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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227894/substance-induced-psychotic-symptoms-in-borderline-personality-disorder-among-substance-use-disorder-samples-in-spain
#1
Carmen Barral, Laia Rodríguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Constanza Daigre, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Natalia Calvo, Marc Ferrer, Carlos Roncero
Substance-induced psychosis (SIP) is frequent in substance use disorder patients. However, little is known about the presence of SIP in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and what the risk factors for the development of SIP in this population would be. A sample of 91 BPD drug-dependent patients attending an outpatient substance use disorder unit was evaluated. Comorbidity with Axis I and II was assessed using SCID-I and SCID-II. Psychoactive drug related variables were registered as well as the presence of the ninth criterion of DSM-IV-TR as a code of psychotic symptoms...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226762/assessing-cognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#2
Kirsten M Frazer, Jennifer J Manly, Geraldine Downey, Carl L Hart
INTRODUCTION: There have been mixed findings assessing the impact of regular cocaine use on cognitive functioning. This study employed a comprehensive cognitive battery to compare the performance of individuals diagnosed with a cocaine use disorder (N = 3 abusers, N = 17 dependent) against the performance of two control groups: (a) non-drug-users, and (b) marijuana users who report no cocaine use (N = 7 marijuana abusers, N = 0 dependent, N = 13 marijuana users with no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV, diagnosis)...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224920/-cognitive-doping-in-students-a-chim-er-ical-way-to-get-full-head
#3
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the requirements for memorization, increased performance and peer competition may encourage cognitive doping behaviors. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior to discuss the different issues. The prevalence of cognitive doping among students was 1.3% to 33% according to the studies, depending on the country concerned and the definition of cognitive doping used. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted were psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
November 22, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217409/proteasome-phosphorylation-regulates-cocaine-induced-sensitization
#4
Frankie R Gonzales, Kristin K Howell, Lara E Dozier, Stephan G Anagnostaras, Gentry N Patrick
Repeated exposure to cocaine produces structural and functional modifications at synapses from neurons in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to underlie cocaine-induced sensitization. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a crucial role in the remodeling of synapses and has recently been implicated in addiction-related behavior. The ATPase Rpt6 subunit of the 26S proteasome is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II alpha at ser120 which is thought to regulate proteasome activity and distribution in neurons...
December 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216351/1-adrenoceptor-in-the-central-amygdala-is-required-for-unconditioned-stimulus-induced-drug-memory-reconsolidation
#5
Huiwen Zhu, Yiming Zhou, Zhiyuan Liu, Xi Chen, Yanqing Li, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Background: Drug memories become labile and reconsolidated after retrieval by presentation of environmental cues (conditioned stimulus, CS) or drugs (unconditioned stimulus, US). Whether CS- and US-retrieval trigger different memory reconsolidation processes is not clear. Methods: Protein synthesis inhibitor or β-AR antagonist was systemically administrated or intra-central amygdala (CeA) infused immediately after cocaine re-exposure in cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) or self-administration (SA) mice models...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204804/influence-of-preoptic-estradiol-on-behavioral-and-neural-response-to-cocaine-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Christopher L Robison, Julia R Martz, Juan M Dominguez
RATIONALE: Systemic estradiol (E2) increases the behavioral and neural response to cocaine. Where in the brain E2 acts to modulate cocaine response is not entirely clear. Evidence supports a role in this modulation for several candidate regions, including the medial preoptic area (mPOA). OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether manipulation of E2 in the mPOA modulates differing behavioral responses to cocaine and whether this is reflected in differing levels of c-Fos in the NAc following cocaine administration...
December 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196318/inactivation-of-nmda-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-during-cocaine-self-administration-prevents-glua1-up-regulation-but-with-paradoxical-increases-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#7
Daniel Guzman, Maria B Carreira, Allyson K Friedman, Megumi Adachi, Rachael L Neve, Lisa M Monteggia, Ming-Hu Han, Christopher W Cowan, David W Self
Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons that subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced LTP in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187752/inhibiting-rho-kinase-promotes-goal-directed-decision-making-and-blocks-habitual-responding-for-cocaine
#8
Andrew M Swanson, Lauren M DePoy, Shannon L Gourley
The prelimbic prefrontal cortex is necessary for associating actions with their consequences, enabling goal-directed decision making. We find that the strength of action-outcome conditioning correlates with dendritic spine density in prelimbic cortex, suggesting that new action-outcome learning involves dendritic spine plasticity. To test this, we inhibited the cytoskeletal regulatory factor Rho kinase. We find that the inhibitor fasudil enhances action-outcome memory, resulting in goal-directed behavior in mice that would otherwise express stimulus-response habits...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185593/behavioral-cross-sensitization-between-testosterone-and-fenproporex-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#9
C Q Conceição, S A Engi, F C Cruz, C S Planeta
The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex...
November 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178372/thc-alters-alters-morphology-of-neurons-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-and-alters-the-ability-of-later-experience-to-promote-structural-plasticity
#10
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178109/-effects-of-cocaine-on-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-startle-response
#11
REVIEW
M C Arenas, C Caballero-Reinaldo, C I Navarro-Frances, C Manzanedo
INTRODUCTION: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is an index used to evaluate how the pre-attention system works. PPI is altered in patients with a mental disorder such as schizophrenia and in subjects who are vulnerable to it. Likewise, cocaine users also frequently exhibit psychiatric disorders as schizophrenia. AIM: To know the alterations that cocaine produces on PPI. DEVELOPMENT: A comprehensive review is carried out, covering both clinical and preclinical studies with animal models that have evaluated the effects of cocaine exposure on the PPI paradigm...
December 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168271/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-co-agonist-availability-affects-behavioral-and-neurochemical-responses-to-cocaine-insights-into-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse
#12
Matthew D Puhl, Rajeev I Desai, Shunsuke Takagi, Kendall T Presti, Michelle R Doyle, Rachel J Donahue, Samantha M Landino, Jack Bergman, William A Carlezon, Joseph T Coyle
Both schizophrenia (SZ) and substance abuse (SA) exhibit significant heritability. Moreover, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both SZ and SA. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of comorbid SA in SZ is due to dysfunction of NMDARs caused by shared risk genes. We used transgenic mice with a null mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine and an established risk gene for SZ, to recreate the pathology of SZ...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167636/preventive-strength-of-dyadic-social-interaction-against-reacquisition-reexpression-of-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#13
Tanja Bregolin, Barbara S Pinheiro, Rana El Rawas, Gerald Zernig
The reorientation away from drugs of abuse and toward social interaction is a highly desirable but as yet elusive goal in the therapy of substance dependence. We could previously show that cocaine preferring Sprague-Dawley rats which engaged in only four 15 min episodes of dyadic social interaction (DSI) did not reacquire and reexpress cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) after a single cocaine exposure. In the present study, we investigated how strong this preventive effect of DSI is. In corroboration of our previous findings in rats, four 15 min DSI episodes prevented the reacquisition/reexpression of cocaine CPP in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166482/abortion-and-sex-related-conditions-in-substance-dependent-brazilian-patients
#14
Alessandra Diehl, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Ronaldo Laranjeira
Abortion is a very sensitive issue with relevance to public health; however few clinical or population-based studies have examined induced abortion among drug users. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of induced abortion and sex-related conditions in an inpatient drug user sample. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in an inpatient addiction treatment unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 616 patients, aged 18-75. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and dependence severity were evaluated in relation to induced abortion...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165565/cued-reinstatement-of-cocaine-but-not-sucrose-seeking-is-dependent-upon-dopamine-signaling-in-prelimbic-cortex-and-is-associated-with-recruitment-of-prelimbic-neurons-that-project-to-contralateral-nucleus-accumbens-core
#15
Morgan H James, Ellen M McGlinchey, Asrita Vattikonda, Stephen V Mahler, Gary Aston-Jones
Background: Drug cues recruit prelimbic cortex (PL) neurons that project to ipsilateral nucleus accumbens core (NAcCipsi). However, it is not known if the same is true for PL projections that decussate to innervate contralateral NAcC (NAcCcontra). Further, a role for PL dopamine signaling in cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking has not been shown. Methods: We assessed Fos expression in PL neurons that project to NAcCcontra following cued reinstatement of cocaine or sucrose seeking...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163330/white-matter-changes-in-hiv-women-with-a-history-of-cocaine-dependence
#16
Kathryn-Mary Wakim, Ciara J Molloy, Ryan P Bell, Lars A Ross, John J Foxe
Cocaine use is associated with the transmission of human immunodeficiency (HIV) virus through risky sexual behavior. In HIV+ individuals, cocaine use is linked with poor health outcomes, including HIV-medication non-adherence and faster disease progression. Both HIV and cocaine dependence are associated with reduced integrity of cerebral white matter (WM), but the effects of HIV during cocaine abstinence have not yet been explored. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to understand the effect of combined HIV+ serostatus and former cocaine dependence on cerebral WM integrity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152855/kinase-interest-you-in-treating-incubated-cocaine-craving-a-hypothetical-model-for-treatment-intervention-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-cocaine
#17
REVIEW
Karen K Szumlinski, Christina B Shin
A diagnostic criterion for drug addiction, persistent drug-craving continues to be the most treatment-resistant aspect of addiction that maintains the chronic, relapsing, nature of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of psychomotor stimulant addiction, there currently exists no FDA-approved medication for craving reduction. In good part, this reflects our lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug-craving. In humans, cue-elicited drug-craving is associated with the hyper-excitability of prefrontal cortical regions...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152692/left-frontoparietal-network-activity-is-modulated-by-drug-stimuli-in-cocaine-addiction
#18
Víctor Costumero, Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Juan José Llopis, Cesar Ávila, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
Cocaine addicts present reduced activity in the left frontoparietal network, a brain network associated with cognitive control, during the processing of non-drug reward related stimuli (Costumero et al., Addiction Biology 22:479-489, 2015). However, the involvement of this network in drug-related stimuli processing remains unclear. Here, fifteen cocaine-dependent men and fifteen healthy matched controls viewed cocaine-related, erotic, aversive, and neutral pictures during an fMRI session. Group independent component analysis was then performed to investigate how functional networks were modulated by the different emotional images...
November 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142291/resveratrol-modulates-cocaine-induced-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity-in-vta-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-phosphodiesterases-pdes
#19
Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Li Zhao, Fanxing Zeng, Qing-Song Liu
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136565/attentional-bias-toward-alcohol-stimuli-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-retention-in-cocaine-dependence-and-alcohol-user-patients
#20
Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Sara Domínguez-Salas, Enrique Moraleda, Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Oscar M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias towards substance-related stimuli has shown to be involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine dependence. The relationship between alcohol use and cocaine dependence shown in literature justify the need of study these two substances jointly. METHODS: This paper analyzes patterns of attentional bias in 71 patients with cocaine dependence and compares these patterns according to whether occasional or problematic concurrent alcohol use is taken into account...
November 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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