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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108862/effects-of-chromium-methionine-supplementation-with-different-sources-of-zinc-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-serum-metabolites-endocrine-parameters-and-the-antioxidant-status-in-growing-finishing-pigs
#1
Xiao Xu, Li Liu, Shen-Fei Long, Xiang-Shu Piao, Terry L Ward, Fei Ji
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of chromium methionine with/without zinc sulfate or zinc amino acid complex on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, serum parameters, endocrine parameters, and antioxidant status of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 180 (32.0 ± 1.7 kg body weight, BW) crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were used in a completely randomized design with three dietary treatments and 10 replicates per treatment (five pens of barrows and five pens of gilts with six pigs per replicate)...
January 21, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107878/effect-of-strategic-administration-of-an-encapsulated-blend-of-formic-acid-citric-acid-and-essential-oils-on-salmonella-carriage-seroprevalence-and-growth-of-finishing-pigs
#2
Kavita Walia, Hector Argüello, Helen Lynch, Finola C Leonard, Jim Grant, Dermot Yearsley, Sinead Kelly, Geraldine Duffy, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Controlling Salmonella at farm level can act as the first line of defence in reducing salmonellosis from pork. This study investigated the efficacy of an encapsulated blend of formic acid, citric acid, and essential oils (FormaXOL™) administered to finisher pigs for 28days prior to slaughter in controlling Salmonella shedding on a commercial farm with a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. Fourteen pens of 8-10 pigs/pen were randomly assigned to a control (finisher diet without additive) or a treatment group (the same diet with 4kg/t of FormaXOL™) for 28 days...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107664/safety-and-efficacy-of-cardiopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-post-infarction-left-ventricular-dysfunction-from-cardioprotection-to-functional-repair-in-a-translational-pig-infarction-model
#3
Maximilian Y Emmert, Petra Wolint, Andras Jakab, Sean P Sheehy, Francesco S Pasqualini, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen, Monika Hilbe, Burkhardt Seifert, Benedikt Weber, Chad E Brokopp, Dominika Macejovska, Etem Caliskan, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ruth Schwartlander, Viola Vogel, Volkmar Falk, Kevin Kit Parker, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Simon P Hoerstrup
To date, clinical success of cardiac cell-therapies remains limited. To enhance the cardioreparative properties of stem cells, the concept of lineage-specification through cardiopoietic-guidance has been recently suggested. However, so far, only results from murine studies and from a clinical pilot-trial in chronic heart-failure (CHF) are available, while systematic evidence of its therapeutic-efficacy is still lacking. Importantly, also no data from large animals or for other indications are available. Therefore, we here investigate the therapeutic-efficacy of human cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of post-infarction LV-dysfunction using a translational pig-model...
November 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107461/inhibition-of-fatty-acid-synthase-reduces-blastocyst-hatching-through-regulation-of-the-akt-pathway-in-pigs
#4
Jing Guo, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. During oncogenesis, FASN plays a role in growth and survival rather than acting within the energy storage pathways. Here, the function of FASN during early embryonic development was studied using its specific inhibitor, C75. We found that the presence of the inhibitor reduced blastocyst hatching. FASN inhibition decreased Cpt1 expression, leading to a reduction in mitochondria numbers and ATP content. This inhibition of FASN resulted in the down-regulation of the AKT pathway, thereby triggering apoptosis through the activation of the p53 pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106759/sex-specific-muscular-maturation-responses-following-prenatal-exposure-to-methylation-related-micronutrients-in-pigs
#5
Michael Oster, Nares Trakooljul, Henry Reyer, Annette Zeyner, Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104124/enhancing-survival-of-human-hepatocytes-by-neonatal-thymectomy-and-partial-hepatectomy-in-micro-miniature-pigs
#6
H C Hsu, S Enosawa, T Yamazaki, S Tohyama, J Fujita, K Fukuda, E Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: With the goal of in vivo cultivation of human hepatocytes that have not been sufficient in full differentiation in vitro, the advantage of neonatal thymectomy was verified on expansion of xenogeneic human hepatocyte in the micro-miniature pig (MMP). METHODS: The thymus was excised immediately after the birth of the MMPs via cesarean section. Newborns were fed by artificial feeding under specific pathogen-free conditions. The thymectomized and nonthymectomized littermates were transplanted with human hepatocytes via a portal vein with or without partial hepatectomy at the MMP adult stage...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101885/what-is-the-true-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-pig-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#7
L Dorey, S Hobson, P Lees
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#8
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094579/expression-profile-of-the-integrin-receptor-subunits-in-the-guinea-pig-sclera
#9
Kevin K Wang, Ravikanth Metlapally, Christine F Wildsoet
PURPOSE: The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research...
January 17, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093234/the-1910hk-rr-two-component-system-is-essential-for-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#10
Fangyan Yuan, Chen Tan, Zewen Liu, Keli Yang, Danna Zhou, Wei Liu, Zhengying Duan, Rui Guo, Huanchun Chen, Yongxiang Tian, Weicheng Bei
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a major zoonotic pathogen, and the two-component system plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. The present study targeted the 1910HK/RR two-component system of S. suis 2. A 1910HK/RR deletion mutant (Δ1910HK/RR) and the corresponding complementation strain (CΔ1910HK/RR) were constructed in S. suis 2 strain 05ZYH33. 1910HK/RR deletion had no effect on S. suis 2 growth, but significantly inhibited the adherence and invasion of S. suis 2 to HEp-2 cells. Analysis of the role of 1910HK/RR in murine and pig infection models demonstrated that 1910HK/RR played a distinct role in the virulence of S...
January 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092617/supplementation-of-pigs-diet-with-zinc-and-copper-as-alternative-to-conventional-antimicrobials
#11
B Dębski
Modern commercial pig farming systems inflict increased stress in animals, which often leads to various negative changes in the gastro-intestinal tract, especially in the case of piglets. Ban of antibiotics, used as growth promoters, has caused a need for alternatives to conventional antimicrobials in swine diets. Use of pre-/or probiotics, organic acids and plant extracts is often recommended, but it seems that zinc oxide and cooper salts, which were traditionally included in high doses to piglets diet, possess the highest efficacy...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090673/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-integration-and-modelling-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-porcine-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#12
L Dorey, L Pelligand, Z Cheng, P Lees
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (Cav0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077194/the-response-of-weaned-piglets-to-dietary-valine-and-leucine
#13
F Meyer, C Jansen van Rensburg, R M Gous
Valine (Val) is considered to be the fifth-limiting amino acid in a maize-soyabean meal diet for pigs. Excess leucine (Leu) levels often occur in commercial diets, which may attenuate the effect of Val deficiency because of an increased oxidation of Val. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of Leu on the response of young piglets to dietary Val. In all, 75 Large White×Landrace entire male pigs, 44 days of age and with a mean starting weight of 13...
January 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074127/transfer-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-from-sows-to-their-offspring-and-its-impact-on-muscle-fiber-type-transformation-and-performance-in-pigs
#14
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Caimei Wu, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing lactating sows with HMB on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation and growth of the offspring during d 28 and 180 after birth...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072880/characterisation-of-early-life-fecal-microbiota-in-susceptible-and-healthy-pigs-to-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#15
Samir Dou, Pascale Gadonna-Widehem, Véronique Rome, Dounia Hamoudi, Larbi Rhazi, Lyes Lakhal, Thibaut Larcher, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Arturo Pinon-Quintana, Alain Guyonvarch, Isabelle L E Huërou-Luron, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070867/analytical-modeling-for-computing-lead-stress-in-a-novel-epicardial-micropacemaker
#16
Li Zhou, Yaniv Bar-Cohen, Raymond A Peck, Giorgio V Chirikian, Brett Harwin, Ramen H Chmait, Jay D Pruetz, Michael J Silka, Gerald E Loeb
Implantation and maintenance of a permanent cardiac pacing system in children remains challenging due to small patient size, congenital heart defects and somatic growth. We are developing a novel epicardial micropacemaker for children that can be implanted on the epicardium within the pericardial space via a minimally-invasive technique. The key design configurations include a novel open-coiled lead in which living tissue replaces the usual polymeric support for the coiled conductor. To better understand and be able to predict the behavior of the implanted lead, we performed a radiographic image-based modeling study on a chronic animal test...
January 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070463/impact-of-birth-weight-and-postnatal-diet-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-young-adult-guinea-pigs
#17
Kait Al, Ousseynou Sarr, Kristyn Dunlop, Gregory B Gloor, Gregor Reid, Jeremy Burton, Timothy R H Regnault
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070037/-bm-mscs-from-wuzhishan-mini-pigs-delay-the-progress-of-renal-fibrosis-induced-by-chronic-kidney-disease-through-%C3%A2-autocrine-hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-vitro
#18
Yang Xiang, Jiale Long, Jiansheng Xing, Yuanhui Gao, Qing Cheng, Yong Cai, Zhenxiang Liu, Shufang Zhang, Lie Chen, Chao Yang, Zhiming Bai
To isolate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and establish the model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of Wuzhishan (WZS) mini-pig, and to study the repairment effect of BM-MSCs on CKD-induced renal fibrosis in vitro.
 Methods: Density gradient method was used to isolate and culture BM-MSCs. The cells were verified by morphology, phenotype, differentiation and so on. The left partial ureteral obstruction (LPUUO) was used to establish the CKD model, which was evaluated by B-ultrasound, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), HE and Masson staining...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069291/antagonizing-cytokine-mediated-jak-stat-signaling-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#19
REVIEW
Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages...
December 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067421/dietary-integration-with-oregano-origanum-vulgare-l-essential-oil-improves-growth-rate-and-oxidative-status-in-outdoor-reared-but-not-indoor-reared-pigs
#20
C Forte, D Ranucci, D Beghelli, R Branciari, G Acuti, L Todini, C Cavallucci, M Trabalza-Marinucci
The effects of a diet supplemented with oregano essential oil on performance, oxidative status, pork quality traits and sensorial properties were evaluated. In two studies, 72 pigs in indoor or outdoor conditions were assigned to either a control diet or an identical diet supplemented with 0.2% oregano essential oil. Pigs reared outdoor showed lower live weight, average daily gain and average gain:feed ratio compared to indoor pigs. The oregano supplementation improved the growth performance of the outdoor- but not the indoor-reared animals...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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