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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#1
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#2
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907134/reward-contingencies-improve-goal-directed-behavior-by-enhancing-posterior-brain-attentional-regions-and-increasing-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-cocaine-addicts
#3
Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan-Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Víctor Costumero, Juan-José Llopis-Llacer, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#4
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886657/receipt-of-addiction-treatment-as-a-consequence-of-a-brief-intervention-for-drug-use-in-primary-care-a-randomized-trial
#5
Theresa W Kim, Judith Bernstein, Debbie M Cheng, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Jeffrey H Samet, Tibor P Palfai, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Screening, brief intervention and 'referral to treatment' programs have been widely promoted as US federal policy. Little is known about the efficacy of the RT component (referral to treatment) of brief intervention for motivating patients with unhealthy drug use identified by screening to use addiction treatment. This study aimed to compare receipt of addiction treatment following two types of brief intervention for drug use vs a no-intervention control group among primary care patients screening positive for drug use...
November 25, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886524/effects-of-ethanol-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-monkeys-responding-under-a-second-order-schedule-of-reinforcement
#6
William S John, Michael A Nader
BACKGROUND: Concurrent alcohol use among cocaine abusers is common but the behavioral variables that promote co-abuse are not well understood. The present study examined the effects of intragastric (i.g.) ethanol (EtOH) administration in monkeys responding under a schedule of cocaine reinforcement in which extensive drug seeking was maintained by conditioned stimuli. METHODS: Four adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to respond under a second-order fixed-interval (FI) 600s (fixed-ratio (FR) 30:S) schedule of cocaine (0...
November 10, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872762/understanding-the-functional-plasticity-in-neural-networks-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-cocaine-use-disorder-a-role-for-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-in-a2a-d2-heteroreceptor-complexes
#7
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Karolina Wydra, Julia Pintsuk, Manuel Narvaez, Fidel Corrales, Magdalena Zaniewska, Luigi F Agnati, Rafael Franco, Sergio Tanganelli, Luca Ferraro, Malgorzata Filip, Kjell Fuxe
Our hypothesis is that allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in homo- and heteroreceptor complexes may form the molecular basis of learning and memory. This principle is illustrated by showing how cocaine abuse can alter the adenosine A2AR-dopamine D2R heterocomplexes and their receptor-receptor interactions and hereby induce neural plasticity in the basal ganglia. Studies with A2AR ligands using cocaine self-administration procedures indicate that antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R heterocomplexes of the ventral striatopallidal GABA antireward pathway play a significant role in reducing cocaine induced reward, motivation, and cocaine seeking...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871824/cocaine-self-administration-extinction-training-and-drug-induced-relapse-change-metabotropic-glutamate-mglu5-receptors-expression-evidence-from-radioligand-binding-and-immunohistochemistry-assays
#8
Lucyna Pomierny-Chamiolo, Joanna Miszkiel, Malgorzata Frankowska, Beata Bystrowska, Malgorzata Filip
Several behavioral findings highlight the importanceof glutamatergic transmission and its metabotropic receptor type 5 (mGlu5) in the controlling of cocaine reward and seeking behaviors. The molecular or neurochemical nature of such interactions is not well recognized, so in the present paper we determine if cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement models with the yoked triad control procedure alter mGlu5 receptor density in rats. [³H]MPEP was used to evaluate mGlu5 receptors density and affinity in selected brain structures, while immunofluorescence analysis was used to detect changes in mGlu5 receptors' brain location...
November 18, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871669/induction-and-blockade-of-adolescent-cocaine-induced-habits
#9
Lauren M DePoy, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Paul J Marvar, Shannon L Gourley
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use during adolescence increases vulnerability to drug dependence and decreases the likelihood that individuals will seek treatment as adults. Understanding how early-life cocaine exposure influences decision-making processes in adulthood is thus critically important. METHODS: Adolescent or adult mice were exposed to subchronic cocaine, then behavioral sensitivity to changes in the predictive relationship between actions and their consequences was tested...
October 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866365/periodontal-status-in-crack-and-cocaine-addicted-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Patricia Ramos Cury, Maria Graças Alonso Oliveira, Jean Nunes Dos Santos
This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between crack/cocaine addiction and periodontal disease in men. Periodontal examination (probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index) and interviews were performed in 160 patients (≥18 years) from the Federal University of Bahia. Crack and cocaine dependence was defined according to the medical records and interviews of each patient; all drug addicted volunteers used both crack and cocaine. T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used to assess the associations between destructive periodontal disease and crack/cocaine dependence (p ≤ 0...
November 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862692/ppar%C3%AE-agonism-attenuates-cocaine-cue-reactivity
#12
William R Miller, Robert G Fox, Sonja J Stutz, Scott D Lane, Larry Denner, Kathryn A Cunningham, Kelly T Dineley
Cocaine use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug seeking and taking even after prolonged abstinence periods. Subsequent exposure to drug-associated cues can promote intense craving and lead to relapse in abstinent humans and rodent models. The responsiveness to these cocaine-related cues, or 'cue reactivity', can trigger relapse and cocaine-seeking behaviors; cue reactivity is measurable in cocaine-dependent humans as well as rodent models. Cue reactivity is thought to be predictive of cocaine craving and relapse...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860349/irms-to-study-a-common-cocaine-cutting-agent-phenacetin
#13
Virginie Ladroue, Laurence Dujourdy, Fabrice Besacier, Patrick Jame
Phenacetin is a pharmaceutical closely related to acetaminophen that has been banned in France for a long time due to its nephritic and carcinogenic adverse effects. It frequently appears in cocaine seizures as a cutting agent. Following both sanitary and intelligence motivations, this molecule was chosen for this study, and stable isotopes seemed to be the most appropriate tool. A total of 228 seized samples were collected over a six-year-long period, and 8 standards of known origin were purchased. They were submitted to GC or EA-IRMS measurements, depending on their complexity...
November 17, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859963/repeated-restraint-stress-exposure-during-early-withdrawal-accelerates-incubation-of-cue-induced-cocaine-craving
#14
Ryan M Glynn, J Amiel Rosenkranz, Marina E Wolf, Aaron Caccamise, Freya Shroff, Alyssa B Smith, Jessica A Loweth
A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857126/repeated-7-day-treatment-with-the-5-ht2c-agonist-lorcaserin-or-the-5-ht2a-antagonist-pimavanserin-alone-or-in-combination-fails-to-reduce-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#15
Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0...
November 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856517/mglur-long-term-depression-regulates-glua2-association-with-copii-vesicles-and-exit-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#16
Joseph E Pick, Latika Khatri, Matheus F Sathler, Edward B Ziff
mGluR long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity induced at excitatory synapses by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). mGluR-LTD reduces synaptic strength and is relevant to learning and memory, autism, and sensitization to cocaine; however, the mechanism is not known. Here we show that activation of Group I mGluRs in medium spiny neurons induces trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the synapse by enhancing GluA2 binding to essential COPII vesicle proteins, Sec23 and Sec13...
November 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837330/reinforcing-properties-of-an-intermittent-low-dose-of-ketamine-in-rats-effects-of-sex-and-cycle
#17
Katherine N Wright, Caroline E Strong, Marjorie N Addonizio, Naomi C Brownstein, Mohamed Kabbaj
RATIONALE: Repeated intermittent exposure to ketamine has rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but the abuse potential has only been assessed at high doses. Furthermore, while females are more susceptible to depression and more sensitive to ketamine's antidepressant-like effects, the abuse potential for ketamine in females is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to determine the reinforcing properties of low-dose intermittent ketamine in adult rats of both sexes and determine whether cycling gonadal hormones influence females' response to ketamine...
November 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834787/cocaine-promotes-primary-human-astrocyte-proliferation-via-jnk-dependent-up-regulation-of-cyclin-a2
#18
Chun-Ting Lee, Kristen L Boeshore, Chun Wu, Kevin G Becker, Stacie L Errico, Deborah C Mash, William J Freed
PURPOSE: Astrocytes perform a plethora of important functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity. Previously, we showed that while cocaine decreased cyclin A2 expression in primary human neural progenitor cells, it increased cyclin A2 expression in human astrocytes. Since cyclin A2 is an essential regulator of the cell cycle, the aim of the present study is to clarify the effect of cocaine on proliferation of human astrocytes and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
November 8, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833645/the-impact-of-psychopathological-subtypes-on-retention-rate-of-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-entering-residential-therapeutic-community-treatment
#19
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Emanuela Trogu, Federica Vigna-Taglianti, Federica Mathis, Roberto Diecidue, Ursula Kirchmayer, Laura Amato, Joli Ghibaudi, Antonella Camposeragna, Alessio Saponaro, Marina Davoli, Fabrizio Faggiano, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: A specific psychopathology of addiction has been proposed and described using the self-report symptom inventory (SCL-90), leading to a 5-factor aggregation of psychological/psychiatric symptoms: 'worthlessness and being trapped', 'somatic symptoms', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic-anxiety' and 'violence-suicide' in various populations of patients with heroin use disorder (HUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs). These clusters of symptoms, according to studies that have highlighted the role of possible confounding factors (such as demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems and kind of treatment received by the patients), seem to constitute a trait rather than a state of the psychological structure of addiction...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833235/an-unusual-case-of-baclofen-abuse
#20
Soumitra Das, Dhanya Sasidharan Palappalllil, Sumesh Thoppil Purushothaman, Varun Rajan
Baclofen was initially used for the treatment of spastic conditions. Last decade has seen its emergence as a treatment of profound interest in alcohol dependence, opiates and cocaine abuse, and tobacco addiction. However, the published literature on baclofen abuse is sparse. Here, we report a patient with baclofen abuse.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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