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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923699/in-vitro-inhibition-of-clostridium-difficile-by-commercial-probiotics-a-microcalorimetric-study
#1
Mansa Fredua-Agyeman, Paul Stapleton, Abdul W Basit, Anthony E Beezer, Simon Gaisford
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of some commercial probiotics on the growth of Clostridium difficile using the isothermal microcalorimeter, an instrument which can monitor the real time growth of bacteria. Commercial probiotic strains and products, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5(®), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12(®), Probio 7(®) and Symprove™ were co-cultured with C. difficile in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) l-cysteine hydrochloride and 0.1% (w/v) sodium taurocholate and monitored in the microcalorimeter...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#2
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#4
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908630/non-linear-dose-response-of-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvant-particles-selective-low-dose-neurotoxicity
#5
Guillemette Crépeaux, Housam Eidi, Marie-Odile David, Yasmine Baba-Amer, Eleni Tzavara, Bruno Giros, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Christopher A Shaw, Josette Cadusseau, Romain K Gherardi
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895414/hepatic-encephalopathy-ever-closer-to-its-big-bang
#6
EDITORIAL
Pablo A Souto, Ariel R Marcotegui, Lisandro Orbea, Juan Skerl, Juan Carlos Perazzo
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that commonly complicates the course of patients with liver disease. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized hundreds of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of HE and is estimated to affect more that 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by cognitive impairment predominantly attention, reactiveness and integrative function with very subtle clinical manifestations...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882160/disseminated-nocardiosis-caused-by-nocardia-otitidiscaviarum-in-an-immunocompetent-host-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Yanwen Jiang, Aiben Huang, Qiuhong Fang
The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in order to improve the knowledge of nocardiosis. A case of dissemination nocardiosis caused by N. otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host is reported and the associated literature reviewed. Informed consent for publication of this case report was provided by the patient. The present patient was a young immunocompetent man suffering from disseminated nocardiosis induced by infection with N...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876152/the-role-of-substance-p-in-pulmonary-clearance-of-bacteria-in-comparative-injury-models
#8
Terry Hsieh, Max H Vaickus, Thor D Stein, Bethany L Lussier, Jiyoun Kim, David M Stepien, Elizabeth R Duffy, Evan L Chiswick, Daniel G Remick
Neural input to the immune system can alter its ability to clear pathogens effectively. Patients suffering mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have shown reduced rates of pneumonia and a murine model replicated these findings, with better overall survival of TBI mice compared with sham-injured mice. To further investigate the mechanism of improved host response in TBI mice, this study developed and characterized a mild tail trauma model of similar severity to mild TBI. Both mild tail trauma and TBI induced similar systemic changes that normalized within 48 hours, including release of substance P...
December 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856664/the-gut-brain-connection-triggering-of-brain-autoimmune-disease-by-commensal-gut-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
Hartmut Wekerle
In a transgenic model of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, autoimmune attack against the CNS requires the presence of an intact commensal gut flora. Extending this observation to human autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis, we postulate that the pathogenic reaction requires the coincidence of at least three factors: a permissive genetic disposition, a pro-inflammatory intestinal microbial profile, and the accumulation of autoreactive T cells in the gut-associated lymphatic tissue...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855535/biochemical-characterization-of-the-medaka-oryzias-latipes-orthologue-for-mammalian-tissue-type-transglutaminase-tg2
#10
Yuki Takada, Yuko Watanabe, Kazuho Okuya, Hideki Tatsukawa, Hisashi Hashimoto, Kiyotaka Hitomi
Transglutaminase is an enzyme family responsible for post-translational modification such as protein cross-linking and the attachment of primary amine and/or deamidation of glutamine-residue in proteins. Medaka (Oryzias latipes), a recently established model fish, has similar functional proteins to those characterized in mammals. Previously, we found the apparent orthologues that correspond to human transglutaminases in medaka. In this study, regarding the medaka orthologue of human tissue-type transglutaminase (OlTGT), recombinant protein was expressed in an active form in bacteria cultured at low temperature...
November 18, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852672/a-novel-selective-medium-for-isolation-of-bacteroides-fragilis-from-clinical-specimens
#11
Pak-Leung Ho, Lok-Yan Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Man-Ki Tong, Kin-Hung Chow
A novel Bacteroides fragilis selective (BFS) medium, consisting of a brain-heart infusion agar base supplemented with yeast extract, cysteine hydrochloride, bile salts, Vitamin K, hemin, glucose, esculin, ferric ammonium citrate, bromothymol blue, gentamicin, kanamycin and novobiocin, was evaluated. When BFS agar was tested with a collection of 303 bacteria of different genera, it allowed the growth of B. fragilis as large yellow colonies with blackening of the medium after 48 h of anaerobic incubation while the growth of most other anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and aerobes were inhibited...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845572/post-craniotomy-intracranial-infection-in-patients-with-brain-tumors-a-retrospective-analysis-of-5723-consecutive-patients
#12
Zhong-Hua Shi, Ming Xu, Yong-Zhi Wang, Xu-Ying Luo, Guang-Qiang Chen, Xin Wang, Tao Wang, Ming-Zhong Tang, Jian-Xin Zhou
AIM: To determine the risk factors for and the incidence, outcomes, and causative pathogens of post-craniotomy intracranial infection (PCII) in patients with brain tumors. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of 5723 patients with brain tumors who were surgically treated between January 2012 and December 2013 in Beijing Tiantan Hospital. The patients' demographics, pathohistological diagnoses, surgical procedures, postoperative variables, causative pathogens, and outcomes were evaluated...
November 15, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#13
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
October 21, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824273/anti-inflammaging-effects-of-lactobacillus-brevis-ow38-in-aged-mice
#14
J-J Jeong, K A Kim, Y-J Hwang, M J Han, D-H Kim
In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were collected from kimchi and were screened to isolate strains that inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production by Escherichia coli and p16 expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis OW38 (1×10(9) cfu/mouse) to aged mice (male, 18 months old) for 8 weeks reduced the LPS level in colon fluid and blood. In addition, OW38 treatment also reduced the ratio of Firmicutes or Proteobacteria to Bacteroidetes, which was significantly higher in aged mice than in young mice...
November 8, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819127/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-activity-of-a-conventional-orthodontic-composite-containing-silver-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles
#15
Ahmad Sodagar, Azam Akhavan, Ehsan Hashemi, Sepideh Arab, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Kosar Sodagar, Mohammad Javad Kharrazifard, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: One of the most important complications of fixed orthodontic treatment is the formation of white spots which are initial carious lesions. Addition of antimicrobial agents into orthodontic adhesives might be a wise solution for prevention of white spot formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a conventional orthodontic adhesive containing three different concentrations of silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-two Transbond XT composite discs containing 0, 1, 5, and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared and sterilized...
December 2016: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819057/taste-receptors-regulators-of-sinonasal-innate-immunity
#16
Ryan M Carey, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of "extraoral" taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity...
August 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818548/rhombencephalitis-pictorial-essay
#17
Líllian Gonçalves Campos, Régis Augusto Reis Trindade, Ângela Faistauer, Juliano Adams Pérez, Leonardo Modesti Vedolin, Juliana Ávila Duarte
The term rhombencephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum). Rhombencephalitis has a wide variety of etiologies, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Infection with bacteria of the genus Listeria is the most common cause of rhombencephalitis. Primary rhombencephalitis caused by infection with Listeria spp. occurs in healthy young adults. It usually has a biphasic time course with a flu-like syndrome, followed by brainstem dysfunction; 75% of patients have cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and nearly 100% have an abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scan...
September 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816682/acute-meningitis-of-piglets-and-mice-caused-by-co-infected-with-streptococcus-suis-and-aerococcus-viridans
#18
Zihao Pan, Ye Ma, Jiale Ma, Wenyang Dong, Huochun Yao
The two opportunistic pathogens, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) and Aerococcus. viridans (A. viridans) were isolated from the brains of piglets suffered bacterial meningitis in a farm of China. The murine model has been established to evaluate the pathogenicity and symbiotic relationship of S. suis and A. viridans simultaneously infection. Our results demonstrated the ability of new serotype S. suis to cause the classical bacterial meningitis and death were greatly enhanced during co-infection with A. viridans in mice at a proportion...
November 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814521/the-central-nervous-system-and-the-gut-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
Gil Sharon, Timothy R Sampson, Daniel H Geschwind, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Neurodevelopment is a complex process governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. While historically studied by researching the brain, inputs from the periphery impact many neurological conditions. Indeed, emerging data suggest communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, cognition, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of a healthy, functional brain depends on key pre- and post-natal events that integrate environmental cues, such as molecular signals from the gut...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808261/community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#20
Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs Brouwer, Rodrigo Hasbun, Uwe Koedel, Cynthia G Whitney, Eelco Wijdicks
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma (nosocomial bacterial meningitis). Despite advances in treatment and vaccinations, community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causative bacteria and are associated with high mortality and morbidity; vaccines targeting these organisms, which have designs similar to the successful vaccine that targets Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, are now being used in many routine vaccination programmes...
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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