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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647798/a-new-model-for-biofilm-formation-and-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-intraoperative-infection-of-a-cranial-implant-with-staphylococcus-aureus-in-rats
#1
Silke Glage, Silke Paret, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch, André Bleich, Joachim K Krauss, Kerstin Schwabe
BACKGROUND: Implant failure is a severe and frequent adverse event in all areas of neurosurgery. It often involves infection with biofilm formation, accompanied by inflammation of surrounding tissue, including the brain, and bone loss. The most common bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus. We here test whether intraoperative infection of intracranial screws with Staphylococcus aureus would lead to biofilm formation and inflammatory tissue reaction in rats. METHODS: Two titanium screws were implanted in the cranium of Sprague-Dawley rats, anesthetized with xylazine (4 mg/kg) and ketamine (75 mg/kg)...
June 25, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644779/cellular-light-scattering-for-the-identification-of-bacteria-and-its-application-to-the-identification-of-staphylococcus
#2
David L Haavig, Kaylagh R Hollen, Abbey E Debruin, Shelbi R Lisecki, Nicole C Shoup, Mickey J H Stimac, Anthony M Treloar, Zachary N Jodoin, Margaret S Bohm, Josh S Sharp
Rapid identification of bacteria is critical in clinical and food safety applications. This paper describes anovel instrument and data analysis method for identifying bacteria based on the measurement of laser light scattering as the beam interacts with bacterial cells suspended in water. A description of the technology is followed by an identification performance study for a set of strains from the genus Staphylococcus (the inclusive target organisms) and a set of non-Staphylococcus strains (the exclusive organisms)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643814/-unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome-clinical-predictors-of-late-recovery
#3
Gianfranco Lamberti, Elena Antoniono, Francesca Gozzerino, Donatella Giraudo
Patients affected by the outcomes of serious traumatic and/or non-traumatic brain injury may show progressive recovery characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical conditions, which are often not completely different, but of differing seriousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are syndromes that may characterize progression from the coma state and may be temporary clinical conditions, or in some cases, the final outcome of acute brain injury. The eventual recovery of consciousness is a dynamic process, in constant progress following the acute event...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640714/an-unexplored-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-in-stroke
#4
Shu Wen Wen, Connie H Y Wong
Microbiota research, in particular that of the gut, has recently gained much attention in medical research owing to technological advances in metagenomics and metabolomics. Despite this, much of the research direction has focused on long-term or chronic effects of microbiota manipulation on health and disease. In this addendum, we reflect on our recent publication that reported findings addressing a rather unconventional hypothesis. Bacterial pneumonia is highly prevalent and is one of the leading contributors to stroke morbidity and mortality worldwide...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#5
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636585/microbiome-a-potential-component-in-the-origin-of-mental-disorders
#6
George B Stefano, Radek Ptacek, Jiri Raboch, Richard M Kream
It is not surprising to find microbiome abnormalities present in psychiatric disorders such as depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, etc. Evolutionary pressure may provide an existential advantage to the host eukaryotic cells in that it survives in an extracellular environment containing non-self cells (e.g., bacteria). This phenomenon is both positive and negative, as with other intercellular processes. In this specific case, the phenomenal amount of information gained from combined bacterial genome could enhance communication between self and non-self cells...
June 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629758/implications-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-vulnerability-to-the-social-avoidance-effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-in-male-mice
#7
Joanna Kasia Szyszkowicz, Alex Wong, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, Marie-Claude Audet
Appreciable evidence suggests that perturbations within the gut microbiome and the immune system may play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression stemming from earlier stressful experiences. In the present investigation we examined whether microbial changes in cecum contents were associated with social avoidance behaviors, a feature of depression, and pro-inflammatory variations among socially stressed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice experienced social defeat or a control condition once a day for 10 consecutive days...
June 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629511/microbiota-regulates-visceral-pain-in-the-mouse
#8
Pauline Luczynski, Monica Tramullas, Maria Viola, Fergus Shanahan, Gerard Clarke, Siobhain O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The perception of visceral pain is a complex process involving the spinal cord and higher order brain structures. Increasing evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a key regulator of brain and behavior, yet it remains to be determined if gut bacteria play a role in visceral sensitivity. We used germ-free mice (GF) to assess visceral sensitivity, spinal cord gene expression and pain-related brain structures. GF mice displayed visceral hypersensitivity accompanied by increases in Toll-like receptor and cytokine gene expression in the spinal cord, which were normalized by postnatal colonization with microbiota from conventionally colonized (CC)...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622477/an-examination-of-factors-affecting-the-length-of-stay-in-a-palliative-care-center
#9
Metin Dincer, Kadriye Kahveci, Cihan Doger
BACKGROUND: With the increase in elderly population, life-threatening chronic diseases are increasing, simultaneously increasing the need for palliative care centers (PCCs). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the factors affecting the length of stay (LOS) and discharge of patients from a PCC. METHODS: A retrospective scan was made of the records of patients followed up in the PCC between January 2013 and March 2016. A record was made of patient age, gender, diagnosis, conditions/comorbidities, Glasgow Coma Scale, Karnofsky Performance Scale, LOS, prognosis (exitus or surviving), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), tracheostomy, mechanical ventilator, nutrition (total parenteral nutrition [TPN] or enteral nutrition), and the results of cultures taken during stay in PCCs (blood, tracheal aspirate, urine, rectal swab, wound)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620364/a-multiplex-rt-pcr-assay-for-s-aureus-l-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-spp-detection-in-raw-milk-with-pre-enrichment
#10
Tian Ding, Yuanjie Suo, Zhaohuan Zhang, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Yong Zhao
This study firstly developed a multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique combined with a pre-enrichment step to simultaneously detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Salmonella spp. in raw milk and the dairy farm environment (feces, soil, feed, water) in one reaction. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was selected for the enrichment step to increase the density of the target bacteria by using an incubation of 4 h before multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the detection limit of the multiplex real-time assay was approximately 10(2) CFU/mL for pure cultures and artificially contaminated milk without enrichment, while 12, 14, and 10 CFU/25 mL, respectively, for S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620254/isolation-morphological-identification-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-azadirachta-indica-neem-leaves
#11
Ankit Kumar Singh, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Varsha Sharma, Tanmay Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Dimple Kumari
AIM: The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, their identification and investigate their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh leaves of A. indica (neem) was procured from the Department of Botany, JNKVV, Jabalpur...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616842/characterization-of-magneto-endosymbionts-as-mri-cell-labeling-and-tracking-agents
#12
Kimberly D Brewer, Ryan Spitler, Kayla R Lee, Andrea C Chan, Joyce C Barrozo, Abdul Wakeel, Chandler S Foote, Steven Machtaler, James Rioux, Juergen K Willmann, Papia Chakraborty, Bradley W Rice, Christopher H Contag, Caleb B Bell, Brian K Rutt
PURPOSE: Magneto-endosymbionts (MEs) show promise as living magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for in vivo cell tracking. Here we characterize the biomedical imaging properties of ME contrast agents, in vitro and in vivo. PROCEDURES: By adapting and engineering magnetotactic bacteria to the intracellular niche, we are creating magneto-endosymbionts (MEs) that offer advantages relative to passive iron-based contrast agents (superparamagnetic iron oxides, SPIOs) for cell tracking...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613252/are-the-gut-bacteria-telling-us-to-eat-or-not-to-eat-reviewing-the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-etiology-disease-progression-and-treatment-of-eating-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Yan Y Lam, Sarah Maguire, Talia Palacios, Ian D Caterson
Traditionally recognized as mental illnesses, eating disorders are increasingly appreciated to be biologically-driven. There is a growing body of literature that implicates a role of the gut microbiota in the etiology and progression of these conditions. Gut bacteria may act on the gut-brain axis to alter appetite control and brain function as part of the genesis of eating disorders. As the illnesses progress, extreme feeding patterns and psychological stress potentially feed back to the gut ecosystem that can further compromise physiological, cognitive, and social functioning...
June 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606302/-brain-abscesses-caused-by-nocardia-farcinica-in-a-kidney-transplanted-man
#14
Michaela Tinggaard, Kristian Bagge
Nocardiosis is primarily an opportunistic infection caused by aerobic Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Nocardia. In this case report we describe a male patient who previously received a kidney transplant and was admitted to hospital with chills, headache and pain in the neck and left eye, tremor and coordination problems. A magnetic resonance scan of the brain showed multiple abscesses, and blood culture was positive for Nocardia farcinica. Nocardiosis of the central nervous system is a rare, but serious differential diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients with signs of high intracranial pressure...
June 5, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598270/investigating-the-adult-ixodid-tick-populations-and-their-associated-anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-bacteria-at-a-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-hotspot-in-western-tennessee
#15
Rebecca T Trout Fryxell, Brain M Hendricks, Kimberly Pompo, Sarah E Mays, Dave J Paulsen, Darwin J Operario, Allan E Houston
Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States. Ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by Amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis. These ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. The objective of this study was to identify Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) hotspot, and identify habitats, time periods, and collection methods for collecting questing-infected ticks...
June 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596107/a-novel-function-for-glucocerebrosidase-as-a-regulator-of-sterylglucoside-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Hisako Akiyama, Yoshio Hirabayashi
BACKGROUND: Sterols are major cell membrane lipids, and in many organisms they are modified with glucose to generate sterylglucosides. Glucosylation dramatically changes the functional properties of sterols. The formation of sterylglucosides from sterols in plants, fungi, and bacteria uses UDP-glucose as a glucose donor. By contrast, sterylglucoside biosynthesis in mammals is catalyzed by the transglucosylation activity of glucocerebrosidases, with glucosylceramide acting as the glucose donor...
June 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592308/examining-clinical-similarities-between-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-d-lactic-acidosis-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Amy Wallis, Michelle Ball, Sandra McKechnie, Henry Butt, Donald P Lewis, Dorothy Bruck
BACKGROUND: The pursuit for clarity in diagnostic and treatment pathways for the complex, chronic condition of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) continues. This systematic review raises a novel question to explore possible overlapping aetiology in two distinct conditions. Similar neurocognitive symptoms and evidence of D-lactate producing bacteria in ME/CFS raise questions about shared mechanisms with the acute condition of D-lactic acidosis (D-la). METHODS: D-la case reports published between 1965 and March 2016 were reviewed for episodes describing both neurological symptoms and high D-lactate levels...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591831/the-gut-metagenome-changes-in-parallel-to-waist-circumference-brain-iron-deposition-and-cognitive-function
#18
Gerard Blasco, José Maria Moreno-Navarrete, Mireia Rivero, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Josep Garre-Olmo, Josep Puig, Pepus Daunis-I-Estadella, Carles Biarnés, Jordi Gich, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Ángel Alberich-Bayarri, Andrés Moya, Salvador Pedraza, Wifredo Ricart, Miguel López, Manuel Portero-Otin, José-Manuel Fernandez-Real
Context: Microbiota perturbations seem to exert modulatory effects on emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems in adult animals; however, limited information is available in humans. Objective: To study potential relationships among the gut metagenome, brain microstructure and cognitive performance in middle-aged, apparently healthy, obese and nonobese subjects, after weight changes. Design: This is a longitudinal study over a 2-year period...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578886/antibacterial-properties-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-propolis-associated-with-calcium-hydroxide-against-single-and-multispecies-biofilms-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-situ-study
#19
Aldo Del Carpio-Perochena, Anil Kishen, Rafael Felitti, Anjali Y Bhagirath, Manoj R Medapati, Christopher Lai, Rodrigo S Cunha
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and ethanolic propolis extract (EPE) incorporated into a calcium hydroxide paste (Ca[OH]2) to kill bacterial biofilms. METHODS: Human root canal dentin was infected with Enterococcus faecalis for 21 days and also intraorally for 48 hours followed by incubation in brain-heart infusion for 48 hours to standardize biofilm growth. Ca(OH)2 pastes associated or not with CNPs or EPE were tested on biofilms for 7 and 14 days...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578695/sirt1-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-induced-neural-cell-death-and-is-down-regulated-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Preeti Singh, Peter S Hanson, Christopher M Morris
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+) dependent lysine deacetylases which are conserved from bacteria to humans and have been associated with longevity and lifespan extension. SIRT1, the best studied mammalian SIRT is involved in many physiological and pathological processes and changes in SIRT1 have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, with SIRT1 having a suggested protective role in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we determined the effect of SIRT1 on cell survival and α-synuclein aggregate formation in SH-SY5Y cells following oxidative stress...
June 2, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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