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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916928/the-effect-of-lupinus-albus-and-calcium-chloride-on-growth-performance-body-composition-plasma-biochemistry-and-meat-quality-of-male-pigs-immunized-against-gonadotrophin-releasing-factor
#1
Karen Moore, Bruce Mullan, Jae Cheol Kim, Frank Dunshea
Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0...
December 1, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916787/comprehensive-mirna-expression-profiles-in-the-ilea-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-infected-pigs
#2
Hongyi Li, Mao Zhang, Enqin Zheng
To analyze the miRNA expression profiles in Lawsoniaintracellularis-infected porcine intestines, infected pigs were first identified using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Then, RNA from infected intestines and control tissues were isolated and subjected to microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Results showed that a total of 83 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the infected samples and controls, out of which 53 were upregulated and 30 were downregulated. Validation using RT-PCR showed a high degree of confidence for the obtained data...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914400/a-comparative-study-of-seven-human-cochlear-filter-models
#3
Amin Saremi, Rainer Beutelmann, Mathias Dietz, Go Ashida, Jutta Kretzberg, Sarah Verhulst
Auditory models have been developed for decades to simulate characteristics of the human auditory system, but it is often unknown how well auditory models compare to each other or perform in tasks they were not primarily designed for. This study systematically analyzes predictions of seven publicly-available cochlear filter models in response to a fixed set of stimuli to assess their capabilities of reproducing key aspects of human cochlear mechanics. The following features were assessed at frequencies of 0...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914202/probiotic-roles-of-lactobacillus-spp-in-swine-insights-from-gut-microbiota
#4
REVIEW
Valerie Diane V Valeriano, Marilen P Balolong, Dae-Kyung Kang
The use of lactobacilli as probiotics in swine has been gaining attention due to their ability to improve growth performance and carcass quality, prevent gastrointestinal infection, and most importantly, their 'generally recognised as safe' status. Previous studies support the potential of lactobacilli to regulate host immune systems, enhance gut metabolic capacities, and maintain balance in the gut microbiota. Research on swine gut microbiota has revealed complex gut microbial community structure and showed the importance of Lactobacillus to the host's health...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913852/differential-effect-of-early-antibiotic-intervention-on-bacterial-fermentation-patterns-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-the-colon-of-pigs-under-diets-with-different-protein-levels
#5
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on bacterial fermentation patterns and mucosal immune markers in the colon of pigs with different protein level diets. Eighteen litters of piglets at day (d) 7 were fed creep feed without or with growth promoting antibiotics until d 42. At d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly assigned to a normal- or low-crude protein (CP) diet. At d 77 and d 120, five pigs per group were slaughtered for analyzing colonic bacteria, metabolites, and mucosal gene expressions...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909715/a-new-scaffold-containing-small-intestinal-submucosa-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Dan Wang, Xiaoming Ding, Wujun Xue, Jin Zheng, Xiaohui Tian, Yang Li, Xiaohong Wang, Huanjin Song, Hua Liu, Xiaohui Luo
It is unknown whether a scaffold containing both small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation may improve pancreatic islet function and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of a SIS-MSC scaffold on islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. MSCs and pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and SIS was isolated from Bamei pigs. The islets were apportioned among 3 experimental groups as follows: SIS-islets, SIS-MSC-islets and control-islets...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#7
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898971/evaluating-the-impact-of-maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-sow-performance-ii-subsequent-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-growing-pigs
#8
J R Flohr, J C Woodworth, J R Bergstrom, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey
A of subsample of 448 growing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050) weaned from 52 sows fed varying dietary vitamin D regimens were used in a split-plot design to determine the effects of maternal and nursery dietary vitamin D on growth performance. Sows were previously administered diets containing vitamin D as vitamin D (800, 2,000, or 9,600 IU/kg) or as 25(OH)D (50 µg [or 2,000 IU vitamin D equivalent]/kg from HyD; DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ). Once weaned, pigs were allotted to pens on the basis of previous maternal vitamin D treatment, and then pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nursery vitamin D dietary regimens (2,000 IU of vitamin D/kg or 50 µg 25(OH)D/kg)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898965/performance-of-pigs-kept-under-different-sanitary-conditions-affected-by-protein-intake-and-amino-acid-supplementation
#9
Y van der Meer, A Lammers, A J M Jansman, M M J A Rijnen, W H Hendriks, W J J Gerrits
There is growing evidence that requirements for particular AA increase when pigs are kept under low sanitary conditions. The extent to which reduction in growth performance is related to these increased requirements is unclear. To evaluate this relationship, an experiment (2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) was performed with 612 male pigs (9 per pen) kept under low sanitary conditions (LSC) or high sanitary conditions (HSC) and offered ad libitum access to either a normal CP concentration diet (NP; 17, 15, and 15% CP for the starter, grower, and finisher phase, respectively) or a low CP concentration diet (LP; 20% CP reduced relative to NP for each phase), each of which containing a basal AA profile (AA-B) or a supplemented AA profile (AA-S)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898943/effects-of-feeding-fermented-wheat-with-on-gut-morphology-intestinal-fermentation-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-in-weaned-pigs
#10
M H A Le, S Galle, Y Yang, J L Landero, E Beltranena, M G Gänzle, R T Zijlstra
Feeding fermented feed to weaned pigs may improve nutrient digestibility and gut health and thereby reduce diarrhea incidence. Effects of feeding wheat grain fermented for 24 h with were evaluated with 36 weaned pigs (7.3 kg BW). Fermented wheat grain contained (DM basis) 14.2% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 7.8% NDF, whereas unfermented wheat grain contained 16.4% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 9.9% NDF. Pigs were fed 6 mash wheat-based diets balanced for water content during 2 phases: Phase 1 diets for 1 wk (d 0-7) with 20% unfermented or fermented wheat and, subsequently, Phase 2 diets for 2 wk (d 8-21) with 50% unfermented or fermented wheat...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898939/evaluating-pellet-and-meal-feeding-regimens-on-finishing-pig-performance-stomach-morphology-and-carcass-characteristics
#11
J A De Jong, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth, M W Allerson
A total of 2,100 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 31.2 kg BW) were used in a 118-d trial to determine the effects of pellet or meal feeding regimens on finishing pig growth performance, stomach morphology, and carcass characteristics. Pens of pigs were balanced by initial BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (14 pens/treatment with 25 pigs/pen). Pens were sorted by gender allowing for 7 barrow pens and 7 gilt pens per treatment. The same corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 15% dried distillers' grains with solubles were used for all treatments and fed in 5 phases...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898929/does-heat-stress-alter-the-pig-s-response-to-dietary-fat
#12
T A Kellner, L H Baumgard, K J Prusa, N K Gabler, J F Patience
Heat stress (HS) results in major losses to the pork industry via reduced growth performance and, possibly, carcass fat quality. The experimental objective was to measure the effects of HS on the pig's response to dietary fat in terms of lipid digestion, metabolism, and deposition over a 35-d finishing period. A total of 96 PIC 337 × C22/C29 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 100.4 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 9 treatments arranged as a 3 × 3 factorial: thermoneutral (TN; constant 24°C; ad libitum access to feed), pair-fed thermoneutral (PFTN; constant 24°C; limit fed based on previous HS daily feed intake), or HS (cyclical 28°C nighttime, 33°C from d 0 to 7, 33...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898923/growth-and-development-symposium-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-and-mitochondria-in-rendement-napole-pig-growth
#13
T L Scheffler, D E Gerrard
The Rendement Napole mutation (RN-), which is well known to influence pork quality, also has a profound impact on metabolic characteristics of muscle. Pigs with RN- possess a SNP in the γ3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK); AMPK, a key energy sensor in skeletal muscle, modulates energy producing and energy consuming pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis. Importantly, AMPK regulates not only acute response to energy stress but also facilitates long-term adaptation via changes in gene and protein expression...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898918/particle-size-of-calcium-carbonate-does-not-affect-apparent-and-standardized-total-tract-digestibility-of-calcium-retention-of-calcium-or-growth-performance-of-growing-pigs
#14
L A Merriman, H H Stein
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate particle size of calcium carbonate used in diets fed to growing pigs. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), standardized total tract digestibility (STTD), and retention of Ca among diets containing calcium carbonate produced to different particle sizes, and Exp. 2 was conducted to determine if growth performance of weanling pigs is affected by particle size of calcium carbonate. In Exp. 1, 4 diets based on corn and potato protein isolate were formulated to contain 0...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898906/sexual-dimorphism-in-livestock-species-selected-for-economically-important-traits
#15
E M M van der Heide, D A L Lourenco, C Y Chen, W O Herring, R L Sapp, D W Moser, S Tsuruta, Y Masuda, B J Ducro, I Misztal
Most breeding companies evaluate economically important traits in males and females as a single trait, assuming genetic correlation of 1 between phenotypes measured in both sexes. This assumption may not be true because genes may be differently expressed in males and females. We estimated genetic correlations between males and females for growth and efficiency traits in broiler chickens, growth traits in American Angus beef cattle, and birth weight and preweaning mortality in purebred pigs; therefore, each trait was treated differently in males and females...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898886/effect-of-feed-restriction-and-initial-body-weight-on-growth-performance-body-composition-and-hormones-in-male-pigs-immunized-against-gonadotropin-releasing-factor
#16
K L Moore, B P Mullan, J C Kim, H G Payne, F R Dunshea
Pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) have increased carcass fatness compared to entire males; however, the timing of this increase in fatness after the second immunization against GnRF has not been determined. An experiment was conducted to identify and compare the growth performance, body composition, and physiological changes in immunocastrated males (IC males) at different BW and feeding levels. A total of 64 pigs were used in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the treatments being 1) sex (entire males or IC males), 2) initial BW (45...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898885/osteochondrosis-prevalence-and-severity-at-12-and-24-weeks-of-age-in-commercial-pigs-with-and-without-organic-complexed-trace-mineral-supplementation
#17
F Tóth, J L Torrison, L Harper, D Bussieres, M E Wilson, T D Crenshaw, C S Carlson
Maternal and progeny diets supplemented with 2 sources of trace mineral (TM) were evaluated for effects on the size and severity of osteochondrosis (OC) lesions in progeny produced by 64 Landrace × Large White sows. At breeding, sows were randomly assigned to maternal diets (gestation and lactation) consisting 1 of 2 TM treatments. One treatment consisted of inorganic TM (ITM) with ZnO, MnSO, and CuSO at concentrations to provide 150, 50, and 16.5 mg/kg diet of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively. The other treatment consisted of the same ITM concentrations plus an additional 50, 20, and 10 mg/kg diet of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, supplied by a blend of AA-complexed TM (CTM) using Availa Sow...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898884/the-progression-of-deoxynivalenol-induced-growth-suppression-in-nursery-pigs-and-the-potential-of-an-algae-modified-montmorillonite-clay-to-mitigate-these-effects
#18
H L Frobose, J A Erceg, S Q Fowler, M D Tokach, J M DeRouchey, J C Woodworth, S S Dritz, R D Goodband
Two experiments were conducted to characterize the progression of deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced growth suppression and to investigate algae-modified montmorillonite clay (AMMC) as a means to alleviate the effects of DON in nursery pigs. In both experiments, naturally DON-contaminated wheat was used to produce diets with desired DON levels. In Exp. 1, 280 barrows and gilts (10.0 ± 0.2 kg BW) were used in a 28-d experiment arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design with 8 replicates per treatment. The 5 treatments consisted of 2 positive control (PC) diets with DON below detection limits and with or without 0 or 0...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898878/effects-of-dietary-fiber-on-the-ideal-standardized-ileal-digestible-threonine-lysine-ratio-for-twenty-five-to-fifty-kilogram-growing-gilts
#19
J K Mathai, J K Htoo, J E Thomson, K J Touchette, H H Stein
Four experiments were conducted to determine effects of fiber on the ideal Thr:Lys ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts. In Exp. 1, the objective was to determine the requirement for standardized ileal digestible Lys for gilts from 25 to 50 kg BW. Seventy gilts (24.54 ± 3.28 kg BW) were used in a growth assay with 2 pigs per pen, 5 diets, and 7 replicate pens per diet. The 5 diets were based on corn and soybean meal and contained between 0.80 and 1.32% SID Lys. Results indicated that 1.09% SID Lys was needed to optimize ADG and G:F...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898877/effects-of-full-fat-or-defatted-rice-bran-on-growth-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-weanling-pigs
#20
G A Casas, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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