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Pig growth

Y Jiang, S Tang, C Wang, Y Wang, Y Qin, Y Wang, J Zhang, H Song, S Mi, F Yu, W Xiao, Q Zhang, X Ding
Improvement in growth and fatness traits are the main objectives in pig all breeding programs. Tenth rib backfat thickness (10RIBBFT) and days to 100 kg (D100), which are good predictors of carcass lean content and growth rate, respectively, are economically important traits and also main breeding target traits in pigs. To investigate the genetic mechanisms of 10RIBBFT and D100 of pigs, we sampled 1,137 and 888 pigs from 2 Yorkshire populations of American and British origin, respectively, and conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) through combined analysis and meta-analysis, to identify SNPs associated with 10RIBBFT and D100...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M Herian, M R Luck, M Grzesiak
Recently it has been shown that vitamin D(3) acting via its cognate receptor (VDR) regulates the growth, differentiation and function of female reproductive tissues including ovary. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of testosterone (T) and its antagonist 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF) on VDR protein expression and function in porcine ovarian follicles. Medium size antral follicles expressing great amount of androgen receptors and represent high steroidogenic activity were used in this research. After 6 h incubation of whole follicles with T, HF or T+HF, immunohistochemical analysis of VDR revealed its nuclear localization in granulosa and theca interna cells in control and experimental groups...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Gianfranco Picone, Martina Zappaterra, Diana Luise, Alessia Trimigno, Francesco Capozzi, Vincenzo Motta, Roberta Davoli, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi
Background: Colostrum is the first secretion produced by mammary glands during the hours immediately preceding and succeeding parturition. This secretion differs from milk and represents an essential vehicle of passive immunity, prebiotic compounds and growth factors involved in intestinal development. Most of the literature concerning colostrum composition refers mainly to human and cow; and little is known about pig colostrum metabolome and how it varies between pig breeds and different farrowing parity...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Brittany A Potz, Laura A Scrimgeour, Sharif A Sabe, Richard T Clements, Neel R Sodha, Frank W Sellke
OBJECTIVES: Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) inhibition has been reported to increase microvascular density and improve myocardial blood flow in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and metabolic syndrome. Inhibition of GSK-3β can also be cardioprotective by modulating fibrosis signaling and mitochondrial-induced apoptosis. We hypothesized GSK-3β inhibition would have a beneficial effect on myocardial fibrosis and oxidative stress in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and metabolic syndrome...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Claudia Miersch, Katja Stange, Monika Röntgen
BACKGROUND: Satellite cells (SC) and their descendants, muscle precursor cells (MPC), play a key role in postnatal muscle development, regeneration, and plasticity. Several studies have provided evidence that SC and MPC represent a heterogeneous population differing in their biochemical and functional properties. The identification and characterization of functionally divergent SC subpopulations should help to reveal the precise involvement of SC/MPC in these myogenic processes. The aim of the present work was therefore to separate SC subpopulations by using Percoll gradients and to characterize their myogenic marker profiles and their functional properties (adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation)...
March 9, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Ángel M Martínez-Montes, Almudena Fernández, María Muñoz, Jose Luis Noguera, Josep M Folch, Ana I Fernández
One of the major limitation for the application of QTL results in pig breeding and QTN identification has been the limited number of QTL effects validated in different animal material. The aim of the current work was to validate QTL regions through joint and specific genome wide association and haplotype analyses for growth, fatness and premier cut weights in three different genetic backgrounds, backcrosses based on Iberian pigs, which has a major role in the analysis due to its high productive relevance. The results revealed nine common QTL regions, three segregating in all three backcrosses on SSC1, 0-3 Mb, for body weight, on SSC2, 3-9 Mb, for loin bone-in weight, and on SSC7, 3 Mb, for shoulder weight, and six segregating in two of the three backcrosses, on SSC2, SSC4, SSC6 and SSC10 for backfat thickness, shoulder and ham weights...
2018: PloS One
Jena G Alexopoulos, David S Lines, Suzanne Hallett, Kate J Plush
Piglet movement from one sow to another, or fostering, is required in modern pig farming but there is little available literature on the most effective strategy. In this review, we focus on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms responsible for piglet survival and growth, and have identified six key principles. (1) Colostrum provides piglets with warmth, energy and immunity. It is most accessible during the first 12 h from the birth sow, therefore no piglet should be moved before this; (2) To ensure even intake of birth sow colostrum, techniques such as split suckling prior to piglet movement should be implemented; (3) Udder assessment for functional teats should occur at farrowing, with number of fostered piglets not exceeding teat number; (4) Primiparous sows should receive as many piglets as the udder allows to maximise mammary stimulation, although older parities should be assessed for rearing ability; (5) Piglet fostering should occur between 12 and 24 h and movement kept to a minimum to prevent transfer of disease; Litter outliers should be moved and relocated to a litter of similar size; (6) Piglet movement after 24 h should be minimised...
March 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, Jaeyong Song, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Minseok Kim, Dong-Wook Kim, Hyun Jung Jung, Bumseok Kim, Yookyung Lee, Dongjo Yu, Dong-Woon Kim, Young Kyoon Oh, Sung Dae Lee
Background : Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are common food contaminants produced by Fusarium sp. Mycotoxins are a potential health hazard because of their toxicological effects on both humans and farmed animals. Methods: We analyzed three groups of pigs: a control group (fed a standard diet), and the DON and ZEN groups, fed a diet containing 8 mg/kg DON and 0.8 mg/kg ZEN respectively, for four weeks. Results : DON and ZEN exposure decreased body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), food conversion rate (FCR), and the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM...
March 7, 2018: Toxins
Miku Maruyama, Miki Kobayashi, Takeshi Uchida, Eisaku Shimizu, Hironori Higashio, Misa Ohno, Shota Uesugi, Ken-Ichi Kimura
Amber is fossilized tree resin and several biologically active compounds were isolated from ambers using the growth-restoring activity of the mutant yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae (zds1∆ erg3∆ pdr1∆ pdr3∆)] involving Ca2+ -signal transduction. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-allergic effect of both the methanol extract of Kuji amber (MEKA) and its main biologically active constituent, kujigamberol (15,20-dinor-5,7,9-labdatrien-18-ol) having activity against the mutant yeast. Both MEKA and kujigamberol inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells by stimulation of thapsigargin (Tg) (IC50  = 15...
March 5, 2018: Fitoterapia
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Young-Jin Byun, Chul Young Lee, Myeong Hyeon Kim, Dae Yun Jung, Jeong Hee Han, Insurk Jang, Young Min Song, Byung-Chul Park
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40781-017-0159-z.].
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
B J Klehm, D A King, A C Dilger, S D Shackelford, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins were evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28 mm thick chops...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A E Taylor, M R Bedford, H M Miller
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in wheat and barley can act as anti-nutrients leading to an increase in digesta viscosity and a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Xylanase, an NSP-degrading enzyme, has been shown to increase nutrient digestibility in pigs. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the optimum inclusion level of xylanase in grower pig diets by measuring the effect of increasing enzyme levels on growth performance, the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and peptide YY concentration in portal and peripheral blood of grower pigs and (2) to increase our understanding of the interrelationships between xylanase inclusion, VFA production and peptide YY secretion...
March 6, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Lasse Jørgensen Cehofski, Anders Kruse, Sigriður Olga Magnusdottir, Alexander Nørgård Alsing, Svend Kirkeby, Bent Honoré, Henrik Vorum
A dexamethasone intravitreal implant (OZURDEX) provides an effective treatment of inflammation secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Retinal proteome changes which mediate the beneficial effects of the implant remain poorly understood. To study retinal proteome changes in BRVO following an intervention with a dexamethasone (DEX) implant this study combined an experimental model of BRVO with proteomic techniques. In six Danish Landrace pigs experimental BRVO was induced in both eyes using argon laser...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Zhen Tan, Yuan Wang, Ting Yang, Hong Ao, Shaokang Chen, Kai Xing, Fengxia Zhang, Xitong Zhao, Jianfeng Liu, Chuduan Wang
The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial communities in the gut and feces from female finishing Landrace pigs with high and low feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Many potential biomarkers can distinguish between high and low FCR groups in the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum, according to linear discriminant analysis effect sizes. The relative abundance of microbes were tested by Mann-Whitney test between the high and low FCR groups in different organs: Campylobacter, Prevotella and Sphaerochaeta were different in the duodenum (P < 0...
March 1, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Lingling Zhang, Xiaoyan Wu, Jianli Shi, Zhe Peng, Shuxuan Zheng, Shengnan Xu, Hong Han, Changxun Xin, Yuwei Liu, Mei Gao, Jiang Yu, Wenbo Sun, Xiaoyan Cong, Jun Li, Shaojian Xu, Jinbao Wang
Porcine circovirus (PCV) has two potential open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 is predicted to encode a replication-associated protein (Rep) essential for replication of viral DNA. In some studies, PCV1 replicated more efficiently in PK-15 cells than PCV2 was elucidated. PCV1 compared with PCV2; there is some amino acids' deficiency on Rep protein. To identify whether the above amino acids deletion affects the replication of PCV1 and PCV2, we constructed three double copy clones by overlap extension PCR...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yijie He, John Deen, Gerald C Shurson, Yuzhi Z Li
The objective of this study was to determine how feeder-space allowance affects behaviors of slow- and fast-growing pigs during the nursery period. Nursery pigs (n = 192; initial weight = 7.4 ± 1.6 kg) were housed in 24 pens of 8 pigs, with 12 pens provided with either a two-space feeder or a five-space feeder. Pigs were categorized as slow growers (SG) and fast growers (FG) based on adjusted market weight (SG < 105 kg; FG ≥ 105 kg). Behaviors of pigs were video-recorded during the first four days after entering the nursery and on Day 21...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Moh A Alkhamis, Carmina Gallardo, Cristina Jurado, Alejandro Soler, Marisa Arias, José M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex infectious disease of swine that constitutes devastating impacts on animal health and the world economy. Here, we investigated the evolutionary epidemiology of ASF virus (ASFV) in Eurasia and Africa using the concatenated gene sequences of the viral protein 72 and the central variable region of isolates collected between 1960 and 2015. We used Bayesian phylodynamic models to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus, to identify virus population demographics and to quantify dispersal patterns between host species...
2018: PloS One
Elisa Wirthgen, Sébastien Goumon, Martin Kunze, Christina Walz, Marion Spitschak, Armin Tuchscherer, Jennifer Brown, Christine Höflich, Luigi Faucitano, Andreas Hoeflich
In previous work using market-weight pigs, we had demonstrated that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are regulated during shipment characterized by changing conditions of stress due to loading or unloading, transportation, lairage, and slaughter. In addition, we found in a previous study that IGFBP-2 concentrations were lower in pigs transported for longer periods of time. Therefore, we performed a more detailed study on the effects of transport duration and season on the plasma concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in adult pigs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Honghao Yu, Weihu Long, Xuezeng Zhang, Kaixiang Xu, Jianxiong Guo, Heng Zhao, Honghui Li, Yubo Qing, Weirong Pan, Baoyu Jia, Hong-Ye Zhao, Xingxu Huang, Hong-Jiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Laron syndrome is an autosomal disease resulting from mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The only therapeutic treatment for Laron syndrome is recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has been shown to have various side effects. The improved Laron syndrome models are important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and developing corresponding therapeutics. Pigs have become attractive biomedical models for human condition due to similarities in anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans, which could serve as an appropriate model for Laron syndrome...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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