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Kai Feng, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Jie-Xia Liu, Jing-Wen Li, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
This study showed that a galactosyltransferase, AgUCGalT1, is involved in anthocyanin galactosylation in purple celery. Celery is a well-known vegetable because of its rich nutrients, low calories, and medicinal values. Its petioles and leaf blades are the main organs acting as nutrient sources. UDP-galactose: cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase can transfer the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to the 3-O-position of cyanidin through glycosylation. This process enhances the stability and water solubility of anthocyanins...
March 8, 2018: Planta
José E García, Leónides Gómez, Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, José L Rivera-Corona, Jair Millán-Orozco, Juan A Ascacio, Miguel A Medina, Miguel Mellado
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the anthelminthic activity of hydro-methanolic extracts of Larrea tridentata on sheathed and exsheathed larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Larvae of the parasite were incubated at 20-25 °C in hydro-methanolic extracts at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL for 24, 48, or 72 h. Ivermectin and water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. Total phenolic compounds of leaves of L. tridentata were 97.88 ± 10.45 mg/g of dry matter. Other compounds detected in this shrub by HPLC-mass spectrometry were sesamin, galocatechin, peonidin 3-O rutinoside, methyl galangin, epigallocatechin 7-O-glucuronide, and epigalocatechin...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Diganta Kalita, David G Holm, Daniel V LaBarbera, J Mark Petrash, Sastry S Jayanty
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is becoming a serious global health problem. Diabetes has been considered to be one of the major risks of cataract and retinopathy. Synthetic and natural product inhibitors of carbohydrate degrading enzymes are able to reduce type 2 diabetes and its complications. For a long time, potatoes have been portrayed as unhealthy for diabetic patients by some nutritionist due to their high starch content. However, purple and red potato cultivars have received considerable attention from consumers because they have high levels of polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant activities...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoqing Liu, Wenzhu Yang, Bona Mu, Suzhen Li, Ye Li, Xiaojin Zhou, Chunyi Zhang, Yunliu Fan, Rumei Chen
Anthocyanins are polyhydroxy and polymethoxy 2-phenylbenzopyrylium glucosides that belong to a large group of plant secondary metabolites termed flavonoids. The most common anthocyanidins (anthocyanin aglycones) in higher plants are cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin. Flavonoid biosynthesis has been suggested to occur on the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where sequential enzymes of the pathway loosely form a metabolon (Winkel-Shirley, 1999). Known structural genes along the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in maize include chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (3UFGT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)...
January 16, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zhongqin Chen, Cong Wang, Yuxiang Pan, Xudong Gao, Haixia Chen
Black soybean seed coat extract (BSSCE) is a rich source of anthocyanins with multiple health effects. This study was aimed at investigating the composition and hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of BSSCE in vitro and in a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The anthocyanins of BSSCE were identified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and peonidin-3-O-glucoside by HPLC-MS. Results demonstrated that BSSCE exhibited strong inhibitory activities for α-amylase, potent inhibition activity against lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and protection effect on H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress-damaged HepG2 cells...
January 24, 2018: Food & Function
Swathi Putta, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Eswar K Kumar, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa, Mohammad A Kamal, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Ghulam Md Ashraf, George E Barreto, B Sasi Bhusana Rao, D Sarala Kumari, Gorla V Reddy, Vadim V Tarasov, Sarat Babu Imandi, Gjumrakch Aliev
Diet is an essential factor affecting the development of and risk for diabetes mellitus. In search of preventative and therapeutic strategies, it is to be considering the potential role of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to prevent the pathogenesis associated with metabolic diseases. Human consumption of anthocyanins is among the highest of all flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of diabetes and diabetic complications. Anthocyanins are important natural bioactive pigments responsible for red to blue colour of fruits, leaves, seeds, stems and flowers, which are present in a variety of plant species particularly in berries and cherries...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Emily Skates, John Overall, Katelyn DeZego, Mickey Wilson, Debora Esposito, Mary Ann Lila, Slavko Komarnytsky
Driven by the need for alternative whole food options to manage metabolic syndrome, multiple dietary interventions are suggested to achieve a better control of metabolic risk factors and molecular networks that regulate cellular energy metabolism. It is generally accepted that anthocyanin-rich diets are beneficial for maintaining healthy body weight, improving glucose and lipid metabolism, and determining inflammatory status of key metabolic tissues. However, anthocyanins are a structurally diverse group of phenolic compounds and their individual contributions to improving metabolic health are not clear...
January 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Alexandros Priftis, Nikolaos Goutzourelas, Maria Halabalaki, Georgia Ntasi, Dimitrios Stagos, Grigorios D Amoutzias, Leandros A Skaltsounis, Dimitrios Kouretas
Coffee and grape contain various bioactive compounds like polyphenols that may exert beneficial effects, especially antioxidant activity, on human health upon consumption. However, the molecular mechanisms through which these effects are achieved are not fully elucidated. Thus, in the present study in order to investigate these mechanisms, a whole genome expression DNA microarray analysis was carried out in myoblasts treated with polyphenols of coffee and grape pomace at concentrations that improved the redox status...
November 23, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Barbora Pastorková, Petr Illés, Zdeněk Dvořák
The aim of current study was to evaluate the effect of the most common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin) on the transcriptional activity of steroid and nuclear receptors. The activities of steroid receptors - progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and nuclear receptors - vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and thyroid receptor (TR) were assessed using either stable transfected luciferase gene reporter cell lines or transiently transfected cell lines...
October 26, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yoon-Mi Lee, Young Yoon, Haelim Yoon, Hyun-Min Park, Sooji Song, Kyung-Jin Yeum
Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health problems. Recently, food-derived bioactive compounds have been spotlighted as a regulator against various chronic diseases due to their low toxicity, as opposed to drugs that induce severe side effects. Here we describe the beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on obesity-induced metabolic disorders and inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Nutrients
Chun-Li Luo, Qing Zhou, Zi-Wei Yang, Rui-Dan Wang, Jiu-Liang Zhang
In order to figure out the key acylated anthocyanin compounds accounting for the bioprotective activity of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), ODS packing column, semi-preparative HPLC method, activity evaluation assays, and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) assays were employed. Additionally, our study revealed that the structures of two acylated monomeric anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside and peonidin 3-dicaffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside were found to have the strongest bioprotective activity, which was identified to be closely related with the ortho-dihydroxybenzene structure, suggesting the more the special structures of catechol moieties, such as caffeoyl and cyanidin, the stronger the bioprotective activity will be...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lin Wang, Ying Zhao, Qing Zhou, Chun-Li Luo, Ai-Ping Deng, Zi-Cheng Zhang, Jiu-Liang Zhang
The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE) was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or APSPE]; model group (with CCl4 only); positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin); low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE); medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE); and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE). After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Suhong Li, Yingfeng An, Weina Fu, Xiao Sun, Wenjie Li, Tuoping Li
Purple sweet potato was fermented into alcoholic beverage. By using LC-MS analysis, 12 types of anthocyanins were found in the purple sweet potato alcoholic beverage (PSPFAB); these were based on cyanidin and peonidin as aglycones. The anthocyanins in young PSPFAB mainly consisted of acylates. The acylated anthocyanins, however, degraded gradually with aging. Cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and peonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside were found to be major anthocyanins in the PSPFAB after two years of aging. Moreover, 52 kinds of volatile components were detected in PSPFAB by GC-MS analysis...
October 2017: Food Research International
Siqiong Zhong, Amandeep Sandhu, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
SCOPE: Understanding the metabolic fate of polyphenols from plant foods can aid in developing dietary recommendations that maximize their health benefits. Wild blueberries (WBB) provide a distinctive composition of dietary anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid (CGA). METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a single blind, randomized, two-arm crossover controlled study. Human subjects ingested a WBB beverage (25 g freeze dried WBB powder) or placebo beverage with a meal and plasma was collected over 24 h...
December 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xiumin Fu, Sihua Cheng, Yinyin Liao, Bingzhi Huang, Bing Du, Wei Zeng, Yueming Jiang, Xuewu Duan, Ziyin Yang
Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xiao-Wei Zhang, Qian-Tao Jiang, Yu-Ming Wei, Chunji Liu
Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68...
2017: PloS One
Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jianrang Luo, Xiang Li, Lijuan Zhai, Lixia He, Yanlong Zhang
Paeonia rockii is a wild tree peony species with large and dark purple variegations at the base of its petals. It is the genetic resource for various variegation patterns in tree peony cultivars, which is in contrast to the pure white petals of Paeonia ostii. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of variegation in this plant is still unknown. Here, we conducted Illumina transcriptome sequencing for P. rockii, P. ostii (with pure white petals) and their F1 individuals (with purple-red variegation)...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Miloslav Šulc, Zora Kotíková, Luboš Paznocht, Vladimír Pivec, Karel Hamouz, Jaromír Lachman
Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Gedas Ereminas, Daiva Majiene, Kastytis Sidlauskas, Valdas Jakstas, Liudas Ivanauskas, Gintautas Vaitiekaitis, Julius Liobikas
The neuroprotective effect of several anthocyanins in combination with their stability and antioxidant/pro-oxidant activity has been investigated against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in C6 glial cells. First it was found that delphinidin (Dp) 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside were degraded within an hour, and at the same time stimulated the production of H2O2 in the micromolar concentration range. The stability of peonidin, pelargonidin (Pg), malvidin (Mv) and cyanidin (Cy) 3-O-glucosides and Cy 3-O-rutinoside was significantly higher than that of Dp 3-O-glycosides, with Pg3G showing the highest percent recovery over time...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eleonora Cremonini, Angela Mastaloudis, Shelly N Hester, Sandra V Verstraeten, Maureen Anderson, Steven M Wood, Andrew L Waterhouse, Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
An increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as a major event in the pathophysiology of conditions characterized by chronic gut inflammation. This study investigated the capacity of pure anthocyanins (AC), and berry and rice extracts containing different types and amounts of AC, to inhibit tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα)-induced permeabilization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 cells differentiated into intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated in the absence/presence of TNFα, with or without the addition of AC or AC-rich plant extracts (ACRE)...
August 1, 2017: Food & Function
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