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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888787/c-fos-marking-of-identified-midbrain-neurons-co-active-after-nicotine-administration-in-vivo
#1
Katja Lingelbach, Arian Hach, Rick E Bernardi, Rainer Spanagel, Hilmar Bading, C Peter Bengtson
Despite the reduced life expectancy and staggering financial burden of medical treatment associated with tobacco smoking, the molecular, cellular and ensemble adaptations associated with chronic nicotine consumption remain poorly understood. Complex circuitry interconnecting dopaminergic and cholinergic regions of the midbrain and mesopontine tegmentum are critical for nicotine associated reward. Yet our knowledge of the nicotine activation of these regions is incomplete, in part due to their cell type diversity...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886366/cognitive-impairment-associated-with-cocaine-use-the-role-of-co-existent-alcohol-abuse-dependence
#2
Laura Blanco-Presas, Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Silvia Alonso-Lana, Raymond Salvador, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter McKenna
BACKGROUND: Cocaine abuse has been reported as leading to impaired cognitive function. However, cocaine abusers commonly also abuse alcohol, which can itself produce cognitive impairment. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the potential confounding effect of alcohol abuse on neuropsychological test performance in cocaine and alcohol abusing individuals, comparing them with individuals who abused alcohol alone and non-abusing controls. METHODS: Nineteen cocaine abusers who also met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (14 m, 5f; mean age 38...
May 29, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885524/extinction-and-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-self-administering-mice-is-associated-with-bidirectional-ampar-mediated-plasticity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#3
Stephanie R Ebner, Erin B Larson, Matthew C Hearing, Anna E Ingebretson, Mark J Thomas
Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine experienced mice with extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior show potentiation of synaptic strength at excitatory inputs onto NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880471/self-reported-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Joshua D Bundy, Lydia A Bazzano, Dawei Xie, Janet Cohan, Jacqueline Dolata, Jeffrey C Fink, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Kenneth Jamerson, James Lash, Gail Makos, Susan Steigerwalt, Xue Wang, Katherine T Mills, Jing Chen, Jiang He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest that tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is associated with CKD. We examined the associations of substance use with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among 3939 participants with CKD in the United States. Self-reported tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, marijuana use, and hard illicit drug (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine) use were obtained at baseline and annual follow-up visits...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876881/cocaine-blocks-effects-of-hunger-hormone-ghrelin-via-interaction-with-neuronal-sigma-1-receptors
#5
David Aguinaga, Mireia Medrano, Arnau Cordomí, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Edgar Angelats, Mireia Casanovas, Ignacio Vega-Quiroga, Enric I Canela, Milos Petrovic, Katia Gysling, Leonardo Pardo, Rafael Franco, Gemma Navarro
Despite ancient knowledge on cocaine appetite-suppressant action, the molecular basis of such fact remains unknown. Addiction/eating disorders (e.g., binge eating, anorexia, bulimia) share a central control involving reward circuits. However, we here show that the sigma-1 receptor (σ1 R) mediates cocaine anorectic effects by interacting in neurons with growth/hormone/secretagogue (ghrelin) receptors. Cocaine increases colocalization of σ1 R and GHS-R1a at the cell surface. Moreover, in transfected HEK-293T and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and in primary neuronal cultures, pretreatment with cocaine or a σ1 R agonist inhibited ghrelin-mediated signaling, in a similar manner as the GHS-R1a antagonist YIL-781...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876265/dynamic-network-dysfunction-in-cocaine-dependence-graph-theoretical-metrics-and-stop-signal-reaction-time
#6
Yihe Zhang, Sheng Zhang, Jaime S Ide, Sien Hu, Simon Zhornitsky, Wuyi Wang, Guozhao Dong, Xiaoying Tang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Graphic theoretical metrics have become increasingly popular in characterizing functional connectivity of neural networks and how network connectivity is compromised in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we add to this literature by describing dynamic network connectivities of 78 cocaine dependent (CD) and 85 non-drug using healthy control (HC) participants who underwent fMRI during performance of a stop signal task (SST). Compared to HC, CD showed prolonged stop signal reaction time (SSRT), consistent with deficits in response inhibition...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846769/ethanol-addictively-enhances-the-in-vitro-cardiotoxicity-of-cocaine-through-oxidative-damage-energetic-deregulation-and-apoptosis
#7
Maria João Martins, Rita Roque Bravo, Maria Enea, Helena Carmo, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Diana Dias da Silva
Cocaine (COC) is frequently consumed in polydrug abuse settings, and ethanol (EtOH) is the most prominent co-abused substance. Clinical data and experimental evidence suggest that the co-administration of COC with EtOH can be more cardiotoxic than EtOH or COC alone, but information on the molecular pathways involved is scarce. Since these data are crucial to potentiate the identification of therapeutic targets to treat intoxications, we sought to (i) elucidate the type of interaction that occurs between both substances, and (ii) assess the mechanisms implicated in the cardiotoxic effects elicited by COC combined with EtOH...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807065/dopamine-ds3-receptor-partial-agonist-ls-3-134-attenuates-cocaine-motivated-behaviors
#8
Gregory L Powell, John Paul Bonadonna, Annika Vannan, Kuiying Xu, Robert H Mach, Robert R Luedtke, Janet L Neisewander
AIMS: The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a pharmacotherapeutic target for drug dependence. We have successfully imaged human D3Rs using radiolabeled LS-3-134, an arylamide phenylpiperazine with moderate selectivity for the D3R over D2R and low efficacy at the D2 and D3R. In this study, we screened for effects of LS-3-134 as a potential anti-cocaine therapeutic. METHODS: Male rats were pretreated with LS-3-134 (0, 1.0, 3.2, or 5.6 mg/kg, IP) 15 min prior to tests for its effects on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803557/regulation-of-corneal-noradrenaline-release-and-topography-of-sympathetic-innervation-functional-implications-for-adrenergic-mechanisms-in-the-human-cornea
#9
Luis Figueira, Catarina Janeiro, Fatima Ferreirinha, Paula Serrao, Sara Perestrelo, Fernando Falcao-Reis, Paulo Correia-de-Sa, Daniel Moura
Having established a main neuronal origin for noradrenaline (NA) in the cornea, we set out to study the physiologic determinants of its release and to correlate functional findings with sympathetic nerve density and overall topography. Whole corneas were obtained from 3 to 4 month-old rabbits and human donors. Study of prejunctional effects was carried out after incubation with radiolabelled NA (3H-NA). Corneas were superfused with warm aerated amine-free medium with cocaine and hydrocortisone to block subsequent neuronal and extraneuronal NA uptake...
May 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776355/can-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-be-used-to-treat-substance-use-disorders-sud-a-systematic-review
#10
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Imke Gerkensmeier, Maria Schuchinsky
BACKGROUND: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is a non-invasive method of stimulating widespread cortical areas and, presumably, deeper neural networks. The current study assessed the effects of DTMS in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) using a systematic review. METHODS: Electronic literature search (PsycInfo, Medline until April 2017) identified k = 9 studies (k = 4 randomized-controlled trials, RCTs, with inactive sham and k = 5 open-label studies)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#11
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773910/the-l-type-calcium-channel-blocker-isradipine-attenuates-cue-induced-cocaine-seeking-by-enhancing-dopaminergic-activity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-pathway
#12
Nii A Addy, Eric J Nunes, Shannon M Hughley, Keri M Small, Sarah J Baracz, Joshua L Haight, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Previous preclinical and clinical investigations have focused on the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as a potential therapeutic target for substance abuse. While some clinical studies have examined the ability of LTCC blockers to alter cocaine's subjective effects, very few LTCC studies have examined cocaine relapse. Here, we examined whether ventral tegmental area (VTA)-specific or systemic administration of the LTCC inhibitor, isradipine, altered cocaine-seeking behavior in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats first received 10 days of cocaine self-administration training (2 h sessions), where active lever depression resulted in delivery of a ∼0...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773909/an-unsuspected-role-for-organic-cation-transporter-3-in-the-actions-of-amphetamine
#13
Felix P Mayer, Diethart Schmid, W Anthony Owens, Georgianna G Gould, Mia Apuschkin, Oliver Kudlacek, Isabella Salzer, Stefan Boehm, Peter Chiba, Piper H Williams, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Ulrik Gether, Wouter Koek, Lynette C Daws, Harald H Sitte
Amphetamine abuse is a major public health concern for which there is currently no effective treatment. To develop effective treatments, the mechanisms by which amphetamine produces its abuse-related effects need to be fully understood. It is well known that amphetamine exerts its actions by targeting high-affinity transporters for monoamines, in particular the cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) has recently been found to play an important role in regulating monoamine signaling...
April 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768586/gender-stereotypes-in-psychosocial-care-for-female-crack-and-powder-cocaine-users
#14
Érika Barbosa de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira, Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna
The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760180/the-affective-and-neural-correlates-of-heroin-vs-cocaine-use-in-addiction-are-influenced-by-environmental-setting-but-in-opposite-directions
#15
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755832/collaborative-phenotype-inference-from-comorbid-substance-use-disorders-and-genotypes
#16
Jin Lu, Jiangwen Sun, Xinyu Wang, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Jinbo Bi
Data in large-scale genetic studies of complex human diseases, such as substance use disorders, are often incomplete. Despite great progress in genotype imputation, e.g., the IMPUTE2 method, considerably less progress has been made in inferring phenotypes. We designed a novel approach to integrate individuals' comorbid conditions with their genotype data to infer missing (unreported) diagnostic criteria of a disorder. The premise of our approach derives from correlations among symptoms and the shared biological bases of concurrent disorders such as co-dependence on cocaine and opioids...
November 2017: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755353/importance-of-toxicokinetics-to-assess-the-utility-of-zebrafish-larvae-as-model-for-psychoactive-drug-screening-using-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-mcpp-as-example
#17
Krishna Tulasi Kirla, Ksenia J Groh, Michael Poetzsch, Rakesh Kumar Banote, Julita Stadnicka-Michalak, Rik I L Eggen, Kristin Schirmer, Thomas Kraemer
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) increases rapidly, harming society and fuelling the need for alternative testing strategies. These should allow the ever-increasing number of drugs to be tested more effectively for their toxicity and psychoactive effects. One proposed strategy is to complement rodent models with zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) larvae. Yet, our understanding of the toxicokinetics in this model, owing to the waterborne drug exposure and the distinct physiology of the fish, is incomplete...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#18
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753648/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-regulates-cocaine-reward-through-sirtuin-1
#19
Jueying Kong, Changman Du, Linhong Jiang, Wei Jiang, Pengchi Deng, Xue Shao, Baolai Zhang, Yan Li, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Zhao, Dengqi Fu, Hui Gu, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis in mammals, converts nicotinamide into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is subsequently converted to NAD, a component that is critical for cell energy metabolism and survival. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, plays an important role in mediating memory and synaptic plasticity. Here, we found that NAMPT was significantly upregulated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of cocaine-conditioned mice...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749059/global-statistics-on-alcohol-tobacco-and-illicit-drug-use-2017-status-report
#20
REVIEW
Amy Peacock, Janni Leung, Sarah Larney, Samantha Colledge, Matthew Hickman, Jürgen Rehm, Gary A Giovino, Robert West, Wayne Hall, Paul Griffiths, Robert Ali, Linda Gowing, John Marsden, Alize J Ferrari, Jason Grebely, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
AIMS: This review provides an up-to-date curated source of information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and their associated mortality and burden of disease. Limitations in the data are also discussed, including how these can be addressed in the future. METHODS: Online data sources were identified through expert review. Data were mainly obtained from the World Health Organization, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation...
May 10, 2018: Addiction
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