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Jingqiu Ge, Yijie Hu, Hongxia Wang, Yuanshe Huang, Peng Zhang, Zhihua Liao, Min Chen
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins in Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (PSP) are beneficial to human health. The leaf color (Lc) gene is a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The anthocyanin profiles of wild-type PSP of Ayamurasaki and its three Lc-transgenic lines were investigated by HPLC-MS/MS. And in vitro antioxidant activities of wild-type and Lc-transgenic lines, including reducing power activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity, ABTS free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity, were measured...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yuanyuan Li, Lingxi Li, Yan Cui, Shuting Zhang, Baoshan Sun
Polyphenols are important compounds of red wine owing to their contribution to sensory properties and antioxidant activities. In this study, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with semi-preparative HPLC was used for large-scale separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts. With the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1-50-50), various oligomeric procyanidins including monomer catechin, epicatechin, dimers B1, B2; phenolic acids including coutaric acid, caftaric acid and other type of polyphenols were largely separated within 370min and most of these compounds presented high yields (0...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Liyang Xie, Terrence Vance, Bohkyung Kim, Sang Gil Lee, Christian Caceres, Ying Wang, Patrice A Hubert, Ji-Young Lee, Ock K Chun, Bradley W Bolling
Former smokers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that dietary aronia polyphenols would reduce biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation, and oxidative stress in former smokers. We also determined the extent these effects were associated with polyphenol bioavailability. A 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 49 healthy adult former smokers (n = 24/placebo, n = 25/aronia) to evaluate if daily consumption of 500 mg aronia extract modulated plasma lipids, blood pressure, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and lipid transport genes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
Brady F Cress, Quentin D Leitz, Daniel C Kim, Teresita D Amore, Jon Y Suzuki, Robert J Linhardt, Mattheos A G Koffas
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a class of brightly colored, glycosylated flavonoid pigments that imbue their flower and fruit host tissues with hues of predominantly red, orange, purple, and blue. Although all anthocyanins exhibit pH-responsive photochemical changes, distinct structural decorations on the core anthocyanin skeleton also cause dramatic color shifts, in addition to improved stabilities and unique pharmacological properties. In this work, we report for the first time the extension of the reconstituted plant anthocyanin pathway from (+)-catechin to O-methylated anthocyanins in a microbial production system, an effort which requires simultaneous co-option of the endogenous metabolites UDP-glucose and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Vinicius P Venancio, Paula A Cipriano, Hyemee Kim, Lusânia M G Antunes, Stephen T Talcott, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott
Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) (CP) is an anthocyanin-rich fruit found in tropical areas around the globe. CP polyphenols are associated with beneficial effects on health, including reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. Due to its functional properties, the consumption of this fruit may be beneficial in the promotion of human health and reduce the risk for chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanins extracted from CP (1...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
Jessica D Mackert, Michael K McIntosh
We recently demonstrated that California table grapes and a methanol-extractable, polyphenol-rich fraction decreased adiposity, insulin resistance, or markers of inflammation in high-fat fed mice. Malvidin and peonidin glycosides were the 2 most abundant anthocyanins in the polyphenol-rich fraction. We hypothesized that a blood borne combination of anthocyanidins malvidin and peonidin derived from intestinal β-glycosidase metabolism of these 2 anthocyanins are responsible, in part, for the beneficial health effects observed in vivo...
December 2016: Nutrition Research
Zhenzhou Zhu, Tian Jiang, Jingren He, Francisco J Barba, Giancarlo Cravotto, Mohamed Koubaa
This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP) extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES), was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes), than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation...
November 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhenzhou Zhu, Qingyan Guan, Mohamed Koubaa, Francisco J Barba, Shahin Roohinejad, Giancarlo Cravotto, Xinsun Yang, Shuyi Li, Jingren He
Ultrasound pre-treatment (UAE) was applied to assist the extraction of valuable compounds (polyphenols (especially anthocyanins), and proteins) from purple sweet potato (PSP). Under optimum conditions (ultrasound time (40min); supplementary hot extraction (80°C) up to 120min; pH: 2.5; ethanol concentration: 58%), the highest concentrations of polyphenols (3.877mg/g), anthocyanins (0.293mg/g), and proteins (0.753mg/g) were found, with minimal specific energy consumption (8406J/mg). Moreover, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in PSP extract from optimized extraction temperature were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2)...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mariateresa Maldini, Mario Chessa, Giacomo L Petretto, Paola Montoro, Jonathan P Rourke, Marzia Foddai, Marcello Nicoletti, Giorgio Pintore
INTRODUCTION: Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) is a self-seeded shrub, widespread in Sardinia, with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic and balsamic properties. Its berries, employed for the production of sweet myrtle liqueur, are characterised by a high content of bioactive polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins. Anthocyanin composition is quite specific for vegetables/fruits and can be used as a fingerprint to determine the authenticity, geographical origin and quality of raw materials, products and extracts...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Liyang Xie, Sang Gil Lee, Terrence M Vance, Ying Wang, Bohkyung Kim, Ji-Young Lee, Ock K Chun, Bradley W Bolling
A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 6 adults to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites after consumption of 500mg aronia berry extract. UHPLC-MS methods were developed to quantitate aronia berry polyphenols and their metabolites in plasma and urine. While anthocyanins were bioavailable, microbial phenolic catabolites increased ∼10-fold more than anthocyanins in plasma and urine. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was rapidly metabolized to peonidin-3-O-galactoside...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Milica M Pantelić, Dragana Č Dabić Zagorac, Sonja M Davidović, Slavica R Todić, Zoran S Bešlić, Uroš M Gašić, Živoslav Lj Tešić, Maja M Natić
Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Zhi-Sheng Xu, Jing Ma, Feng Wang, Hong-Yu Ma, Qiu-Xia Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Purple carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) accumulate large amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in their taproots. Cyanidin can be glycosylated with galactose, xylose, and glucose in sequence by glycosyltransferases resulting in cyanidin 3-xylosyl (glucosyl) galactosides in purple carrots. The first step in the glycosylation of cyanidin is catalysis by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (UCGalT) transferring the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to cyanidin. In the present study, a gene from 'Deep purple' carrot, DcUCGalT1, was cloned and heterologously expressed in E...
2016: Scientific Reports
A M Avidzba, A V Kubyshkin, T I Guguchkina, V A Markosov, A M Katsev, N V Naumova, Yu I Shramko, G P Zaytsev, I V Chernousova, Yu A Ogay, I I Fomochkina
Experimental data on the antioxidant activity of grape juice, grape concentrates and wine from grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Saperavi from Crimea and Krasnodar regions was presented. Flavonoids are presented in the form of glycosides of such anthocyanins as delphinidin, malvidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and also by quercetin and its glycoside, (+)-D-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Oligomeric procyanidins, which are condensed catechol units (2-6) soluble in water, are presented in significant amounts, and polymeric procyanidins with the amount catechin units greater than 7, insoluble in water, constituted the bulk of polyphenols od wine and concentrates from red grapes (no juice)...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
Monica Jordheim, Kate Calcott, Kevin S Gould, Kevin M Davies, Kathy E Schwinn, Øyvind M Andersen
Vegetative shoots of a naturalized population of purple-leaved plectranthus (Plectranthus ciliatus, Lamiaceae) were found to contain four main anthocyanins: peonidin 3-(6″-caffeoyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-β-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-(6″-caffeoyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-(6‴-malonyl-β-glucopyranoside), peonidin 3-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-(6‴-malonyl-β-glucopyranoside), and peonidin 3-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-β-glucopyranoside. The first three of these pigments have not been reported previously from any plant...
August 2016: Phytochemistry
Prakash Chandra Pradhan, Supradip Saha
Berberis lycium Royle (Kashmal) belongs to Berberidaceae family and it has a small edible purple berry. It is grown wildly grown in Himalaya. The berry anthocyanins were characterised by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrophotometer (MS) detectors. Twelve anthocyanins were identified in the purified extract of berberis berry. Two anthocyanins delphinidin-3-glucoside (35.3 %) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (47.2 %) were characterized as major components. Ten minor anthocyanins were Cyanidin-3-lathyroside (0...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ana A Matias, Rita Rosado-Ramos, Sara L Nunes, Inês Figueira, Ana Teresa Serra, Maria R Bronze, Claúdia N Santos, Catarina M M Duarte
Oxidative stress is one of the key phenomena behind the most common types of chronic diseases. Therefore, the modulation of oxidative stress is an interesting target for acting either through prevention or as a therapeutic approach. In this work, a Portuguese variety of cherry (Saco Cherry) was processed in order to obtain a potent in vitro antioxidant phenolic-rich extract (Ch-PRE), which was further explored to evaluate its potential application as nutraceutical agent against cellular oxidative stress damage...
March 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xin Li, Jinmei Xu, Xi Tang, Yilun Liu, Xiaoping Yu, Zhi Wang, Weihua Liu
Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that is targeted against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tyrosine kinase receptor. Trastuzumab has been successfully used to treat patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, which accounts for ~25% of invasive breast cancer. However, the majority of patients who initially respond to trastuzumab demonstrate disease progression within 1 year of treatment. Therefore, identifying alternative drugs that overcome trastuzumab resistance and target HER2 may increase the magnitude and duration of response...
May 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Alejandro Villasante, Madison S Powell, Gordon K Murdoch, Ken Overturf, Kenneth Cain, Jurij Wacyk, Ronald W Hardy
A study was conducted to test whether an anthocyanidin mixture (peonidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin chloride) modulates myogenesis in both induced and non-induced myogenic cells from juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We evaluated three different anthocyanidin concentrations (1×, 2.5× and 10×) at two sampling times (24 and 36h). To test for treatment effects, we analyzed the expression of myoD and pax7 as well as two target genes of the Notch signaling pathway, hey2 and her6. In induced myogenic cells, the lowest and middle anthocyanidin doses caused significantly greater expression of myoD after 24h of treatment compared to control...
June 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Venkata Charepalli, Lavanya Reddivari, Ramakrishna Vadde, Suresh Walia, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Jairam K P Vanamala
The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized...
2016: Cancers
Da-Qiu Zhao, Meng-Ran Wei, Ding Liu, Jun Tao
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is particularly appreciated because of its elegant and gorgeous flower color, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of flower coloration. In this study, three P. lactiflora cultivars 'Xuefeng', 'Fenyulou' and 'Dahonglou' with white, pink and red flower were selected as the materials. Their anatomical structures, cell sap pH and metal elements were investigated, and the colored pigment mainly distributed in palisade mesophyll was only found in 'Fenyulou' and 'Dahonglou', and their shape of epidermal cells, cell sap pH and metal elements were not the key factors deciding phenotype color...
May 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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