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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736803/genetic-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-a-novel-reassortant-h5n6-influenza-virus-isolated-from-waterfowl-in-south-korea-in-2016
#1
In Hong Lee, Seo Yeon Jin, Sang Heui Seo
A novel reassortant highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was isolated from waterfowl in South Korea in 2016. Seven genes of this virus originated from an H5N6 virus from China, whereas the remaining gene, PB1, was from an unknown virus. This virus productively infected pigs, which showed viral shedding through their noses and developed severe interstitial pneumonia.
July 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735588/mode-of-action-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-enteric-methane-mitigation-in-pigs
#2
Y L Gong, J B Liang, M F Jahromi, Y B Wu, A G Wright, X D Liao
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect and mode of action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YST2) on enteric methane (CH4) mitigation in pigs. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire male finisher pigs (60±1 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups: a basal diet (control); and a basal diet supplemented with 3 g/YST2 (1.8×1010 live cells/g) per kg diet. At the end of 32-day experiment, pigs were sacrificed and redox potential (Eh), pH, volatile fatty acid concentration, densities of methanogens and acetogens, and expression of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene were determined in digesta contents from the cecum, colon and rectum...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735585/analyses-of-body-weight-patterns-in-growing-pigs-a-new-view-on-body-weight-in-pigs-for-frequent-monitoring
#3
A H Stygar, K A Dolecheck, A R Kristensen
Frequent BW monitoring of growing pigs can be useful for identifying production (e.g. feeding), health and welfare problems. However, in order to construct a tool which will properly recognize abnormalities in pigs' growth a precise description of the growth process should be used. In this study we proposed a new model of pig growth accounting for daily fluctuations in BW. Body weight measurements of 1710 pigs (865 gilts and 843 barrows) originating from five consecutive batches from a Danish commercial farm were collected...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734992/endoscopic-muscle-biopsy-emb-of-the-duodenum-and-rectum-a-pilot-survival-study-in-a-porcine-model-to-detect-myenteric-neurons
#4
E Rajan, B Al-Bawardy, C J Gostout, L M Wong Kee Song, J L Deters, M A Knipschield, C E Bernard, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Small bowel and colorectal muscle biopsies require a surgical approach. Advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of motility disorders, such as functional bowel disorders, intestinal pseudo-obstruction and slow transit constipation, is hindered by our inability to non-invasively obtain muscularis propria (MP) for evaluation of multiple cell types, including myenteric neurons. The aims of this study were to determine (1) technical feasibility, reproducibility and safety of performing duodenal endoscopic muscle biopsy (dEMB) and rectal endoscopic muscle biopsy (rEMB) using a clip-assist technique; and (2) presence of myenteric neurons in tissue samples...
July 19, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734852/azodicarbonamide-adca-a-reconsideration-of-classification-as-a-respiratory-sensitiser
#5
Josje Arts, Ian Kimber
Azodicarbonamide (ADCA) is widely used by industry in the manufacture of a variety of products. ADCA has been classified as a respiratory allergen, and the purpose of this article was to consider whether this classification is appropriate based upon the available data. Here both clinical experience and relevant experimental data have been reviewed. Although there have been reports of an association between workplace exposure to ADCA and symptoms of respiratory allergy and occupational asthma, the evidence is less than persuasive, with in many instances a lack of properly controlled and executed diagnostic procedures...
July 19, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731212/cross-validation-of-commercial-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-and-radioimmunoassay-for-porcine-c-peptide-concentration-measurements-in-non-human-primate-serum
#6
Sarah C Gresch, Lucas A Mutch, Jody L Janecek, Rebecca L Hegstad-Davies, Melanie L Graham
BACKGROUND: C-peptide concentration is widely used as a marker of insulin secretion and is especially relevant in evaluating islet graft function following transplantation, because its measurement is not confounded by the presence of exogenous insulin. To address the shortage of human islet donors, the use of porcine islets has been proposed as a possible solution and the stringent pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) model is often the most relevant for pre-clinical evaluation of the potential for diabetes reversal resulting from an islet xenograft...
July 21, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#7
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728387/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-behaviour-physiology-and-performance-of-pigs-a-review
#8
Mbusiseni Vusumuzi Mkwanazi, Cyprial Ndumiso Ncobela, Arnold Tapera Kanengoni, Michael Chimonyo
The aim of this paper is to critically analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning the use of environmental enrichment and its effect on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs housed in intensive production systems. The objective is also to provide clarity as to what constitute successful enrichment and recommend on when and how enrichment should be used. Environmental enrichment is usually understood as an attempt to improve animal welfare and to lesser extent, performance. Common enrichment objects used are straw bedding, suspended rope and wood shavings, toys, rubber tubing, coloured plastic keys, table tennis balls, chains and strings...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728380/effects-of-different-space-allowances-on-growth-performance-blood-profile-and-pork-quality-in-a-grow-to-finish-production-system
#9
J C Jang, X H Jin, J S Hong, Y Y Kim
Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire x Landrace] x Duroc, 30.25 ± 1.13 kg) were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs / pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs / pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs / pen, 0.69 m2/pig) in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I and finishing phase II)...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727722/an-attenuated-shigella-mutant-lacking-the-rna-binding-protein-hfq-provides-cross-protection-against-shigella-strains-of-broad-serotype
#10
Jiro Mitobe, Ritam Sinha, Soma Mitra, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Noriko Saito, Ken Shimuta, Nobuo Koizumi, Hemanta Koley
Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727090/effect-of-natural-betaine-and-ractopamine-hcl-on-whole-body-and-carcass-growth-in-pigs-housed-under-high-ambient-temperatures
#11
S M Mendoza, R D Boyd, C E Zier-Rush, P R Ferket, K D Haydon, E van Heugten
Betaine is an osmolyte that helps to maintain water homeostasis and cell integrity, which is essential during heat stress. We hypothesized that supplemental betaine can improve growth during heat stress and may further improve the response to ractopamine. Two studies were conducted to determine: 1) the effects of betaine in combination with ractopamine; and 2) the optimum betaine level for late finishing pigs during heat stress. Heat stress was imposed by gradually increasing temperatures over 10 d to the target high temperature of 32°C...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#12
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727075/amino-acid-digestibility-by-weanling-pigs-of-processed-ingredients-originating-from-soybeans-00-rapeseeds-or-a-fermented-mixture-of-plant-ingredients
#13
D M D L Navarro, Y Liu, T S Bruun, H H Stein
An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727050/net-energy-of-hemp-hulls-and-processed-hemp-hull-products-fed-to-growing-pigs-and-the-comparison-of-net-energy-determined-via-indirect-calorimetry-and-calculated-from-prediction-equations
#14
J W Kim, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was conducted to determine the NE of hemp hulls (HH), extruded HH (EHH), and a blended product of HH with pea (HHP) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC) and to determine effects of dietary fiber on heat production (HP) and fasting HP (FHP). Twenty-four growing barrows with an average initial BW of 22.9 ± 1.75 kg were individually housed in adjustable metabolism crates. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was prepared...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727023/rapid-communication-high-resolution-quantitative-trait-loci-analysis-identifies-ltbp2-encoding-latent-transforming-growth-factor-beta-binding-protein-2-associated-with-thoracic-vertebrae-number-in-a-large-f2-intercross-between-landrace-and-korean-native-pigs
#15
H-B Park, S-H Han, J-B Lee, I-C Cho
Number of vertebrae is associated with body size and meat productivity in pigs. The aim of this study was to identify QTL and associated positional candidate genes affecting the number of thoracic vertebrae (THO). A genomewide association study was conducted in a large resource population derived from an F intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs using the Porcine SNP 60K BeadChip and the genomewide complex trait analysis (GCTA) program based on a linear mixed-effects model. A total of 38,385 SNP markers from 1,105 F progeny were analyzed for the THO trait after filtering for quality control...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727022/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-genetics-and-breeding-for-intramuscular-fat-and-oleic-acid-content-in-pigs
#16
J Estany, R Ros-Freixedes, M Tor, R N Pena
The intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (OL) content have been favorably related to pork quality and human health. This influences the purchasing behavior of consumers and, therefore, also shifts the attention of breeding companies toward whether these traits are included into the breeding goal of the lines producing for high-valued markets. Because IMF and OL are unfavorably associated with lean content, a key economic trait, the real challenge for the industry is not simply to increase IMF and OL, but rather to come up with the right trade-off between them and lean content...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#17
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726522/steerable-induction-of-the-thymosin-%C3%A3-4-mrtf-a-pathway-via-aav-based-overexpression-induces-therapeutic-neovascularization
#18
Tilman Ziegler, Markus Kraus, Wira Husada, Florian Gesenhues, Qui Jiang, Olaf Pinkenburg, Teresa Trenkwalder, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Ferdinand le Noble, Christian Weber, Christian Kupatt, Rabea Hinkel
Viral vectors have been frequently used in a variety of preclinical animal models to deliver genetic constructs into tissues. Among the vectors used, adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) may be targeted to specific tissues, depending on the serotype used. Moreover, they show robust expression for prolonged periods of time and have a low immunogenic potential. Furthermore, AAVs, unlike other vector systems, only display a low rate of genomic integration. However, to ensure efficient transgene production, expression is typically driven by constitutively active promoters, such as the CMV promotor...
July 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725450/various-levels-of-copra-meal-supplementation-with-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-growth-performance-blood-profile-nutrient-digestibility-pork-quality-and-economical-analysis-in-growing-finishing-pigs
#19
H J Kim, S O Nam, J H Jeong, L H Fang, H B Yoo, S H Yoo, J S Hong, S W Son, S H Ha, Y Y Kim
BACKGROUND: To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM) and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM). Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with β-mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725421/antimicrobial-use-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-escherichia-coli-on-small-and-medium-scale-pig-farms-in-north-eastern-thailand
#20
G Ström, M Halje, D Karlsson, J Jiwakanon, M Pringle, L-L Fernström, U Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25) and medium-scale (n = 27) pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. METHODS: Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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