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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532828/expression-of-apelin-and-apelin-receptor-apj-in-porcine-ovarian-follicles-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-effect-of-apelin-on-steroidogenesis-and-proliferation-through-apj-activation-and-different-signaling-pathways
#1
A Rak, E Drwal, Ch Rame, K Knapczyk-Stwora, M Słomczyńska, J Dupont, E L Gregoraszczuk
Apelin was thought to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies indicate a link between apelin and female reproductive function. Using real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA, we demonstrated expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in ovarian follicles of different sizes from mature pigs. Apelin concentration in the follicular fluid, and expression of both apelin and APJ, increased with follicular growth; greatest values were found in large follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed the positive staining for apelin and APJ in membranes of granulosa, than theca cells...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#2
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523619/effect-of-calcium-bentonite-on-zn-and-cu-mobility-and-their-accumulation-in-vegetable-growth-in-soil-amended-with-compost-during-consecutive-planting
#3
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the Cu and Zn mobility and their accumulations in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapachinensis L.) growth in Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-compost (CBC)-soil system during three consecutive planting. Five composts (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-composts) amended soil with 5% (w/w) application rate and compared to control without any additive. The results showed that the addition of CBC increased the biomass and chlorophyll content of pakchoi, and the maximum overall yield was found in 7...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510800/structural-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-bama-minipigs-in-response-to-treatment-with-a-growth-promoting-agent-salbutamol
#4
Chenyang Lu, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Dijun Zhang, Zuzhong Wang, Ye Li, Lingzhi Cheong, Chundan Zhang, Xiurong Su
Even though salbutamol (SAL) had remarkable effects on the enhancement of growth rate and carcass composition in different livestock species such as cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry, it was banned as a growth promoter because of its adverse effects on health. However, the specific mechanism by which salbutamol enhances growth efficiency remains unknown. In this study, Bama pigs were randomly allocated to receive salbutamol (5 mg/kg) for 30 or 60 days and were compared with untreated pigs. Pigs treated with salbutamol demonstrated enhanced growth rates and carcass composition; however, they showed deterioration in blood biochemical indices and organ development...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508507/detecting-selection-signatures-between-duroc-and-duroc-synthetic-pig-populations-using-high-density-snp-chip
#5
Z Edea, J-K Hong, J-H Jung, D-W Kim, Y-M Kim, E-S Kim, S S Shin, Y C Jung, K-S Kim
The development of high throughput genotyping techniques has facilitated the identification of selection signatures of pigs. The detection of genomic selection signals in a population subjected to differential selection pressures may provide insights into the genes associated with economically and biologically important traits. To identify genomic regions under selection, we genotyped 488 Duroc (D) pigs and 155 D × Korean native pigs (DKNPs) using the Porcine SNP70K BeadChip. By applying the FST and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH-Rsb) methods, we detected genes under directional selection associated with growth/stature (DOCK7, PLCB4, HS2ST1, FBP2 and TG), carcass and meat quality (TG, COL14A1, FBXO5, NR3C1, SNX7, ARHGAP26 and DPYD), number of teats (LOC100153159 and LRRC1), pigmentation (MME) and ear morphology (SOX5), which are all mostly near or at fixation...
May 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504407/effects-of-space-allocations-and-energy-levels-on-growth-performance-and-nutrient-digestibility-in-growing-and-finishing-pigs
#6
X J Lei, L Yan, Y M Kim, I H Kim
Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of different space allocations and different dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 84 growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 27.10 ± 1.60 kg were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were blocked based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.60 or 0.80 m(2) /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,400 or 3,550 kcal/kg ME of diets...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503426/expression-and-role-of-specificity-protein-1-in-the-sclera-remodeling-of-experimental-myopia-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Bo Jiang, Zhang-You Wu, Zi-Cheng Zhu, Gen-Jie Ke, Yue-Chun Wen, Si-Qin Sun
AIM: To study the expression of collagen I and transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) downstream target, and reveal the impact of the TGF-β1-Sp1 signaling pathway on collagen remodeling in myopic sclera. METHODS: Seventy-five 1-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into normal control, form deprivation myopia (FDM), and self-control groups. FDM was induced for different times using coverage with translucent latex balloons and FDM recovery was performed for 1wk after 4wk treatment; then, changes in refractive power and axial length were measured...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502262/effects-of-combined-iugr-and-prenatal-stress-on-the-development-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-fetal-guinea-pig-model
#8
A L Cumberland, H K Palliser, P Rani, D W Walker, J J Hirst
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal stress during pregnancy are two compromises that negatively impact neurodevelopment and increase the risk of developing later life neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and behavioural disorders. Neurosteroids, particularly allopregnanolone, are important in protecting the developing brain and promoting many essential neurodevelopmental processes. Individually, IUGR and prenatal stress (PS) reduce myelination and neurogenesis within affected fetal brains, however less information is available on the combined effects of these two disorders on the term fetal brain...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493788/development-of-in-vitro-embryo-production-system-using-collagen-matrix-gel-attached-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-derived-from-interleukin-1-beta-treated-porcine-endometrial-tissue
#9
Hye-In Han, Sang-Hee Lee, Choon-Keun Park
The aim of this study was to establish an embryo culture system using collagen gel attached with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) derived from interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-treated endometrial tissues from pigs. Endometria were separated from the porcine uterus at the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and were cultured with IL-1β. The collagen gels co-incubated with IL-1β-treated endometria (C, without endometrial tissue; CE, with endometrial tissue; and CEI, IL-1β-treated endometrial tissue) were used for embryo culture...
May 11, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491297/net-energy-of-corn-soybean-meal-and-rapeseed-meal-in-growing-pigs
#10
Zhongchao Li, Yakui Li, Zhiqian Lv, Hu Liu, Jinbiao Zhao, Jean Noblet, Fenglai Wang, Changhua Lai, Defa Li
BACKGROUND: Two experiments were conducted to estimate the net energy (NE) of corn, soybean meal, expeller-pressed rapeseed meal (EP-RSM) and solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (SE-RSM) using indirect calorimetry and to validate the NE of these four ingredients using pig growth performance. METHODS: In Exp.1, 24 barrows (initial BW = 36.4 ± 1.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 diets which included a corn basal diet, a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two rapeseed meal diets containing 20% EP-RSM (9...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490584/a-naturally-occurring-recombinant-enterovirus-expresses-a-torovirus-deubiquitinase
#11
Pengcheng Shang, Saurav Misra, Ben Hause, Ying Fang
Enteroviruses are implicated in a wide range of diseases in human and animals. In this study, a novel enterovirus (species G; EVG 08/NC_USA/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample of neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic EVG strain (PEV9 UKG/410/73). Remarkably, a 582 nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3C(pro) cleavage sites at 5' - and 3' - ends, was found in the 2C/3A junction region of the viral genome...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489283/inflammatory-responses-matrix-remodeling-and-re-epithelialization-after-fractional-co2-laser-treatment-of-scars
#12
Danielle M DeBruler, Britani N Blackstone, Molly E Baumann, Kevin L McFarland, Brian C Wulff, Traci A Wilgus, J Kevin Bailey, Dorothy M Supp, Heather M Powell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fractional CO2 laser therapy has been used to improve scar pliability and appearance; however, a variety of treatment protocols have been utilized with varied outcomes. Understanding the relationship between laser power and extent of initial tissue ablation and time frame for remodeling could help determine an optimum power and frequency for laser treatment. The characteristics of initial injury caused by fractional CO2 laser treatment, the rates of dermal remodeling and re-epithelialization, and the extent of inflammation as a function of laser stacking were assessed in this study in a porcine scar model...
May 10, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488746/corpora-lutea-control-the-progression-of-small-antral-follicle-growth-in-the-pig-ovary
#13
Holly A LaVoie
The growth of activated ovarian primordial follicles into mature preovulatory follicles takes several months in sexually mature pigs. The penultimate growth period of small antral follicles, like the 0.5-mm diameter follicle shown on the upper right, occurs during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Small antral follicle growth is limited to 2-4 mm in diameter by the presence of functional corpora lutea, such as the one shown on the lower left. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486664/microrna-21-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-the-oocyte-secreted-factor-induced-suppression-of-cumulus-cell-apoptosis%C3%A2
#14
Xiao Han, Rui Xue, Hong-Jie Yuan, Tian-Yang Wang, Juan Lin, Jie Zhang, Bo Liang, Jing-He Tan
It is known that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) are more resistant to apoptosis than other compartments of the antral follicle. However, although oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) have been found to be involved in suppressing bovine CC apoptosis, little is known about the intra-cellular mechanisms by which OSFs render CCs resistant to apoptosis. Here we show that coculture with mouse or pig cumulus-denuded oocytes, culture with recombinant mouse growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) or culture in pig oocyte-conditioned medium (POCM) significantly inhibited CC apoptosis of mouse oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs)...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#15
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475953/effects-of-dietary-starch-types-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-myofibre-type-of-finishing-pigs
#16
Y J Li, J L Li, L Zhang, F Gao, G H Zhou
To investigate the effects of dietary starch types on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs, ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with WMS diet, PS diet increased the average daily gain, loin eye area, pH45 value, NMR transverse relaxation (T2)2 peak area ratio and sarcoplasmic protein solubility, decreased the feed to gain ratio, back fat, drip loss, cooking loss and T23 peak area ratio (P<0...
May 2, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472809/developmental-changes-in-expression-of-gabaa-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-3-in-the-pig-brain
#17
Stephanie M Miller, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Paul B Colditz, Stella Tracey Björkman
GABA is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. In the mature brain GABA exerts inhibitory actions via the GABAA receptor (GABAAR); however, in the immature brain GABA provides much of the excitatory drive. We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAA α-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontaneous delivery, term = 115 days)...
May 5, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472114/a-global-analysis-of-cnvs-in-swine-using-whole-genome-sequence-data-and-association-analysis-with-fatty-acid-composition-and-growth-traits
#18
Manuel Revilla, Anna Puig-Oliveras, Anna Castelló, Daniel Crespo-Piazuelo, Ediane Paludo, Ana I Fernández, Maria Ballester, Josep M Folch
Copy number variations (CNVs) are important genetic variants complementary to SNPs, and can be considered as biomarkers for some economically important traits in domestic animals. In the present study, a genomic analysis of porcine CNVs based on next-generation sequencing data was carried out to identify CNVs segregating in an Iberian x Landrace backcross population and study their association with fatty acid composition and growth-related traits. A total of 1,279 CNVs, including duplications and deletions, were detected, ranging from 106 to 235 CNVs across samples, with an average of 183 CNVs per sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471537/orientation-changes-in-the-cruciate-ligaments-of-the-knee-during-skeletal-growth-a-porcine-model
#19
Stephanie G Cone, Sean G Simpson, Jorge A Piedrahita, Lynn A Fordham, Jeffrey T Spang, Matthew B Fisher
Musculoskeletal injuries in pediatric patients, including significant increases in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, are on the rise. Previous studies have found major anatomical changes during skeletal growth in the soft tissues of the knee. Specifically, the ACL and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) change in their relative orientation to the tibial plateau throughout growth. In order to develop age-specific treatments for ACL injuries the purpose of this study was to characterize orientation changes in the cruciate ligaments of the Yorkshire pig, a common pre-clinical model, during skeletal growth in order to verify the applicability of this model for pediatric musculoskeletal studies...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470455/potential-approaches-to-assess-the-infectivity-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-pork-products-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Nigel Cook, Martin D'Agostino, Reimar Johne
The zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an emerging issue. HEV appears common in pigs (although infected pigs do not show clinical signs), and evidence suggests that a number of hepatitis E cases have been associated with the consumption of undercooked pork meat and products. Little information is available on whether cooking can eliminate HEV, since there is currently no robust method for measuring its infectivity. HEV infectivity can be clearly demonstrated by monitoring for signs of infection (e...
May 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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