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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351419/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-guinea-pigs-as-an-animal-model-for-studying-growth-restricted-offspring-with-post-natal-catch-up-growth
#1
Catherine L Nevin, Evan Formosa, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
We determined the impact of moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs with fetal growth restriction (FGR) on offspring body and organ weights, hypothesizing that FGR-MNR animals will show catch-up growth, but with organ-specific differences. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet from 4 week`s pre-conception, switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Control newborns >95g (appropriate for gestational age or AGA, N=37) and MNR newborns <85g (FGR, N=37) were monitored until neonatal (~25 days) or adult (~110 days) necropsy...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346439/interspecies-diversity-of-chloride-channel-regulators-calcium-activated-3-genes
#2
Lars Mundhenk, Nancy A Erickson, Nikolai Klymiuk, Achim D Gruber
Members of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family, have been implicated in diverse biomedical conditions, including chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, the activation of macrophages, and the growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Several observations, however, could not be repeated across species boundaries and increasing evidence suggests that select CLCA genes are particularly prone to dynamic species-specific evolvements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346283/the-biological-role-of-hyaluronan-rich-oocyte-cumulus-extracellular-matrix-in-female-reproduction
#3
REVIEW
Eva Nagyova
Fertilization of the mammalian oocyte requires interactions between spermatozoa and expanded cumulus extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds the oocyte. This review focuses on key molecules that play an important role in the formation of the cumulus ECM, generated by the oocyte-cumulus complex. In particular, the specific inhibitors (AG1478, lapatinib, indomethacin and MG132) and progesterone receptor antagonist (RU486) exerting their effects through the remodeling of the ECM of the cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte have been described...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344352/the-use-of-feed-grade-amino-acids-in-lactating-sow-diets
#4
Laura Greiner, Pairat Srichana, James L Usry, Casey Neill, Gary L Allee, Joseph Connor, Kevin J Touchette, Christopher D Knight
Background: The use of feed grade amino acids can reduce the cost of lactation feed. With changing genetics, increasing feed costs, and higher number of pigs weaned with heavier wean weights further evaluation of higher inclusion levels of feed-grade amino acid in lactation diets than previously published is warranted. Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the optimal inclusion level of L-lysine HCl to be included in swine lactation diets while digestible lysine levels remain constant across dietary treatments and allowing feed grade amino acids to be added to the diet to maintain dietary ratios relative to lysine to maximize litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342947/understanding-tail-biting-in-pigs-through-social-network-analysis
#5
Yuzhi Li, Haifeng Zhang, Lee J Johnston, Wayne Martin
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between social structure and incidence of tail-biting in pigs. Pigs (n = 144, initial weight = 7.2 ± 1.57 kg, 4 weeks of age) were grouped based on their litter origin: littermates, non-littermates, and half-group of littermates. Six pens (8 pigs/pen) of each litter origin were studied for 6 weeks. Incidence of tail injury and growth performance were monitored. Behavior of pigs was video recorded for 6 h at 6 and 8 weeks of age. Video recordings were scanned at 10 min intervals to register pigs that were lying together (1) or not (0) in binary matrices...
January 15, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339072/deep-sequencing-of-a-qtl-rich-region-spanning-128-136mbp-of-pig-chromosome-15
#6
K Piórkowska, K Żukowski, K Ropka-Molik, M Tyra
The present study shows the characterization of the chromosome 15 (SSC15) region that is highly rich in quantitative traits loci (QTLs) associated with pork quality, growth performance, fat and meat carcass contents. The analytic method that was utilized included targeted enrichment DNA sequencing and RNA hybridisation probes. The research included two pig breeds (Puławska and Polish Landrace) that are significantly different in terms of carcass and meat quality features. Filtered sequences were aligned to the Sscrofa10...
January 12, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329218/molecular-and-physiological-effects-on-the-small-intestine-of-weaner-pigs-following-feeding-with-deoxynivalenol-contaminated-feed
#7
J Alex Pasternak, Vaishnavi Iyer Aka Aiyer, Glenn Hamonic, A Denise Beaulieu, Daniel A Columbus, Heather L Wilson
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20-0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30-3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0...
January 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328528/evaluation-of-the-use-of-recombinant-human-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-in-combination-with-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-with-instillation-and-dwell-time-in-porcine-full-thickness-wound-model
#8
Hiroto Saijo, Deepak V Kilpadi, Sadanori Akita
NPWT with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d), which combines NPWT with wound irrigation, has been clinically applied as a more effective treatment than conventional NPWT. Commercially available recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for use over the wound beds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined treatment with NPWTi-d and rh-bFGF. Six pigs received 12 full-thickness excisional skin wounds and were treated with 6 different treatment groups for each pair...
January 12, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323260/dietary-fatty-acids-sex-specifically-modulate-guinea-pig-postnatal-development-via-cortisol-concentrations
#9
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Daniela Schuster, Ruth Quint, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Bernard Wallner
Early ontogenetic periods and postnatal maturation in organisms are sex-specifically sensitive to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activities, related glucocorticoid secretions, and their effects on energy balance and homeostasis. Dietary polyunsaturated (PUFAs) and saturated (SFAs) fatty acids potentially play a major role in this context because PUFAs positively affect HPA-axis functions and a shift towards SFAs may impair body homeostasis. Here we show that dietary PUFAs positively affect postnatal body mass gain and diminish negative glucocorticoid-effects on structural growth rates in male guinea pigs...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321316/two-residues-in-nsp9-contribute-to-the-enhanced-replication-and-pathogenicity-of-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#10
Kuan Zhao, Jia-Cong Gao, Jun-Yao Xiong, Jin-Chao Guo, Yong-Bo Yang, Cheng-Gang Jiang, Yan-Dong Tang, Zhi-Jun Tian, Xue-Hui Cai, Guang-Zhi Tong, Tong-Qing An
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) possesses greater replicative capacity and pathogenicity than classical PRRSV. However, the factors that lead to enhanced replication and pathogenicity remain unclear. In our study, an alignment of all available full-length sequences of North-American type PRRSVs (n = 204) revealed two consistent amino acid mutations that differed between HP-PRRSV and classical PRRSV and were located at positions 519 and 544 in non-structural protein 9...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321021/silver-pig-skin-nanocomposites-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-suitable-antibiofilm-cellular-dressings-for-wound-healing
#11
Mario Alberto Pérez-Díaz, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Binisa Jiménez-López, Valentín Martínez-López, Yaaziel Melgarejo-Ramírez, Ana Brena-Molina, Clemente Ibarra, Isabel Baeza, M Esther Martínez-Pardo, M Lourdes Reyes-Frías, Erik Márquez-Gutiérrez, Cristina Velasquillo, Gabriel Martínez-Castañon, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez, Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Treatment of severe or chronic skin wounds is an important challenge facing medicine and a significant health care burden. Proper wound healing is often affected by bacterial infection; where biofilm formation is one of the main risks and particularly problematic because it confers protection to microorganisms against antibiotics. One avenue to prevent bacterial colonization of wounds is the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); which have proved to be effective against non-multidrug-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacteria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319233/genetic-evolution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-under-immune-environments-conditioned-by-genotype-1-based-modified-live-virus-vaccine
#12
S J Yoo, T Kwon, K Kang, H Kim, S C Kang, J A Richt, Y S Lyoo
Modified live vaccines (MLVs) based on genotype 1 strains, particularly C-strain, have been used to prevent and control classical swine fever virus (CSFV) worldwide. Nevertheless, a shift in the predominant CSFV strains circulating in the field from genotype 1 or 3 to genotype 2 is seen. Genotype 2 is genetically distant from the vaccine strains and was recently reported during outbreaks after vaccine failure; this has raised concerns that vaccination has influenced viral evolution. In Korea in 2016, there was an unexpected CSF outbreak in a MLV-vaccinated commercial pig herd...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314446/effects-of-an-immune-stimulant-inactivated-mycobacterium-phlei-on-the-growth-performance-as-well-as-meat-quality-of-fattening-pigs
#13
Jin-Feng Zhong, Wei-Gao Wu, Aseyinjan Tastan, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Bin Wang, Xiao-Peng Tang, Re-Jun Fang
Inactivated mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei) is well known for its immune-stimulatory functions in humans and livestock, but less information is available about the influence on meat quality of pigs when used as a feed additive. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of inactivated M. phlei on growth performance as well as meat quality of fattening pigs. A total of 240 cross-bred pigs ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) with initial body weight of 80.14 ± 0.29 kg were randomly allocated to five treatments, each of which consisted of eight replicates with 6six pigs per replicate...
January 3, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311328/modeling-lethal-x-linked-genetic-disorders-in-pigs-with-ensured-fertility
#14
Hitomi Matsunari, Masahito Watanabe, Kazuaki Nakano, Shin Enosawa, Kazuhiro Umeyama, Ayuko Uchikura, Sayaka Yashima, Toru Fukuda, Nikolai Klymiuk, Mayuko Kurome, Barbara Kessler, Annegret Wuensch, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Eckhard Wolf, Yutaka Hanazono, Masaki Nagaya, Akihiro Umezawa, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hiroshi Nagashima
Genetically engineered pigs play an indispensable role in the study of rare monogenic diseases. Pigs harboring a gene responsible for a specific disease can be efficiently generated via somatic cell cloning. The generation of somatic cell-cloned pigs from male cells with mutation(s) in an X chromosomal gene is a reliable and straightforward method for reproducing X-linked genetic diseases (XLGDs) in pigs. However, the severe symptoms of XLGDs are often accompanied by impaired growth and reproductive disorders, which hinder the reproduction of these valuable model animals...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311229/integrated-analysis-of-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-data-highlights-late-fetal-muscle-maturation-process
#15
Valentin Voillet, Magali San Cristobal, Marie-Christine Pere, Yvon Billon, Laurianne Canario, Laurence Liaubet, Louis Lefaucheur
BACKGROUND: In pigs, the perinatal period is the most critical time for survival. Piglet maturation, which occurs at the end of gestation, leads to a state of full development after birth. Maturity is thus an important determinant of early survival. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in adaptation to extra-uterine life, e.g. motor function and thermoregulation. Progeny from two breeds with extreme neonatal mortality rates were analyzed at 90 and 110 days of gestation (dg). The Large White breed is a highly selected breed for lean growth with a high rate of mortality at birth, whereas the Chinese Meishan breed is fatter and more robust and has a low mortality rate...
January 8, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310731/formula-derived-maillard-reaction-products-in-post-weaning-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets-induce-developmental-programming-of-hepatic-oxidative-stress-independently-of-microrna-21-and-microrna-155
#16
S Firmin, G Elmhiri, D Crepin, M Souidi, M Taouis, L Abdennebi-Najar
We recently reported augmentation of lipid peroxidation products in the liver of intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets fed a high load of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) during suckling period. The underlying mechanisms of MRPs effects remain unknown. Here, we studied the long-term impact of MRPs exposure on liver oxidative status of IUGR juvenile pigs. Livers of 54-day-old pigs suckled with formula containing either a high (HHF, n=8) or a low (LHF: n=8) load of MRPs were analyzed for protein carbonylation levels , activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of glutathione (GSH) and main antioxidant regulators of redox homeostasis [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306151/enhancement-of-immune-response-of-piglets-to-pcv-2-vaccine-by-porcine-il-2-and-fusion-il-4-6-gene-entrapped-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#17
Yi Chen, Tingyu Song, Yong-Le Xiao, Xiaoping Wan, Luyi Yang, Jinghai Li, Guangzhi Zeng, Pengfei Fang, Ze-Zhou Wang, Rong Gao
In order to develop a novel effective immunomodulator to enhance pig resistance against post-weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recombinant plasmid co-expressing pig interleukin-2 (IL-2) and fusion interleukin-4/6 (IL-4/6) genes, designated VRIL4/6-2, was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan (CS) nanoparticles prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Then 21-day old piglets were divided into two groups and intramuscularly injected respectively with VPIL4/6-2-CS and saline along with the porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) vaccine...
December 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301569/host-contributes-to-longitudinal-diversity-of-fecal-microbiota-in-swine-selected-for-lean-growth
#18
Duc Lu, Francesco Tiezzi, Constantino Schillebeeckx, Nathan P McNulty, Clint Schwab, Caleb Shull, Christian Maltecca
BACKGROUND: In pigs, gut bacteria have been shown to play important roles in nutritional, physiological, and immunological processes in the host. However, the contribution of their metagenomes or part of them, which are normally reflected by fragments of 16S rRNA-encoding genes, has yet to be fully investigated. RESULTS: Fecal samples, collected from a population of crossbred pigs at three time points, including weaning, week 15 post weaning (hereafter "week 15"), and end-of-feeding test (hereafter "off-test"), were used to evaluate changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome of each animal over time...
January 4, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301091/the-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-jnj-7706621-improves-in-vitro-developmental-competence-of-porcine-parthenogenetic-activation-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#19
Qing Guo, Long Jin, Hai-Ying Zhu, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
In this study we examined the effects of JNJ-7706621, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the in vitro growth of pig embryos that had been produced either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A significantly higher percentage of PA embryos reached the blastocyst stage by Day 7 after exposure to 10µM JNJ-7706621 for 4h compared with embryos exposed to 5µgmL-1 cytochalasin B for 4h (P<0.05). Similarly, the rate of Tyr15 phosphorylation of the complex of cyclin and p34cdc2 (CDK1) was significantly elevated in the JNJ-7706621-treated embryos compared with embryos exposed to cytochalasin B or non-treated controls (P<0...
January 5, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289495/mechanism-of-action-pharmacokinetics-efficacy-and-safety-of-transarterial-therapies-using-ethiodized-oil-preclinical-review-in-liver-cancer-models
#20
Ron C Gaba, Regina M Schwind, Sebastien Ballet
PURPOSE: To systematically review mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety of ethiodized oil-based locoregional therapy (LRT) for liver cancer in preclinical models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed from 1988 to 2016. Search terms included hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC, liver-cell carcinoma, liver, hepatic, hepatocarcinoma, transarterial or chemoembolization, TACE, animal, Lipiodol, Ethiodol, iodized oil, and/or poppy-seed oil...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
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