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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683847/psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-tobacco-consumption-in-hiv-infected-outpatients
#1
Jean-Marc Jacquet, Hélène Peyriere, Alain Makinson, Marianne Peries, Nicolas Nagot, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Jacques Reynes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. METHODS: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). RESULTS: Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681856/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-modulates-the-locomotor-and-sensitization-effects-of-nicotine
#2
Ilya Sukhanov, Mariia Dorofeikova, Antonina Dolgorukova, Artem Dorotenko, Raul R Gainetdinov
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has emerged as a promising target for addiction treatments because it affects dopamine transmission in the mesolimbic pathway. TAAR1 is involved in the effects of addictive drugs, such as amphetamines, cocaine and ethanol, but the impact of TAAR1 on the effects of nicotine, the psychoactive drug responsible for the development and maintenance of tobacco smoking, has not yet been studied. This study was performed to investigate the possible modulatory action of TAAR1 on the effects of nicotine on locomotor behaviors in rats and mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681519/blunted-frontostriatal-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-predict-stimulant-and-marijuana-use
#3
Melanie A Blair, Jennifer L Stewart, April C May, Martina Reske, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Occasional recreational stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use is an important public health problem among young adults because 16% of those who experiment develop stimulant use disorder. This study aimed to determine whether behavioral and/or neural processing measures can forecast the transition from occasional to problematic stimulant use. METHODS: Occasional stimulant users completed a Risky Gains Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and were followed up 3 years later...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679040/author-correction-gray-and-white-matter-integrity-influence-tms-signal-propagation-a-multimodal-evaluation-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals
#4
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Daniel H Lench, Michaela Hoffman, Brittany Correia, Logan T Dowdle, Colleen A Hanlon
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673580/the-long-term-effects-of-cocaine-use-on-cognitive-functioning-a-systematic-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Kirsten M Frazer, Qwynten Richards, Diana R Keith
BACKGROUND: The predominant view of chronic cocaine use maintains that it causes a broad range of cognitive deficits. However, concerns about the possibly deleterious impact of cocaine on cognitive functioning have yet to be thoroughly vetted. This review addresses the impact of cocaine use on such cognitive domains as executive function, memory, language, and psychomotor speed. Additionally, relevant neuroimaging data is considered to understand the neural basis underlying cocaine-related effects on cognitive functioning...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671013/ontogeny-of-cocaine-induced-behaviors-and-cocaine-pharmacokinetics-in-male-and-female-neonatal-preweanling-and-adult-rats
#6
Sanders A McDougall, Matthew G Apodaca, Alena Mohd-Yusof, Adrian D Mendez, Caitlin G Katz, Angie Teran, Israel Garcia-Carachure, Anthony T Quiroz, Cynthia A Crawford
RATIONALE: Ontogenetic differences in the behavioral responsiveness to cocaine have often been attributed to the maturation of dopaminergic elements (e.g., dopamine transporters, D2High receptors, receptor coupling, etc.). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether ontogenetic changes in cocaine pharmacokinetics might contribute to age-dependent differences in behavioral responsiveness. METHODS: Male and female neonatal (PD 5), preweanling (PD 10 and PD 20), and adult (PD 70) rats were injected (IP) with cocaine or saline and various behaviors (e...
April 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651507/efficacy-and-side-effects-of-baclofen-and-the-novel-gaba-b-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-cmppe-in-animal-models-for-alcohol-and-cocaine-addiction
#7
Valentina Vengeliene, Tatiane T Takahashi, Olga A Dravolina, Irina Belozertseva, Edwin Zvartau, Anton Y Bespalov, Rainer Spanagel
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor is a potential target for treatment of substance use disorders. However, recent clinical trials report adverse effects in patients treated with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen and even question efficacy. How can the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical findings be explained? OBJECTIVE: To test efficacy and adverse effects of baclofen and the novel GABAB positive allosteric modulator (PAM) CMPPE in rat addiction models, which were developed in accordance with DSM...
April 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627317/intestinal-cart-is-a-regulator-of-gip-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression
#8
L Shcherbina, A Lindqvist, A-H Thorén Fischer, E Ahlqvist, E Zhang, S E Falkmer, E Renström, J Koffert, H Honka, N Wierup
Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans...
April 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626166/cascades-of-homeostatic-dysregulation-promote-incubation-of-cocaine-craving
#9
Junshi Wang, Masago Ishikawa, Yue Yang, Mami Otaka, James Y Kim, George R Gardner, Michael T Stefanik, Mike Milovanovic, Yanhua H Huang, Johannes W Hell, Marina E Wolf, Oliver M Schlüter, Yan Dong
In human drug users, cue-induced drug craving progressively intensifies after drug abstinence, promoting drug relapse. This time-dependent progression of drug craving is recapitulated in rodent models, in which rats exhibit progressive intensification of cue-induced drug seeking after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of drug craving. While recent results suggest that functional alterations of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) contribute to incubation of drug craving, it remains poorly understood how NAc function evolves after drug withdrawal to progressively intensify drug seeking...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625852/double-blind-evaluation-of-homeopathy-on-cocaine-craving-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#10
Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, Ana Carolina Acorinte, Fernando Oliveira Calzavara, Adriano André da Silva, Amarilys de Toledo Cesar, Maristela Schiabel Adler, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz
BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the nations with the greatest rates of annual cocaine usage. Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction is still limited, opening space for nonconventional interventions. Homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and Erythroxylum coca have been tested in the integrative treatment of cocaine craving among homeless addicts, but this setting had not proven feasible, due to insufficient recruitment. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effectiveness and tolerability of homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and E...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625706/pharmaceutical-cognitive-doping-in-students-a-chimeric-way-to-get-a-head
#11
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the pressing demands for memorization, top-level performance, and peer competition create an environment favorable for pharmaceutical cognitive doping behavior. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior and to discuss the issues at stake. The prevalence of pharmaceutical cognitive doping among students has been reported from 1.3% to 33% across studies, with variations depending on country and definition of pharmaceutical cognitive doping. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted for doping purposes are psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
March 6, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623562/decline-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-prescriptions-in-a-state-medicaid-population-following-formulary-conversion-from-suboxone-to-bunavail
#12
Richard Soper, Sireesh Appajosyula, Christina Deximo
INTRODUCTION: A large, statewide, fee-for-service Medicaid plan recently (October 2015) executed a complete switch from sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone [(SLBN), Suboxone® ] to buccal buprenorphine-naloxone [(BBN), Bunavail® ] on its preferred drug formulary. This complete formulary switch provided an opportunity to assess dynamic changes in prescribing patterns, patient/physician acceptance, and indices of potential misuse/diversion. METHODS: For the period January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2016, two datasets were analyzed: prescriptions and associated costs for buprenorphine-naloxone (BN) products and urine toxicology test results for patients in the Medicaid plan...
April 6, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622268/withdrawal-from-cocaine-self-administration-alters-the-regulation-of-protein-translation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#13
Michael T Stefanik, Mike Milovanovic, Craig T Werner, John C G Spainhour, Marina E Wolf
BACKGROUND: Cue-induced cocaine craving incubates during abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Expression of incubation ultimately depends on elevation of homomeric GluA1 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This adaptation requires ongoing protein translation for its maintenance. Aberrant translation is implicated in central nervous system diseases, but nothing is known about glutamatergic regulation of translation in the drug-naïve NAc or after incubation...
February 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620701/pharmacokinetics-of-sustained-release-oral-dexamphetamine-sulfate-in-cocaine-and-heroin-dependent-patients
#14
Maikel Herbrink, Masha Nuijten, Bastiaan Nuijen, Alwin D R Huitema, Jos H Beijnen, Vincent M Hendriks, Peter Blanken, Amin Janmohamed, Wim van den Brink
INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that sustained-release (SR) dexamphetamine is a promising agonist treatment for cocaine dependence. However, little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of SR oral dexamphetamine. This study examined the PKs of a new SR dexamphetamine formulation in cocaine plus heroin-dependent patients currently in heroin-assisted treatment. METHODS: The study was designed as an open-label PK study in 2 cohorts: n = 5 with once daily 60 mg and n = 7 with once daily 30 mg SR oral dexamphetamine...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608428/is-ayahuasca-an-option-for-the-treatment-of-crack-cocaine-dependence
#15
Joselaine Ida Cruz, Solange Aparecida Nappo
The low efficacy of crack cocaine addiction treatment available in Brazil has led Brazilian users to find alternatives to reduce drug consumption or even to reach abstinence. One of them is the use of entheogenic substances, like ayahuasca, an infusion obtained from two native plant species from the Amazon. The present report aimed to understand how crack cocaine users recover from drug addiction by consuming ayahuasca tea in a religious context. This is a qualitative study with a purposeful sample of 40 crack cocaine users, based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608131/do-patients-with-different-psychiatric-disorders-show-altered-social-decision-making-a-systematic-review-of-ultimatum-game-experiments-in-clinical-populations
#16
Barbara Hinterbuchinger, Alexander Kaltenboeck, Josef Severin Baumgartner, Nilufar Mossaheb, Fabian Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Impairments in social functioning are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. Game paradigms pose a unique way for studying how people make decisions in interpersonal contexts. In the last decade, researchers have started to use these paradigms to study social decision-making in patients with psychiatric disorders. PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic literature review is to summarise the currently available evidence on the behaviour of patients with psychiatric disorders in the commonly used Ultimatum Game (UG)...
April 2, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604294/the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-or-bupropion-on-methamphetamine-self-administration-and-methamphetamine-triggered-reinstatement-of-female-rats
#17
Sergios Charntikov, Steven T Pittenger, Cindy M Pudiak, Rick A Bevins
N-acetylcysteine and bupropion are two promising candidate medications for treatment of substance use disorder. The effects of N-acetylcysteine or bupropion on methamphetamine self-administration of female rats are not well understood. To fill this gap, this study assessed the effects of N-acetylcysteine (0, 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) and bupropion (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) on methamphetamine self-administration of female rats across the natural estrous cycle. Following a completed dose-response curve, responding for methamphetamine self-administration was extinguished and the effects of N-acetylcysteine or bupropion on methamphetamine-triggered reinstatement was evaluated in separate experiments...
March 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602151/usefulness-of-hair-analysis-and-psychological-tests-for-identification-of-alcohol-and-drugs-of-abuse-consumption-in-driving-license-regranting
#18
Elena Lendoiro, Ana de Castro, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Xosé A Gomez-Fraguela, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Angelines Cruz
The implementation of the points-based driving license helps to change the drivers' behavior and is related to a reduction of traffic accidents and fatalities. In Spain, when a driver loses all points, the driving license is revoked, so the driver must enroll on a Driver Awareness and Re-education (DARE) course. However, at the moment offenders are not submitted to any test to confirm absence of alcohol or drugs of abuse consumption, even when 9% of Spanish drivers lose their driving license for driving under the influence (DUI)...
March 20, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593581/enhanced-amygdala-striatal-functional-connectivity-during-the-processing-of-cocaine-cues-in-male-cocaine-users-with-a-history-of-childhood-trauma
#19
Anne Marije Kaag, Liesbeth Reneman, Judith Homberg, Wim van den Brink, Guido A van Wingen
Background and aims: Childhood trauma is associated with increased levels of anxiety later in life, an increased risk for the development of substance use disorders, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the amygdala and frontostriatal circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate the (neurobiological) link among childhood trauma, state anxiety, and amygdala-frontostriatal activity in response to cocaine cues in regular cocaine users. Methods: In this study, we included 59 non-treatment seeking regular cocaine users and 58 non-drug using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580953/effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-channelrhodopsin-2-kinetics
#20
Dominic Gioia, Minfu Xu, Wesley Wayman, John Woodward
Channelrhodopsins are light activated ion channels used extensively over the past decade to probe the function of genetically defined neuronal populations and distinct neural circuits with high temporal and spatial precision. The widely used Channelrhodopsin-2 variant (ChR2) is an excitatory opsin that undergoes conformational changes in response to blue light, allowing non-selective passage of protons and cations across the plasma membrane thus leading to depolarization. In the addiction neuroscience field, opsins such as ChR2 provide a means to disambiguate the overlapping circuitry involved in mediating the reinforcing and aversive effects of drugs of abuse as well as to determine the plasticity that can occur in these circuits during the development of dependence...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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