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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548928/crosstalk-between-tongue-carcinoma-cells-extracellular-vesicles-and-immune-cells-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#1
Ahmed Al-Samadi, Shady Adnan Awad, Katja Tuomainen, Yue Zhao, Abdelhakim Salem, Mataleena Parikka, Tuula Salo
The crosstalk between immune cells, cancer cells, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cancer cells remains poorly understood. We created three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models using human leiomyoma discs and Myogel to study the effects of immune cells on highly (HSC-3) and less (SCC-25) invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cell lines. Additionally, we studied the effects of EVs isolated from these cell lines on the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells isolated from three healthy donors...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547762/dopamine-system-cerebellum-and-nucleus-ruber-in-fish-and-mammals
#2
REVIEW
Hideaki Matsui
Small teleost fish including zebrafish and medaka have been used as animal models for research because of their small body size, vast amounts of eggs produced, their rapid development, low husbandry costs, and transparency during embryogenesis. Although the body size and appearance seem different, fish and mammals including human still possess anatomical and functional similarities in their brains. This review summarizes the similarities of brain structures and functions between teleost fish and mammalian brains, focusing on the dopamine system, functional regionalization of the cerebellum, and presence of the nucleus ruber...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547212/the-kinetics-in-mathematical-models-on-segmentation-clock-genes-in-zebrafish
#3
Kuan-Wei Chen, Kang-Ling Liao, Chih-Wen Shih
Somitogenesis is the process for the development of somites in vertebrate embryos. This process is timely regulated by synchronous oscillatory expression of the segmentation clock genes. Mathematical models expressed by delay equations or ODEs have been proposed to depict the kinetics of these genes in interacting cells. Through mathematical analysis, we investigate the parameter regimes for synchronous oscillations and oscillation-arrested in an ODE model and a model with transcriptional and translational delays, both with Michaelis-Menten type degradations...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544957/zebrafish-as-a-visual-and-dynamic-model-to-study-the-transport-of-nanosized-drug-delivery-systems-across-the-biological-barriers
#4
Ye Li, Xiaoqing Miao, Tongkai Chen, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Haitao Zhao, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xueqing Wang, Ying Zheng
With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542524/ectopically-expressed-slc34a2a-sense-antisense-transcripts-cause-a-cerebellar-phenotype-in-zebrafish-embryos-depending-on-rna-complementarity-and-dicer
#5
Monica J Piatek, Victoria Henderson, Amy Fearn, Bill Chaudhry, Andreas Werner
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are complementary to protein coding genes and potentially regulate their expression. Despite widespread occurrence of NATs in the genomes of higher eukaryotes, their biological role and mechanism of action is poorly understood. Zebrafish embryos offer a unique model system to study sense-antisense transcript interplay at whole organism level. Here, we investigate putative antisense transcript-mediated mechanisms by ectopically co-expressing the complementary transcripts during early zebrafish development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542521/regeneration-of-myelin-sheaths-of-normal-length-and-thickness-in-the-zebrafish-cns-correlates-with-growth-of-axons-in-caliber
#6
Marja J Karttunen, Tim Czopka, Marieke Goedhart, Jason J Early, David A Lyons
Demyelination is observed in numerous diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the endogenous regenerative process of remyelination can replace myelin lost in disease, and in various animal models. Unfortunately, the process of remyelination often fails, particularly with ageing. Even when remyelination occurs, it is characterised by the regeneration of myelin sheaths that are abnormally thin and short. This imperfect remyelination is likely to have implications for the restoration of normal circuit function and possibly the optimal metabolic support of axons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539509/fin-fold-development-in-paddlefish-and-catshark-and-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-autopod
#7
Frank J Tulenko, James L Massey, Elishka Holmquist, Gabriel Kigundu, Sarah Thomas, Susan M E Smith, Sylvie Mazan, Marcus C Davis
The evolutionary origin of the autopod involved a loss of the fin-fold and associated dermal skeleton with a concomitant elaboration of the distal endoskeleton to form a wrist and digits. Developmental studies, primarily from teleosts and amniotes, suggest a model for appendage evolution in which a delay in the AER-to-fin-fold conversion fuelled endoskeletal expansion by prolonging the function of AER-mediated regulatory networks. Here, we characterize aspects of paired fin development in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula (a non-teleost actinopterygian) and catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (chondrichthyan) to explore aspects of this model in a broader phylogenetic context...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537503/open-rac-open-design-recirculating-and-auto-cleaning-zebrafish-maintenance-system
#8
Shubham Nema, Yogesh Bhargava
Zebrafish is a vertebrate animal model. Their maintenance in large number under laboratory conditions is a daunting task. Commercially available recirculating zebrafish maintenance systems are used to efficiently handle the tasks of automatic sediment cleaning from zebrafish tanks with minimal waste of water. Due to their compact nature, they also ensure the maximal use of available lab space. However, the high costs of commercial systems present a limitation to researchers with limited funds. A cost-effective zebrafish maintenance system with major features offered by commercially available systems is highly desirable...
May 24, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537027/evaluation-of-the-sensitivity-spectrum-of-a-video-tracking-system-with-zebrafish-danio-rerio-exposed-to-five-different-toxicants
#9
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Vitor Vasconcelos, Luis Oliva Teles
The aim of this study was to develop a biological early warning system for the detection of aquatic toxicity and test it with five toxicants with distinct chemical nature. This was done in order to verify the spectrum of sensitivities of the proposed system, as well as the potential identification capability of the tested contaminants, using only the analysis of zebrafish's behavior. Six experimental conditions were tested: negative control and five toxicants (bleach, lindane, tributyltin, mercury, and formaldehyde)...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536466/fipronil-induced-enantioselective-developmental-toxicity-to-zebrafish-embryo-larvae-involves-changes-in-dna-methylation
#10
Yi Qian, Cui Wang, Jinghua Wang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Meirong Zhao, Chensheng Lu
Enantioselectivity in the aquatic toxicity of chiral pesticides has been widely investigated, while the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Thus far, few studies has focused on genomic expression related to selective toxicity in chiral pesticide, nor on epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation. Here, we used fipronil, a broad-spectrum insecticide, as a model chemical to probe its enantioselective toxicity in embryo development. Our results showed that S-(+)-fipronil caused severer developmental toxicity in embryos...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536080/a-genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factors-in-cattle
#11
Debao Zhang, Guanying Li, Yong Wang
Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factors comprise a large family of regulatory proteins and play critical roles in the developmental processes of higher organisms. Complete lists of BHLH family members have been identified in about 50 organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse, giant panda, worm, yeast, rice and apple. Cattle, Bos taurus, is important for agriculture and animal nutrition, and is also a good model organism for health research. In the present study, 116 putative BHLHs were identified in the cattle genome...
May 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535311/quantification-of-estradiol-uptake-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-larvae
#12
J Paige Souder, Daniel A Gorelick
Zebrafish are a powerful model system to assess the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to toxic chemicals during embryonic development. To study the effects of environmental endocrine disruptors, embryos and larvae are commonly exposed to supraphysiologic concentrations of these compounds in the water, but their bioavailability in zebrafish is largely unknown. One hypothesis is that supraphysiologic concentrations of estrogens in the water are required to achieve physiologic levels in vivo, however this has not been directly tested...
May 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534737/integration-of-tmc1-2-into-the-mechanotransduction-complex-in-zebrafish-hair-cells-is-regulated-by-transmembrane-o-methyltransferase-tomt
#13
Timothy Erickson, Clive P Morgan, Jennifer Olt, Katherine Hardy, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Reo Maeda, Rachel Clemens-Grisham, Jocelyn F Krey, Alex V Nechiporuk, Peter G Barr-Gillespie, Walter Marcotti, Teresa Nicolson
Transmembrane O-methyltransferase (TOMT / LRTOMT) is responsible for non-syndromic deafness DFNB63. However, the specific defects that lead to hearing loss have not been described. Using a zebrafish model of DFNB63, we show that the auditory and vestibular phenotypes are due to a lack of mechanotransduction (MET) in Tomt-deficient hair cells. GFP-tagged Tomt is enriched in the Golgi of hair cells, suggesting that Tomt might regulate the trafficking of other MET components to the hair bundle. We found that Tmc1/2 proteins are specifically excluded from the hair bundle in tomt mutants, whereas other MET complex proteins can still localize to the bundle...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530678/the-complex-genetics-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#14
Xiaoqin Liu, Hisato Yagi, Shazina Saeed, Abha S Bais, George C Gabriel, Zhaohan Chen, Kevin A Peterson, You Li, Molly C Schwartz, William T Reynolds, Manush Saydmohammed, Brian Gibbs, Yijen Wu, William Devine, Bishwanath Chatterjee, Nikolai T Klena, Dennis Kostka, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Madhavi K Ganapathiraju, Phillip Dexheimer, Linda Leatherbury, Omar Khalifa, Anchit Bhagat, Maliha Zahid, William Pu, Simon Watkins, Paul Grossfeld, Stephen A Murray, George A Porter, Michael Tsang, Lisa J Martin, D Woodrow Benson, Bruce J Aronow, Cecilia W Lo
Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects up to 1% of live births. Although a genetic etiology is indicated by an increased recurrence risk, sporadic occurrence suggests that CHD genetics is complex. Here, we show that hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a severe CHD, is multigenic and genetically heterogeneous. Using mouse forward genetics, we report what is, to our knowledge, the first isolation of HLHS mutant mice and identification of genes causing HLHS. Mutations from seven HLHS mouse lines showed multigenic enrichment in ten human chromosome regions linked to HLHS...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528642/minimal-resin-embedding-of-multicellular-specimens-for-targeted-fib-sem-imaging
#15
Nicole L Schieber, Pedro Machado, Sebastian M Markert, Christian Stigloher, Yannick Schwab, Anna M Steyer
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528635/relocation-is-the-key-to-successful-correlative-fluorescence-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#16
Delfine Cheng, Gerald Shami, Marco Morsch, Minh Huynh, Patrick Trimby, Filip Braet
In this chapter the authors report on an automated hardware and software solution enabling swift correlative sample array mapping of fluorescently stained molecules within cells and tissues across length scales. Samples are first observed utilizing wide-field optical and fluorescence microscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy, using calibration points on a dedicated sample-relocation holder. We investigated HeLa cells in vitro, fluorescently labeled for monosialoganglioside one (GM-1), across both imaging platforms within tens of minutes of initial sample preparation...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#17
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526577/changes-in-tumor-cell-heterogeneity-after-chemotherapy-treatment-in-a-xenograft-model-of-glioblastoma
#18
Alessandra M Welker, Brian D Jaros, Min An, Christine E Beattie
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain cancer with limited treatments and poor patient survival. GBM tumors are heterogeneous containing a complex mixture of dividing cells, differentiated cells, and cancer stem cells. It is unclear, however, how these different cell populations contribute to tumor growth or whether they exhibit differential responses to chemotherapy. Here we set out to address these questions using a zebrafish xenograft transplant model (Welker et al., 2016). We found that a small population of differentiated vimentin-positive tumor cells, but a majority of Sox2-positive putative cancer stem cells, were dividing during tumor growth...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526573/transcriptomic-variation-of-locally-infected-skin-of-epinephelus-coioides-reveals-the-mucosal-immune-mechanism-against-cryptocaryon-irritans
#19
Yazhou Hu, Anxing Li, Yang Xu, Biao Jiang, Geling Lu, Xiaochun Luo
Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525947/dianhydrogalactitol-a-potential-multitarget-agent-inhibits-glioblastoma-migration-invasion-and-angiogenesis
#20
Xia Jiang, Yinmei Huang, Xiaojie Wang, Qiaofang Liang, Yingjie Li, Fuji Li, Xuanhao Fu, Chonghuan Huang, Huagang Liu
The complexity of cancer has led to single-target agents exhibiting lower-than-desired clinical efficacy. Drugs with multiple targets provide a feasible option for the treatment of complex tumors. Multitarget anti-angiogenesis agents are among the new generation of anticancer drugs and have shown favorable clinical efficacy. Dianhydrogalactitol (DAG) is a chemotherapeutic agent for chronic myeloid leukemia and lung cancer. Recently, it has been tested in phase II trials of glioblastoma treatment; however, mechanisms of DAG in glioblastoma have not been elucidated...
May 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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