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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922286/nocardia-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
Julien Coussement, David Lebeaux, Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Lortholary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nocardia spp. is a gram-positive bacteria that may cause infections in humans. Nocardiosis has been described since the early years of transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview of present knowledge regarding posttransplant nocardiosis, with a focus on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Nocardiosis is not rare among transplant recipients, especially after thoracic transplantation and/or in case of intense immunosuppressive regimen or use of tacrolimus...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918360/do-bacteria-shape-our-development-crosstalk-between-intestinal-microbiota-and-hpa-axis
#2
REVIEW
Carolina de Weerth
The human body contains as many bacteria in the intestine as the total number of human body cells. These bacteria have a central position in human health and disease, and would also play a role in the regulation of emotions, behavior, and even higher cognitive functions. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major physiological stress system that produces cortisol. This hormone is involved in responding to environmental stress and also shapes many aspects of brain development. Both the HPA axis and the intestinal microbiota show rapid and profound developmental changes during the first years of life...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918028/human-dmbt1-derived-cell-penetrating-peptides-for-intracellular-sirna-delivery
#3
Martina Tuttolomondo, Cinzia Casella, Pernille Lund Hansen, Ester Polo, Luciana M Herda, Kenneth A Dawson, Henrik J Ditzel, Jan Mollenhauer
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising molecule for gene therapy, but its therapeutic administration remains problematic. Among the recently proposed vectors, cell-penetrating peptides show great promise in in vivo trials for siRNA delivery. Human protein DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1) is a pattern recognition molecule that interacts with polyanions and recognizes and aggregates bacteria. Taking advantage of these properties, we investigated whether specific synthetic DMBT1-derived peptides could be used to formulate nanoparticles for siRNA administration...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916475/deletion-of-nadh-oxidase-in-listeria-monocytogenes-promotes-the-bacterial-infection-of-brain
#4
Sen Li, Wenwen Yu, Xiao Guan, Zhen Luo, Guowei Chen, Wukang Liu, Jingchen Zhang
NADH oxidase (NOX) plays important roles in respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cells. In this study, we explored the function of NOX in Listeria monocytogenes by gene deletion. From our results, nox mutant strain (∆nox) had lower H2O2 level and showed no significant alteration in bacteria growth activity. But it had enhanced invasiveness during the invasion of glial cells and mice brain compared to wildtype strain. Furthermore, several virulence genes involved in invasion, such as inlA, inlB, vip and sigB, were upregulated in ∆nox, and the alterations could be restored by complementation...
September 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904323/effects-of-bittern-water-on-cariogenic-bacteria-and-saliva-secretion
#5
Mariko Ohtsu, Muneaki Tamura, Hideto Sasaki, Shuichi Sato, Masatake Asano
The effects of bittern water (BW), obtained from the ocean floor, on cariogenic bacteria and saliva secretion were examined. Streptococcus mutans was mixed with BW for 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 min to explore the bactericidal effects of BW against cariogenic bacteria. Bacterial viability was calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units on Brain Heart Infusion agar plates. The results indicated a bacterial viability of more than 35% even after 20 min of incubation. Subsequently, the effects of BW on saliva secretion and the salivary concentration of secretory IgA (sIgA) were examined...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901253/bacterial-toxins-a-hope-towards-angiogenic-ailments
#6
Rekha Khandia, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Angiogenesis is a vital physiological process essential for growth and maintenance of the body. It plays an important role during embryonic development and generally absent in adults with some exceptions like during wound repair and menstrual cycle in women. Excess as well as deficiency in angiogenesis, result in pathological conditions. It is a tightly regulated process; rely on cascade of several molecular signalling pathways involving many effectors like VEGF, FGF, PDGF, IGF etc. Excessive angiogenesis is associated with disorders like tumor, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, endometriosis, psoriasis, adiposity...
September 11, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891262/more-than-constipation-bowel-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-connection-to-gut-microbiota
#7
T H Mertsalmi, V T E Aho, P A B Pereira, L Paulin, E Pekkonen, P Auvinen, F Scheperjans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of which constipation is considered the most prominent. Recently, in addition to constipation, a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was also found to be associated with increased PD risk. Gut microbiota alterations have been reported in IBS and recently also in PD. IBS-like bowel symptoms in PD and their possible connection to other non-motor symptoms and faecal microbiota were assessed...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889264/metals-and-paraoxonases
#8
Lucio G Costa, Toby B Cole, Jacqueline M Garrick, Judit Marsillach, Clement E Furlong
The paraoxonases (PONs) are a three-gene family which includes PON1, PON2, and PON3. PON1 and PON3 are synthesized primarily in the liver and a portion is secreted in the plasma, where they are associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), while PON2 is an intracellular enzyme, expressed in most tissues and organs, including the brain. PON1 received its name from its ability to hydrolyze paraoxon, the active metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide parathion, and also more efficiently hydrolyzes the active metabolites of several other OPs...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875835/the-biological-potentialsof-indian-traditional-medicine-curcumin-for-treating-human-diseases
#9
C S Sumathi
Curcumin is an active compound extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric). It possesses a di phenolic structure and there are three important fractions of curcumin namely curcumin, mono-desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin. Curcumin is having high medicinal value. It is widely in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine formulations to treat various diseases. It is effective against microbial pathogens like bacteria, virus and fungi. It is highly potent and kills cancerous cells. Curcumin exhibits antioxidant activity and reduces lipoperoxidation...
August 30, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865023/drebrins-and-connexins-a-biomedical-perspective
#10
Irina V Majoul, Justus S Ernesti, Eugenia V Butkevich, Rainer Duden
In this chapter we summarize knowledge on the role of drebrin in cell-cell communications. Specifically, we follow drebrin-connexin-43 interactions and drebrin behavior at the cell-cell interface described earlier. Drebrin is a part of the actin cytoskeleton which is a target of numerous bacteria and viruses invading mammalian cells. Drebrin phosphorylation, self-inhibition and transition between filaments, particles, and podosomes underlie cellular mechanisms involved in diseases and cognitive disorders. Cytoskeletal rearrangements influence the state of gap junction contacts which regulate cell signaling and metabolic flow of information across cells in tissues...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844808/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Torres-Fuentes, Harriët Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Changes in microbial diversity and composition are increasingly associated with several disease states including obesity and behavioural disorders. Obesity-associated microbiota alter host energy harvesting, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fat deposition. Additionally, intestinal microbiota can regulate metabolism, adiposity, homoeostasis, and energy balance as well as central appetite and food reward signalling, which together have crucial roles in obesity. Moreover, some strains of bacteria and their metabolites might target the brain directly via vagal stimulation or indirectly through immune-neuroendocrine mechanisms...
August 24, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843802/a-recurrent-case-of-ischemic-stroke-caused-by-vasospasm-due-to-giant-cell-arteritis
#12
Reina Kawamura, Atsushi Mizuma, Maiko Kouchi, Eiichiro Nagata, Wakoh Takahashi, Shunya Takizawa
A 73-year-old man was admitted with sudden right upper-limb weakness. He had a temporal headache on the left side and had a 4-month history of fever. Meandering of the left temporal artery (TA) with induration and high inflammatory responses (white blood cell count 22,500 per microliter, C-reactive protein 35.0 mg/dL, and elevated sedimentation rate [ESR] 80 mm/h) were observed. Glycometabolism and lipid metabolism were normal, and autoimmune antibodies were negative. Cultivation tests revealed no bacteria in either blood culture or cerebrospinal fluid...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836668/blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-and-myeloperoxidase-activity-in-silver-catfish-experimentally-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
M D Baldissera, C F Souza, R C V Santos, B Baldisserotto
Central nervous system (CNS) infections continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and microbial invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered a prerequisite for CNS infections, which contribute to behavioural abnormalities and disease pathogenesis. Based on this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes disruption of the BBB, and to investigate the involvement of cerebral myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in this process in experimentally infected silver catfish...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814639/deposition-and-hydrolysis-of-serine-dipeptide-lipids-of-bacteroidetes-bacteria-in-human-arteries-relationship-to-atherosclerosis
#14
Reza Nemati, Christopher Dietz, Emily J Anstadt, Jorge Cervantes, Yaling Liu, Floyd E Dewhirst, Robert B Clark, Sydney Finegold, James J Gallagher, Michael B Smith, Xudong Yao, Frank C Nichols
Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) analysis of lipid extracts from human carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery samples from young individuals consistently demonstrated the presence of bacterial serine dipeptide lipid classes including Lipid 654, an agonist for human and mouse Toll-like receptor 2, and Lipid 430, the deacylated product of Lipid 654. The relative levels of Lipid 654 and Lipid 430 were also determined in common oral and intestinal bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes, and human serum and brain samples from healthy adults...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806201/brain-gut-microbiota-axis-and-mental-health
#15
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
OBJECTIVE: The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications which enables gut microbes to communicate with the brain, and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and pre-clinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders...
August 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#16
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799243/escherichia-coli-k1-utilises-host-macropinocytic-pathways-for-invasion-of-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#17
Lip Nam Loh, Elizabeth M C McCarthy, Priyanka Narang, Naveed A Khan, Theresa H Ward
Eukaryotic cells utilise multiple endocytic pathways for specific uptake of ligands or molecules, and these pathways are commonly hijacked by pathogens to enable host cell invasion. Escherichia coli K1, a pathogenic bacterium that causes neonatal meningitis, invades the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier, but the entry route remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the bacteria trigger an actin-mediated uptake route, stimulating fluid phase uptake, membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis. The route of uptake requires intact lipid rafts as shown by cholesterol depletion...
August 11, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793322/stool-consistency-is-significantly-associated-with-pain-perception
#18
Yukiko Shiro, Young-Chang Arai, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Kazuhiro Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM) composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767074/comparative-study-on-antistaphylococcal-activity-of-lipopeptides-in-various-culture-media
#19
Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Damian Neubauer, Wojciech Kamysz
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the leading microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections as well as being the primary causative pathogen of skin and wound infections. Currently, the therapy of staphylococcal diseases faces many difficulties, due to a variety of mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Moreover, a number of infections caused by S. aureus are connected with biofilm formation that impairs effectiveness of the therapy. Short cationic lipopeptides that are designed on the basis of the structure of antimicrobial peptides are likely to provide a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics...
August 2, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764655/a-case-report-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-in-a-young-zambian-adult
#20
Mashina Chomba, Luchenga A Mucheleng'anga, Sombo Fwoloshi, Joseph Ngulube, Mable M Mutengo
BACKGROUND: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant disease of the brain caused by Naegleria fowleri. Although the disease is rare, the case fatality rate is very high. In this report, we describe the first case of PAM in Zambia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with sudden onset of seizures and fever on admission. On physical examination he was febrile, comatose and with a stiff neck. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collected on admission did not reveal any organism on microscopy or culture but showed elevated white cell count...
August 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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