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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923233/efficacy-of-adipodren%C3%A2-in-reducing-interleukin-1-induced-lymphatic-endothelial-hyperpermeability
#1
Valerio Ciccone, Martina Monti, Giulia Antonini, Luisa Mattoli, Michela Burico, Francesca Marini, Anna Maidecchi, Lucia Morbidelli
Lymphatic leakage can be seen as a detrimental phenomenon associated with fluid retention and deposition as well as gain of weight. Moreover, lymphatic dysfunction is associated with an inflammatory environment and can be a substrate for other health conditions. A number of treatments can ameliorate lymphatic vasculature: natural substances have been used as treatment options particularly suitable for their consolidated effectiveness and safety profile. Here we report the protective effect of AdipoDren®, an association of a series of plant-derived natural complexes, on lymphatic endothelium permeability promoted by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and the associated molecular mechanisms...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920123/selective-enhancement-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-the-endothelium-in-vivo-reveals-a-novel-proatherosclerotic-signalling-loop
#2
Hema Viswambharan, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anshuman Sengupta, Helen Imrie, Matthew C Gage, Natalie J Haywood, Andrew M Walker, Anna Skromna, Natalia Makova, Stacey L Galloway, Pooja Shah, Piruthivi Sukumar, Karen E Porter, Peter J Grant, Ajay M Shah, Celio X Santos, Jing Li, David J Beech, Stephen Wheatcroft, Richard M Cubbon, Mark T Kearney
RATIONALE: In the endothelium, insulin stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to generate the anti-atherosclerotic signalling radical NO. Insulin resistant type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced NO availability and accelerated atherosclerosis. The effect of enhancing endothelial insulin sensitivity on NO availability is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To answer this question we generated a mouse with endothelial cell (EC)-specific over-expression of the human insulin receptor (hIRECO) using the Tie2 promoter-enhancer...
December 5, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919791/biosensor-assisted-transcriptional-regulator-engineering-for-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1-to-improve-mevalonate-synthesis-by-increasing-the-acetyl-coa-supply
#3
Wei-Fan Liang, Lan-Yu Cui, Jin-Yu Cui, Kai-Wen Yu, Song Yang, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Acetyl-CoA is not only an important intermediate metabolite for cells but also a significant precursor for production of industrially interesting metabolites. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a model strain of methylotrophic cell factories using methanol as carbon source, is of interest because it produces abundant coenzyme A compounds capable of directing to synthesis of different useful compounds from methanol. However, acetyl-CoA always does not efficiently accumulate in M. extorquens AM1, as it is located in the center of three cyclic central metabolic pathways...
December 3, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919756/molecular-identification-and-functional-delineation-of-a-glutathione-reductase-homologue-from-disk-abalone-haliotis-discus-discus-insights-as-a-potent-player-in-host-antioxidant-defense
#4
H M L P B Herath, P D S U Wickramasinghe, S D N K Bathige, R G P T Jayasooriya, Gi-Young Kim, Myoung Ae Park, Chul Kim, Jehee Lee
Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H2O2, the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2...
December 2, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917630/a-novel-cybb-mutation-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-in-iran
#5
Shaghayegh Tajik, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Massoud Houshmand, Fariborz Zandieh, Shamim Khandan, Zahra Pourpak
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder due to a genetic defect in one of the components of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. This complex is composed of membrane-bound gp91-phox and p22-phox subunits, and cytosolic subunits consisting of p47-phox, p67-phox, and p40-phox. A mutation in CYBB gene encoding gp91-phox located on chromosome Xp21.1, leads to X-linked CGD. Herein, we report a 4-year-old Iranian boy presented with episodes of recurrent fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and abdominal abscesses...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916650/cardiac-oxidative-stress-in-diabetes-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Alyssa Faria, Shanta J Persaud
Macrovascular complications of diabetes, including diabetic cardiovascular disease (CVD), occur through a number of hyperglycaemia-induced mechanisms that include generation of oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Cardiac oxidative stress is associated with increased cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, and reduced cardiac performance and contractility, leading to severe cardiac dysfunction and potentially fatal cardiac events. It occurs under conditions of excessive synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916496/hyperlipidemia-mediated-increased-advanced-lipoxidation-end-products-formation-an-important-factor-associated-with-decreased-erythrocyte-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-mild-nonproliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Subhadip Choudhuri, Pijush Kanti Roy, Bhaskar Mitra, Susruta Sen, Rajarshi Sarkar, Mandrita Das, Debashree Biswas, Prithwijit Ghosh, Ajoy Biswas, Shaibal Chakraborty, Lakshmi Kanta Mondal
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of hyperlipidemia in increased formation of advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and to evaluate whether there is any relationship between ALEs generation and erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in cases of mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (MNPDR). METHODS: In this study, we enrolled 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and MNPDR, 100 subjects with type 2 diabetes but without retinopathy (DNR) and 90 normal individuals without diabetes as healthy controls (HCs)...
December 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916418/knockdown-of-tktl1-additively-complements-cisplatin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-by-regulating-the-levels-of-nadph-and-ribose-5-phosphate
#8
Yuke Dong, Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) plays an important role in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branch, the main pathway generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and nucleotides for DNA synthesis. TKTL1 is closely related to DNA damage and has a close relationship with incidence and progression of cancers. Cisplatin is the main chemotherapeutic drug by inducing DNA damage. Whether TKTL1 knockdown additively complements cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, however, remains largely undefined...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915400/the-pathophysiological-role-of-nox2-in-hypertension-and-organ-damage
#9
REVIEW
Maurizio Forte, Cristina Nocella, Elena De Falco, Silvia Palmerio, Leonardo Schirone, Valentina Valenti, Giacomo Frati, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) represent one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vascular district. Reactive oxygen species are responsible for vascular damage that leads to several cardiovascular pathological conditions. Among NOX isoforms, NOX2 is widely expressed in many cells types, such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, confirming its pivotal role in vascular pathophysiology. Studies in mice models with systemic deletion of NOX2, as well as in transgenic mice overexpressing NOX2, have demonstrated the undeniable involvement of NOX2 in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiac hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and aging...
December 3, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915246/neutrophil-dependent-pentraxin-3-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production-modulate-endothelial-dysfunction-in-haemodialysis-patients
#10
Maria Pia dell'Oglio, Simona Simone, Marco Ciccone, Roberto Corciulo, Michele Gesualdo, Annapaola Zito, Francesca Cortese, Giuseppe Castellano, Margherita Gigante, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Grandaliano, Giovanni Battista Pertosa
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate neutrophil activation and its role in long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release and oxidative stress generation during haemodialysis (HD) and to correlate neutrophil PTX3 and oxidant expression with endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Forty-seven uraemic patients on stable HD, 12 healthy subjects and 15 patients with congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association classes III and IV) were enrolled. Neutrophil PTX3 protein expression was evaluated by confocal microscopy...
December 3, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914961/expanding-the-clinical-and-genetic-spectrum-of-g6pd-deficiency-the-occurrence-of-bcgitis-and-novel-missense-mutation
#11
Taj Ali Khan, Humaira Mazhar, Mehboob Nawaz, Kalsoom Kalsoom, Muhammad Ishfaq, Huma Asif, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Farkhanda Naz, Mubashir Hussain, Baharullah Khattak, Waheed Ullah, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Jawad Butt, Asif Iqbal
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway that ensures sufficient production of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) by catalyzing the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Noteworthy, the latter mediates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. Therefore, patients with severe forms of G6PD deficiency may present impaired NADPH oxidase activity and become susceptible to recurrent infections...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914535/indoxacarb-biotransformation-in-the-german-cockroach
#12
Ameya D Gondhalekar, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Isabel Silva, Bruce Cooper, Michael E Scharf
Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913300/suppression-of-nadph-oxidase-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-dysfunctions-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#13
Bin Liu, Kai-Di Ren, Jing-Jie Peng, Tao Li, Xiu-Ju Luo, Chengming Fan, Jin-Fu Yang, Jun Peng
NADPH oxidases (NOX) - derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to oxidative injury in hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to evaluate the status of NOX in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) under hypoxic condition and to determine whether NOX inhibitors could attenuate hypoxia-induced dysfunctions of EPCs. EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood of SD rats and subjected to hypoxia (O2/N2/CO2, 1/94/5) for 24 h. The cells were collected for β-galactosidase or Hoechst staining, or for functional analysis (migration, adhesion and tube formation)...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913188/fructose-suppresses-uric-acid-excretion-to-the-intestinal-lumen-as-a-result-of-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-by-nadph-oxidase-activation
#14
Chihiro Kaneko, Jiro Ogura, Shunichi Sasaki, Keisuke Okamoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Kaori Kuwayama, Katsuya Narumi, Ken Iseki
BACKGROUND: A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. METHODS: We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912212/knockdown-of-inhibitory-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-gi%C3%AE-2-by-antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides-attenuates-the-development-of-hypertension-and-tachycardia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Yousra Ali El-Basyuni, Yuan Li, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the levels of both Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins were augmented in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) before the onset of hypertension. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin, which inactivates both Giα proteins, prevented the development of hypertension in SHRs. The aim of the present study was to determine the specific contributions of Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins to the development of hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of Giα-2 and Giα-3 encapsulated in PEG/DOTAP/DOPE cationic liposomes were administrated intravenously into 3-week-old prehypertensive SHRs and Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas the control Wistar Kyoto rats and SHRs received PBS, empty liposomes, or sense...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912197/rac1-nadph-oxidase-signaling-promotes-cd36-activation-under-glucotoxic-conditions-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#16
Suma Elumalai, Udayakumar Karunakaran, In Kyu Lee, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
We recently reported that cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, plays a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression. Emerging evidence suggests that the small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the pathogenesis of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the role of Rac1 in CD36 activation and its impact on β-cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus...
November 23, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912196/nox-isoforms-in-the-development-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#17
Kin Lung Siu, Qiang Li, Yixuan Zhang, Jun Guo, Ji Youn Youn, Jie Du, Hua Cai
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and we have recently established a causal role of uncoupled eNOS in this severe human disease. We have also shown that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) lies upstream of uncoupled eNOS. Therefore, identification of the specific NOX isoforms that are required for eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation would ultimately lead to novel therapies for AAA. In the present study, we used the Ang II infused hph-1 mice to examine the roles of NOX isoforms in the development of AAA...
November 19, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#18
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911275/microrna-25-targets-pkc%C3%AE-and-protects-osteoblastic-cells-from-dexamethasone-via-activating-ampk-signaling
#19
Jian-Bo Fan, Wei Liu, Xin-Hui Zhu, Hong Yi, Sheng-Yu Cui, Jian-Ning Zhao, Zhi-Ming Cui
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation could protect osteoblasts from dexamethasone (Dex). This study aims to provoke AMPK activation via microRNA downregulation of its negative regulator protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ). Results show that microRNA-25-5p (miR-25-5p) targets PKCζ's 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Forced-expression of miR-25 downregulated PKCζ and activated AMPK in human osteoblastic cells (OB-6 and hFOB1.19 lines), which thereafter protected cells from Dex. Reversely, expression of antagomiR-25, the miR-25 inhibitor, upregulated PKCζ and inhibited AMPK activation, exacerbating Dex damages...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910907/micrornas-modulate-adaption-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#20
Xiang Gao, Fengge Zhang, Jinlu Hu, Wenkai Cai, Ge Shan, Dongsheng Dai, Kaiyao Huang, Gaohong Wang
MicroRNAs play an important role in abiotic stress responses in higher plants and animals, but their role in stress adaptation in algae remains unknown. In this study, the expression of identified and putative miRNAs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; some of the miRNAs (Cre-miR906-3p) were up-regulated, whereas others (Cre-miR910) were down-regulated when the species was subjected to multiple abiotic stresses. With degradome sequencing data, we also identified ATP4 (the d-subunit of ATP synthase) and NCR2 (NADPH: cytochrome P450 reductase) as one of the several targets of Cre-miR906-3p and Cre-miR910, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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