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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#1
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433535/crack-cocaine-users-views-regarding-treatment-with-contingency-management-in-brazil
#2
André Q C Miguel, Clarice S Madruga, Viviane Simões, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Claudio J da Silva, Renata R Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M Roll, Jair J Mari, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) has recently shown efficacy in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users in Brazil. However, partially because of unawareness and resistance among health care providers, CM has not been widely employed. The objective of this study was to conduct a secondary analysis in order to evaluate how CM participants perceive their treatment experience. METHODS: Twenty-seven crack cocaine users, previously assigned to 12 weeks of CM treatment, were assessed with a structured questionnaire designed to assess their personal opinion of, difficulty in understanding, and acceptance of the CM intervention, as well as their opinion regarding its impact on their treatment responses...
February 12, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431650/protein-translation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-dysregulated-during-cocaine-withdrawal-and-required-for-expression-of-incubation-of-cocaine-craving
#3
Craig T Werner, Michael T Stefanik, Mike Milovanovic, Aaron Caccamise, Marina E Wolf
Exposure to drug-associated cues can induce drug craving and relapse in abstinent addicts. Cue-induced craving that progressively intensifies ("incubates") during withdrawal from cocaine has been observed in both rats and humans. Building on recent evidence that aberrant protein translation underlies incubation-related adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), we used male rats to test the hypothesis that translation is dysregulated during cocaine withdrawal and/or when rats express incubated cocaine craving...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431453/relations-between-facets-and-personality-domains-with-impulsivity-new-evidence-using-the-dsm-5-section-iii-framework-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#4
Enrique Moraleda-Barreno, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Pedro Juan Pérez-Moreno, Jesús Gómez-Bujedo, Oscar M Lozano
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition proposes an alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders based on the identification of pathological personality facets. Despite the existing evidence for the relationship between personality disorders and impulsivity in patients with substance use disorders, no study has yet been conducted within this framework. Thus, using a sample of 110 patients with substance use disorders, the present work aims to (a) analyze the relationship between the different personality facets and domains evaluated by the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5) and impulsivity and (b) explore the relationships between severity of dependency and personality facets and dimensions of impulsivity...
February 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422497/repeated-administration-of-opra-kappa-ly2456302-a-novel-short-acting-selective-kop-r-antagonist-in-persons-with-and-without-cocaine-dependence
#5
Brian Reed, Eduardo R Butelman, Rebecca S Fry, Rachel Kimani, Mary Jeanne Kreek
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npp.2017.205.
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420772/purchased-behavioral-health-care-received-by-military-health-system-beneficiaries-in-civilian-medical-facilities-2000-2014
#6
Nikki R Wooten, Jordan A Brittingham, Ronald O Pitner, Abbas S Tavakoli, Diana D Jeffery, K Sue Haddock
Introduction: Behavioral health conditions are a significant concern for the U.S. military and the Military Health System (MHS) because of decreased military readiness and increased health care utilization. Although MHS beneficiaries receive direct care in military treatment facilities, a disproportionate majority of behavioral health treatment is purchased care received in civilian facilities. Yet, limited evidence exists about purchased behavioral health care received by MHS beneficiaries...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408018/cigarette-smoking-in-persons-living-with-hepatitis-c-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-1999-2014
#7
Ryung S Kim, Andrea H Weinberger, Geetanjali Chander, Mark S Sulkowski, Brianna Norton, Jonathan Shuter
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is common in persons living with hepatitis C (hepatitis C+), but national statistics on this harmful practice are lacking. A better understanding of smoking behaviors in hepatitis C+ individuals may help in the development of targeted treatment strategies. METHODS: We extracted data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999-2014. Hepatitis C+ were compared to hepatitis C- adults in the entire sample and in the subset of current smokers...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389167/adolescent-d-amphetamine-exposure-enhances-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#8
Ryan T Lacy, Hannah K Schorsch, Bridget P Austin
Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has risen drastically over the past 20 years in the United States and abroad. Amphetamine-based prescription stimulants are the most prescribed treatment for ADHD and the diversion of these drugs has also increased. Reports indicate 61% of individuals with an ADHD medication prescription have sold or shared their medication. Exposure to prescription stimulants, especially for those without an ADHD diagnosis, may increase susceptibility to drugs of abuse...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381352/design-and-mechanism-of-s-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic-acid-a-highly-potent-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-aminotransferase-inactivator-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#9
Jose I Juncosa, Kenji Takaya, Hoang V Le, Matthew J Moschitto, Pathum M Weerawarna, Romila Mascarenhas, Dali Liu, Stephen L Dewey, Richard B Silverman
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibition of GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, has been established as a possible strategy for the treatment of substance abuse. The raised GABA levels that occur as a consequence of this inhibition have been found to antagonize the rapid release of dopamine in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) that follows an acute challenge by an addictive substance...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374304/differences-in-trait-impulsivity-do-not-bias-the-response-to-pharmacological-drug-challenge-in-the-rat-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#10
Rebecca L Barlow, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
RATIONALE: Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369156/hepatitis-c-virus-cure-does-not-impact-kidney-function-decline-in-hiv-co-infected-patients
#11
Carmine Rossi, Sahar Saeed, Joseph Cox, Marie-Louise Vachon, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Sharon L Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, M John Gill, Mark Hull, Erica E M Moodie, Marina B Klein
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) and illicit (injection and non-injection) drug use on kidney function among hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV co-infected individuals. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study of HCV-HIV co-infected patients. METHODS: Data from 1,631 patients enrolled in the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort between 2003 and 2016 were analyzed. Patients who achieved SVR were matched 1:2 with chronically infected patients using time-dependent propensity scores...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363042/potential-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathophysiology-of-drug-addiction
#12
REVIEW
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#13
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341327/involvement-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-expression-and-extinction-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#14
Leah N Hitchcock, K Matthew Lattal
A key aspect of substance abuse is that drug taking often occurs in a specific context. As a consequence, exposure to drug-associated contexts can trigger cravings and relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Although many studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus is critical for developing and retrieving contextual and spatial memories, comparatively little is known about the role of the hippocampus in acquiring and inhibiting memories involving contexts and drugs of abuse. We examined the effects of hippocampal inactivation on expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) after initial acquisition or extinction of CPP in C57BL/6 mice...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339294/ketamine-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
I Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, W Lawn, E Krupitsky, C J A Morgan
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which acts on the central nervous system chiefly through antagonism of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Recently, ketamine has attracted attention as a rapid-acting anti-depressant but other studies have also reported its efficacy in reducing problematic alcohol and drug use. This review explores the preclinical and clinical research into ketamine's ability to treat addiction. Despite methodological limitations and the relative infancy of the field, results thus far are promising...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337083/palmitoylethanolamide-attenuates-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-and-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#16
Emma Zambrana-Infantes, Cristina Rosell Del Valle, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Pablo Galeano, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodríguez De Fonseca, Eduardo Blanco, Luis Javier Santín
Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine, as well as other drugs of abuse, alters the levels of lipid-based signaling molecules, such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Moreover, brain levels of NAEs have shown sensitivity to cocaine self-administration and extinction training in rodents. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated or acute administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous NAE, on psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-induced contextual conditioning...
January 11, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336931/impact-of-crack-cocaine-use-on-the-occurrence-of-oral-lesions-and-micronuclei
#17
R P Antoniazzi, F B Lago, L C Jardim, M R Sagrillo, K L Ferrazzo, C A Feldens
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oral lesions and micronuclei in crack cocaine users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 106 crack users and 106 non-users matched for age, sex, and tobacco use. Socio-demographic characteristics, the consumption of psychoactive substances, and the occurrence of fundamental lesions were investigated. Cellular changes in the oral mucosa (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, 'broken egg' events, and micronuclei) were determined by exfoliative cytology for 54 participants in each group...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332099/association-between-the-intron-8-vntr-polymorphism-of-the-dat1-gene-and-crack-cocaine-addiction
#18
Anderson R Stolf, Diana Müller, Jaqueline B Schuch, Gláucia C Akutagava-Martins, Luciano S P Guimaraes, Claudia M Szobot, Ricardo Halpern, Felix H P Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Tatiana Roman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare allele and genotype frequencies of a 30-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, located at intron 8, between adult crack cocaine users and nonaddicted individuals. Due to its involvement in drug addiction, this gene is a good candidate for molecular studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 239 current adult crack abusers or dependents from in- and outpatient clinics and 211 control individuals was collected in Brazil...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#19
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
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