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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318536/chromobacterium-violaceum-infection-in-a-horse
#1
Márcia Elisa Hammerschmitt, Veronica Machado Rolim, Gustavo Geraldo Medina Snel, Franciele Maboni Siqueira, David Driemeier, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen of mammals that produces characteristic violet pigment in bacterial culture. We report pneumonia and septicaemia caused by C. violaceum in a horse. Necropsy examination was performed on a 3-year-old Quarter Horse stallion with a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia, fever, dyspnoea and sanguineous nasal discharge. The lungs were not collapsed, but they contained dark red foci mixed with white areas, and multiple nodules of firm consistency. Within the liver and kidney there were randomly distributed, multifocal, white pinpoint lesions (0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316999/does-the-gut-microbiota-influence-immunity-and-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#2
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Aldona Medrek, Paulina Madej, Wirginia Michlicka, Pawel Dobrakowski
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293221/fish-as-hosts-of-vibrio-cholerae
#4
REVIEW
Malka Halpern, Ido Izhaki
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#5
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287542/prolonged-incubation-of-acute-neuronal-tissue-for-electrophysiology-and-calcium-imaging
#6
Morven A Cameron, Orsolya Kekesi, John W Morley, Alba Bellot-Saez, Sindy Kueh, Paul Breen, André van Schaik, Jonathan Tapson, Yossi Buskila
Acute neuronal tissue preparations, brain slices and retinal wholemount, can usually only be maintained for 6 - 8 h following dissection. This limits the experimental time, and increases the number of animals that are utilized per study. This limitation specifically impacts protocols such as calcium imaging that require prolonged pre-incubation with bath-applied dyes. Exponential bacterial growth within 3 - 4 h after slicing is tightly correlated with a decrease in tissue health. This study describes a method for limiting the proliferation of bacteria in acute preparations to maintain viable neuronal tissue for prolonged periods of time (>24 h) without the need for antibiotics, sterile procedures, or tissue culture media containing growth factors...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286500/diet-induced-obesity-does-not-alter-tigecycline-treatment-efficacy-in-murine-lyme-disease
#7
Helena Pětrošová, Azad Eshghi, Zoha Anjum, Nataliya Zlotnikov, Caroline E Cameron, Tara J Moriarty
Obese individuals more frequently suffer from infections, as a result of increased susceptibility to a number of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, obesity can alter antibiotic treatment efficacy due to changes in drug pharmacokinetics which can result in under-dosing. However, studies on the treatment of bacterial infections in the context of obesity are scarce. To address this research gap, we assessed efficacy of antibiotic treatment in diet-induced obese mice infected with the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286386/brain-abscess-potentially-resulting-from-odontogenic-focus-report-of-three-cases-and-a-literature-review
#8
Masaya Akashi, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Junya Kusumoto, Shungo Furudoi, Kohkichi Hosoda, Takahide Komori
INTRODUCTION: Odontogenic foci can rarely cause intracranial infection. Hematogenous spread is considered to be the most important pathophysiological mechanism of intracranial infection of odontogenic origin. To investigate the oral origin of intracranial infections, oral surgeons should understand the underlying mechanisms by which oral bacteria spread to the central nervous system. However, there have been very few reports of intracranial infection resulting from odontogenic infection...
March 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. Immunopathologies shared with MS are regulated by bacteria reduced in individuals with MS. These bacteria regulate systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity including regulatory T cell function, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS-resident cells. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota structure implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284604/identification-of-the-ferric-iron-utilization-gene-b739_1208-and-its-role-in-the-virulence-of-r-anatipestifer-ch-1
#10
MengYi Wang, PengYun Zhang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng, MaFeng Liu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important bacterial pathogen in ducks and causes heavy economic losses in the duck industry. However, the pathogensis of this bacterium is poorly understood. In this study, a putative outer membrane hemin receptor gene B739_1208 in R. anatipestifer CH-1 was deleted to determine the relationship between iron uptake and virulence. The R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type bacteria in TSB liquid medium. Further characterization revealed that the R...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275224/aggressive-versus-conservative-antibiotic-use-to-prevent-and-treat-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-comparison-of-two-case-series
#11
Arturo Chieregato, Paolo Malacarne, Francesco Cocciolo, Maurizio Ravaldini, Emanuele Russo, Bruno Viaggi, Michele Giardino, Carlotta Rossi, Bruno Simini, Guido Bertolini
BACKGROUND: In patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered a dangerous complication, prompting early aggressive antibiotic treatment and prophylaxis. While this approach increases the selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR), its clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. METHODS: One-year incidence of VAP in severe TBI patients (ICU stay >48 hours, with either Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or receiving intracranial pressure monitoring, or having undergone emergency surgery) and the prevalence of MDR among those who eventually developed it, were compared in two Italian intensive care units (ICUs) adopting different antibiotic approaches...
March 8, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260599/peritonsillar-abscess-clinical-aspects-of-microbiology-risk-factors-and-the-association-with-parapharyngeal-abscess
#12
REVIEW
Tejs Ehlers Klug
PTA is a collection of pus located between the tonsillar capsule and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. It is considered a complication of acute tonsillitis and is the most prevalent deep neck infection (approximately 2000 cases annually in Denmark) and cause of acute admission to Danish ENT departments. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly affected and males may predominate over females. However, no studies of age- and gender-stratified incidence rates have previously been published. Furthermore, smoking may be associated with increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) development, although the magnitude of the association has not been estimated...
March 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259042/probiotic-treatment-reduces-depressive-like-behaviour-in-rats-independently-of-diet
#13
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects...
February 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258267/evaluation-of-4-sodium-hypochlorite-in-eliminating-enterococcus-faecalis-from-the-root-canal-when-used-with-three-irrigation-methods-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Harsh Priyank, Vinisha Pandey, Abhishek Bagul, Kishore Kumar Majety, Parul Verma, Basanta Kumar Choudhury
INTRODUCTION: Endodontic treatment removes all pathogens, such as Enterococcus faecalis from pulp and root canals. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of sodium hypo-chlorite (NaOCl) in removing E. faecalis from the root canal used with three different irrigation methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on freshly extracted maxillary incisors. After biomechanical preparation, root canals were injected with E. faecalis. Three groups were made which contained 30 teeth in each group; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation followed by agitation with K-files in group I; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation and ultrasonic agitation was done in group II...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249735/evolution-of-thyroid-hormone-distributor-proteins
#15
Thomas R McLean, Michelle M Rank, Peter M Smooker, Samantha J Richardson
Thyroid hormones (THs) are evolutionarily old hormones, having effects on metabolism in bacteria, invertebrates and vertebrates. THs bind specific distributor proteins (THDPs) to ensure their efficient distribution through the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in vertebrates. Albumin is a THDP in the blood of all studied species of vertebrates, so may be the original vertebrate THDP. However, albumin has weak affinity for THs. Transthyretin (TTR) has been identified in the blood across different lineages in adults vs juveniles...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238880/analysis-on-the-expression-and-function-of-a-chicken-type-and-goose-type-lysozymes-in-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus
#16
Hui Yang, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Lysozymes as an important immune factor, play vital roles in innate immune response against pathogen infection. In the present study, one c-type and g-type lysozymes were identified from Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). They shared highly conserved structural features with lysozymes from other species. Spatial expression analysis revealed that AdlysC transcript was most abundant in liver and stomach, and least in muscle and brain. In contrast, the expression level of AdlysG was most abundant in liver and least in muscle and skin...
February 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237716/clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-induces-permanent-neuronal-degeneration-and-behavioral-changes
#17
Winston E Morris, Jorge Goldstein, Leandro M Redondo, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Marcela Brocco, Fabián C Loidl, Mariano E Fernandez-Miyakawa
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), the most potent toxin produced by this bacteria, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia in ruminants, causing brain edema and encephalomalacia. Studies of animals suffering from ETX intoxication describe severe neurological disorders that are thought to be the result of vasogenic brain edemas and indirect neuronal toxicity, killing oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons in vitro. In this study, by means of intravenous and intracerebroventricular delivery of sub-lethal concentrations of ETX, the histological and ultrastructural changes of the brain were studied in rats and mice...
February 22, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228622/a-case-of-hyperammonemia-with-obstructive-urinary-tract-infection-by-urease-producing-bacteria
#18
Toshiaki Goda, Kotaro Watanabe, Junya Kobayashi, Yasuharu Nagai, Nobuyuki Ohara, Daisuke Takahashi
A 79-year-old woman was admitted emergently for disturbance of consciousness. Her consciousness level was Japan coma scale 20, and she presented with hypermyotonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed normal findings. Her blood tests showed an increased ammonia level of 291 μg/dl with normal liver function. We catheterized the bladder for urinary retention. Eight hours after admission, the blood level of ammonia decreased to 57 μg/dl and the patient's consciousness level improved...
February 22, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223922/gut-microbiota-a-potential-regulator-of-neurodevelopment
#19
REVIEW
Paola Tognini
During childhood, our brain is exposed to a variety of environmental inputs that can sculpt synaptic connections and neuronal circuits, with subsequent influence on behavior and learning processes. Critical periods of neurodevelopment are windows of opportunity in which the neuronal circuits are extremely plastic and can be easily subjected to remodeling in response to experience. However, the brain is also more susceptible to aberrant stimuli that might lead to altered developmental trajectories. Intriguingly, postnatal brain development is paralleled by the maturation of the gut microbiota: the ecosystem of symbionts populating our gastro-intestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223318/a-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-exhibits-defects-in-phagocytosis-by-innate-immune-cells
#20
Reed M O'Connor, Elizabeth F Stone, Charlotte R Wayne, Emily V Marcinkevicius, Matt Ulgherait, Rebecca Delventhal, Meghan M Pantalia, Vanessa M Hill, Clarice G Zhou, Sophie McAllister, Anna Chen, Jennifer S Ziegenfuss, Wesley B Grueber, Julie C Canman, Mimi M Shirasu-Hiza
Fragile X syndrome, the most common known monogenic cause of autism, results from the loss of FMR1, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Recent evidence suggests that Fragile X syndrome and other types of autism are associated with immune system defects. We found that Drosophila melanogaster Fmr1 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to bacterial infection and decreased phagocytosis of bacteria by systemic immune cells. Using tissue-specific RNAi-mediated knockdown, we showed that Fmr1 plays a cell-autonomous role in the phagocytosis of bacteria...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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