, cardiovascular function and cardiac gene expression of alligator embryos...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Lisa Del Bel Belluz, Riccardo Guidi, Ioannis S Pateras, Laura Levi, Boris Mihaljevic, Syed Fazle Rouf, Marie Wrande, Marco Candela, Silvia Turroni, Claudia Nastasi, Clarissa Consolandi, Clelia Peano, Toma Tebaldi, Gabriella Viero, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Mikael Rhen, Teresa Frisan
Bacterial genotoxins, produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, induce DNA damage in the target cells. While the responses induced in the host cells have been extensively studied in vitro, the role of these effectors during the course of infection remains poorly characterized. To address this issue, we assessed the effects of the Salmonella enterica genotoxin, known as typhoid toxin, in in vivo models of murine infection. Immunocompetent mice were infected with isogenic S. enterica, serovar Typhimurium (S...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Heidi Connahs, Turk Rhen, Rebecca B Simmons
BACKGROUND: Butterfly wing color patterns are an important model system for understanding the evolution and development of morphological diversity and animal pigmentation. Wing color patterns develop from a complex network composed of highly conserved patterning genes and pigmentation pathways. Patterning genes are involved in regulating pigment synthesis however the temporal expression dynamics of these interacting networks is poorly understood. Here, we employ next generation sequencing to examine expression patterns of the gene network underlying wing development in the nymphalid butterfly, Vanessa cardui...
March 31, 2016: BMC Genomics
Anthony L Schroeder, Kelsey J Metzger, Alexandra Miller, Turk Rhen
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) was described nearly 50 years ago. Researchers have since identified many genes that display differential expression at male- vs. female-producing temperatures. Yet, it is unclear whether these genes (1) are involved in sex determination per se, (2) are downstream effectors involved in differentiation of ovaries and testes, or (3) are thermo-sensitive but unrelated to gonad development. Here we present multiple lines of evidence linking CIRBP to sex determination in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina We demonstrate significant associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c63A > C) in CIRBP, transcript levels in embryonic gonads during specification of gonad fate, and sex in hatchlings from a thermal regime that produces mixed sex ratios...
May 2016: Genetics
Oliver H Wearing, John Eme, Turk Rhen, Dane A Crossley
Studies of embryonic and hatchling reptiles have revealed marked plasticity in morphology, metabolism, and cardiovascular function following chronic hypoxic incubation. However, the long-term effects of chronic hypoxia have not yet been investigated in these animals. The aim of this study was to determine growth and postprandial O2 consumption (V̇o2), heart rate (fH), and mean arterial pressure (Pm, in kPa) of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) that were incubated as embryos in chronic hypoxia (10% O2, H10) or normoxia (21% O2, N21)...
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kate J Claycombe, Emilie E Vomhof-DeKrey, James N Roemmich, Turk Rhen, Othman Ghribi
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3 weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring...
July 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Kevin B Tate, Zachary F Kohl, John Eme, Turk Rhen, Dane A Crossley
Environmental conditions fluctuate dramatically in some reptilian nests. However, critical windows of environmental sensitivity for cardiovascular development have not been identified. Continuous developmental hypoxia has been shown to alter cardiovascular form and function in embryonic snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), and we used this species to identify critical periods during which hypoxia modifies the cardiovascular phenotype. We hypothesized that incubation in 10% O2 during specific developmental periods would have differential effects on the cardiovascular system versus overall somatic growth...
March 2015: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Turk Rhen, Ruby Fagerlie, Anthony Schroeder, Dane A Crossley, Jeffrey W Lang
Ambient temperatures during embryonic development determine gonadal sex in many reptiles. The temperature sensitive period for sex determination has been defined by shifting eggs between female- and male-producing temperatures in a few species. This phase spans 20-35% of embryogenesis in most species, which makes it difficult to define the mechanisms that transduce temperature into a signal for ovarian versus testicular development. We present an extensive set of studies that define a brief period when high temperature specifies, and then determines, ovarian fate in a northern population of snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina...
January 2015: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Anna-Maria Georgoudaki, Sorosh Khodabandeh, Speranta Puiac, Catrine M Persson, Maria K Larsson, Max Lind, Oscar Hammarfjord, Tara H Nabatti, Robert P A Wallin, Ulf Yrlid, Mikael Rhen, Vinay Kumar, Benedict J Chambers
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptors have an important role in the development of immune responses because of their roles, for exampe, in NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine production by NK, T cells and myeloid cells. The SLAM receptor CD244 (2B4, SLAMf4) is expressed on a variety of immune cell types but most of its functions have been examined on NK and T cells. In the present study, we investigated expression and function of CD244 in murine subsets of dendritic cells (DCs). We report that all subsets of murine DCs examined expressed CD244, although the expression levels of CD244 varied between subsets...
July 2015: Immunology and Cell Biology
Rolf Teschke, Li Zhang, Hongzhu Long, Alexander Schwarzenboeck, Wolfgang Schmidt-Taenzer, Alexander Genthner, Albrecht Wolff, Christian Frenzel, Johannes Schulze, Axel Eickhoff
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury...
January 2015: Annals of Hepatology
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