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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142880/comparison-of-apical-extrusion-of-intracanal-bacteria-by-various-glide-path-establishing-systems-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Alberto Dagna, Rashid El Abed, Sameeha Hussain, Ibrahim H Abu-Tahun, Livia Visai, Federico Bertoglio, Floriana Bosco, Riccardo Beltrami, Claudio Poggio, Hyeon-Cheol Kim
Objectives: This study compared the amount of apically extruded bacteria during the glide-path preparation by using multi-file and single-file glide-path establishing nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular first molar teeth were used to prepare the test apparatus. They were decoronated, blocked into glass vials, sterilized in ethylene oxide gas, infected with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis, randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups, and then prepared using manual stainless-steel files (group KF) and glide-path establishing NiTi rotary files (group PF with PathFiles, group GF with G-Files, group PG with ProGlider, and group OG with One G)...
November 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#2
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135961/probiotic-prebiotic-and-brain-development
#3
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruíz, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134938/short-term-incubation-of-positive-blood-cultures-in-brain-heart-infusion-broth-accelerates-identification-of-bacteria-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#4
Ignacio Torres, Estela Gimenez, Tania Pascual, Felipe Bueno, Dixie Huntley, Mireia Martínez, David Navarro
PURPOSE: Fast identification of bacteria directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be achieved either using the MALDI Sepsityper kit (protein extraction method) or after a short-term pre-cultivation step on solid medium. We developed a new method that involves short-term enrichment of positive BCs in brain-heart infusion broth (BHI) prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. METHODOLOGY: Eighty-four BCs flagged as positive were included in this study; these were processed in parallel either directly using the MALDI Sepsityper kit or following a short-term culture either in BHI or on Columbia blood agar with 5 % sheep blood (CBA)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134448/hyperammonemia-associated-with-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-or-urinary-tract-infection-a-systematic-review
#5
Caterina M Clericetti, Gregorio P Milani, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Giacomo D Simonetti, Olivier Giannini
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. RESULTS: We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#6
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134111/periodontitis-induced-by-bacterial-infection-exacerbates-features-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-transgenic-mice
#7
Naoyuki Ishida, Yuichi Ishihara, Kazuto Ishida, Hiroyuki Tada, Yoshiko Funaki-Kato, Makoto Hagiwara, Taslima Ferdous, Mohammad Abdullah, Akio Mitani, Makoto Michikawa, Kenji Matsushita
Periodontitis is a localized infectious disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Recently, it has been suggested that bacterial infections may contribute to the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, we do not have any evidence about a causative relationship between periodontitis and AD. In this study, we investigated by using a transgenic mouse model of AD whether periodontitis evoked by P. gingivalis modulates the pathological features of AD. Cognitive function was significantly impaired in periodontitis-induced APP-Tg mice, compared to that in control APP-Tg mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120154/predisposing-factors-responsible-for-the-occurrence-of-bacterial-purulent-meningoencephalitis
#8
Brankica Dupanović, Olgica Gajović, Dragica Terzić, Bogdanka Andrić, Zoran Todorović, Branko Jakovljević, Danko Živković
Bacterial purulent meningoencephalitis (BPME) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by various pyogenic bacteria. The disease is defined as the inflammatory process of leptomeninges (visceral layer, pia mater and arachnoid membrane) and brain parenchyma with exudates in the subarachnoid space and surrounding brain structures. The aim of the study was to define the predisposing factors responsible for the occurrence of BPME, as well as the possible correlation between the presence of predisposing factors and patient demographic characteristics, etiology and outcome of the disease...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114218/periodontitis-microbiomes-and-their-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Anna B Pritchard, StJohn Crean, Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao
As far back as the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, microbial infections were responsible for vast numbers of deaths. The trend reversed with the introduction of antibiotics coinciding with longer life. Increased life expectancy however, accompanied the emergence of age related chronic inflammatory states including the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Taken together, the true challenge of retaining health into later years of life now appears to lie in delaying and/or preventing the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases, through identifying and influencing modifiable risk factors...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105391/the-molecular-chaperone-artemin-efficiently-blocks-fibrillization-of-tau-protein-in-vitro
#10
Zahra Khosravi, Mohammad Ali Nasiri Khalili, Sharif Moradi, Reza Hassan Sajedi, Mehdi Zeinoddini
OBJECTIVES: Aggregation of the TAU proteins in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain is a common risk factor in tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several strategies have been implemented to target NFTs, among which chaperones, which facilitate the proper folding of proteins, appear to hold great promise in effectively inhibiting TAU polymerization. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the chaperone Artemin on TAU aggregation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, recombinant TAU- or Artemin proteins were expressed in E...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104935/modeling-group-b-streptococcus-and-blood-brain-barrier-interaction-by-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-brain-endothelial-cells
#11
Brandon J Kim, Olivia B Bee, Maura A McDonagh, Matthew J Stebbins, Sean P Palecek, Kelly S Doran, Eric V Shusta
Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs after bacteria interact with and penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is comprised of highly specialized brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that function to separate the circulation from the CNS and act as a formidable barrier for toxins and pathogens. Certain bacteria, such as Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]), possess the ability to interact with and penetrate the BBB to cause meningitis...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104090/two-novel-calreticulin-related-molecules-with-microbial-binding-and-phagocytosis-enhancing-capacity-in-the-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#12
Guanghua Wang, Zengjie Jiang, Shuwen He, Min Zhang
Calreticulin (CRT) is highly conserved chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum. It plays important roles in innate immunity. Although various immune-related functions of CRT have been reported in vertebrates and invertebrates, information on the potential functions of teleost CRT is very limited. In the present study, we characterized two calreticulin-related molecules from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), calreticulin-like1 and calreticulin-like2 (CsCRTL1 and CsCRTL2). CsCRTL1and CsCRTL2 contain signature CRT motifs that are highly conserved in different species...
November 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101651/gut-microbiota-and-bone-health
#13
Darin Quach, Robert A Britton
The past decade has seen an explosion of research in the area of how the bacteria that inhabit the human body impact health and disease. One of the more surprising concepts to emerge from this work is the ability of the intestinal microbiota to impact virtually all systems in the body. Recently, the role of gut bacteria in bone health and disease has received more significant attention. In this chapter, we review what has been learned about how the gut microbiome impacts bone health and discuss possible mechanisms of how the gut-bone axis may be connected...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094233/a-chinese-case-of-prevotella-intermedia-and-streptococcus-constellatus-intracranial-mixed-infection
#14
Shanying Mo, Liuhua Wei, Hongmou Chen, Rui Li, Shuping Li, Guolan Luo
Streptococcal Species is increasingly recognized as a potentially preventable emerging infection in human's brain with high prevalence around the world. Streptococcus constellatus is one of the most common pathogens. Meanwhile, anaerobic bacteria are the rare causes for intracranial infection. To date, intracranial mixed infection caused by Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus constellatus has not been reported. We reported a Chinese case to raise the global awareness of severity of the intracranial mixed infection...
November 2, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093639/rapid-assessment-of-microbiota-changes-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-bacteria-derived-membrane-vesicles-in-urine
#15
Yunjin Lee, Jin-Young Park, Eun-Hwa Lee, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, SoHyun Lee, Pyung-Lim Han, Eui-Jung Kim
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered gut microbiota, which appears to regulate ASD symptoms via gut microbiota-brain interactions. Rapid assessment of gut microbiota profiles in ASD individuals in varying physiological contexts is important to understanding the role of the microbiota in regulating ASD symptoms. Microbiomes secrete extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) to communicate with host cells and secreted EVs are widely distributed throughout the body including the blood and urine...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079259/endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-drainage-of-a-spontaneous-candida-glabrata-pituitary-abscess-case-report-intraoperative-video
#16
Ben A Strickland, Martin Pham, Joshua Bakhsheshian, John Carmichael, Martin Weiss, Gabriel Zada
Noniatrogenic pituitary abscesses remain a rare clinical entity, and are the indication for surgery in <1% of transsphenoidal approaches. Correct diagnosis of this rare entity is often delayed. Without timely treatment, morbidity and mortality are high. Of the 200 cases reported, less than half have identified a causative organism. We report the second case of a pituitary abscess caused by Candida species, and further provide intraoperative video of endoscopic management of this pathology. A 33-year-old woman presented with headache, hypopituitarism, and vision loss in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to have multiple abscesses in the liver, lung, kidney, and uterus...
October 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073575/relative-merits-and-limiting-factors-for-x-ray-and-electron-microscopy-of-thick-hydrated-organic-materials
#17
Ming Du, Chris Jacobsen
Electron and x-ray microscopes allow one to image the entire, unlabeled structure of hydrated materials at a resolution well beyond what visible light microscopes can achieve. However, both approaches involve ionizing radiation, so that radiation damage must be considered as one of the limits to imaging. Drawing upon earlier work, we describe here a unified approach to estimating the image contrast (and thus the required exposure and corresponding radiation dose) in both x-ray and electron microscopy. This approach accounts for factors such as plural and inelastic scattering, and (in electron microscopy) the use of energy filters to obtain so-called "zero loss" images...
October 7, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069144/effect-of-ultrasound-streaming-on-the-disinfection-of-flattened-root-canals-prepared-by-rotary-and-reciprocating-systems
#18
Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de Vasconcelos, Raquel Zanin Midena, Paloma Gagliardi Minotti, Thais Cristina Pereira, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade
New technical and scientific developments have been advocated to promote the success of the endodontic treatment. In addition to rotary and reciprocating systems, irrigating solution agitation has been suggested and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) is the most used. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of ultrasound streaming (US) in the disinfection of flattened root canal systems prepared by the ProTaper, BioRaCe and Reciproc systems, utilizing the microbiological culture...
September 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068418/sealing-ability-of-alkaline-endodontic-cements-versus-resin-cements
#19
Yu-Yao Teoh, Basil Athanassiadis, Laurence J Walsh
Penetration of oral bacteria through root fillings leads to their long term failure. Dimensionally stable alkaline cements have been developed. A saliva challenge model was used to compare resistance to bacterial penetration of these alkaline cements to conventional root fillings that combine gutta percha (GP) with epoxy resin sealers. A sample of 140 human roots with single straight canals prepared to standard length and canal size were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Nex MTA or MTAmix), with an alkaline calcium hydroxide hard setting cement (Supercal), or with GP and a resin cement (either AH-Plus or Zirmix)...
October 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065411/gut-microbiota-and-host-metabolism-what-relationship
#20
Gilles Mithieux
A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice...
October 24, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
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