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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906585/birth-of-cloned-microminipigs-derived-from-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-that-have-been-transiently-treated-with-valproic-acid
#1
Kazuchika Miyoshi, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Kosuke Maeda, Masahiro Sato, Kohei Akioka, Michiko Noguchi, Masahisa Horiuchi, Akihide Tanimoto
In our previous study, we found that treatment of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with 4 mM valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 48 hours after activation enhanced blastocyst formation rate and octamer-binding transcription factor-3/4 (Oct-3/4) gene expression at the late blastocyst stage; however, the production of viable cloned pups failed, when those VPA-treated SCNT embryos were transferred to recipients. This failure suggests that the present VPA treatment is suboptimal...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902420/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-il-1ra-an-early-immunomodulatory-cytokine-induced-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#2
Teerawut Nedumpun, Piya Wongyanin, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Patcharee Ritprajuk, Tanapat Palaga, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. Our microarray analysis indicated strong upregulation of the IL1RA gene in type 2 PRRSV infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an early inhibitory cytokine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and T lymphocyte responses. To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, MoDC were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902360/high-genetic-diversity-of-species-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-swine-farms-in-chile
#3
Hernan Canon Jones, Hernan Cortes, Aldo Gaggero, Jorge Levican, Mario Castillo-Ruiz, Trinidad Schlotterbeck, Ricardo San Martin
Rotavirus A is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in lactating and weaned pigs worldwide. Its impact in the swine industry is well documented. However, in Chile the current epidemiological status of rotavirus in porcine farms is unknown. This study evaluated the current epidemiologic status of rotavirus A infection in Chile using on-farm detection technique, electrophoretic confirmation, genotyping and phylogenetic clustering by analysis of partial sequences of VP4 and VP7 genes. Rotavirus A was detected in 4 out of 5 farms with an overall prevalence of 17,7% in diarrheic pigs...
November 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898971/evaluating-the-impact-of-maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-sow-performance-ii-subsequent-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-growing-pigs
#4
J R Flohr, J C Woodworth, J R Bergstrom, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey
A of subsample of 448 growing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050) weaned from 52 sows fed varying dietary vitamin D regimens were used in a split-plot design to determine the effects of maternal and nursery dietary vitamin D on growth performance. Sows were previously administered diets containing vitamin D as vitamin D (800, 2,000, or 9,600 IU/kg) or as 25(OH)D (50 µg [or 2,000 IU vitamin D equivalent]/kg from HyD; DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ). Once weaned, pigs were allotted to pens on the basis of previous maternal vitamin D treatment, and then pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nursery vitamin D dietary regimens (2,000 IU of vitamin D/kg or 50 µg 25(OH)D/kg)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898964/evaluating-the-impact-of-maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-i-sow-performance-serum-vitamin-metabolites-and-neonatal-muscle-characteristics
#5
J R Flohr, J C Woodworth, J R Bergstrom, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey
In Exp. 1, 56 gestating sows (PIC 1050; 35 d postinsemination) were used in a 30-d trial to determine serum 25(OH)D response to increasing concentrations of dietary vitamin D. Sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 dietary D treatments (200, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,400, 12,800, or 25,600 IU of added D per kilogram of complete diet) with 8 sows per treatment. Increasing D increased (quadratic; < 0.001) serum 25(OH)D with the response depicted by the prediction equation: serum 25(OH)D, ng/mL = 35.1746 + (0.002353 × dietary D, IU/d) - (0...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898927/effect-of-feeding-strategy-on-environmental-impacts-of-pig-fattening-in-different-contexts-of-production-evaluation-through-life-cycle-assessment
#6
A N T R Monteiro, F Garcia-Launay, L Brossard, A Wilfart, J-Y Dourmad
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898911/estimation-of-the-effects-of-selection-on-french-large-white-reproductive-performance-using-frozen-semen
#7
P Silalahi, T Tribout, A Prunier, Y Billon, J Gogué, J P Bidanel
Genetic trends for male and female sexual development and components of litter size and weight at birth (LB) as well as traits related to sow lifetime productivity were estimated in a French Large White (LW) pig population using frozen semen. Two experimental groups (EXP = L77 and L98) were produced by inseminating LW sows with either stored frozen semen from 17 LW boars born in 1977 (EXP = L77) or with semen from 23 LW boars born in 1998 (EXP = L98). In each group, about 100 males were measured for testicular development and bulbo-urethral gland development, and 90 gilts were checked for puberty, among which about 50 gilts were measured for their first ovulation rate at puberty (ORP)...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898890/postprandial-portal-glucose-and-lactate-fluxes-insulin-production-and-portal-vein-drained-viscera-oxygen-consumption-in-growing-pigs-fed-a-high-fiber-diet-supplemented-with-a-multi-enzyme-cocktail
#8
A K Agyekum, E Kiarie, M C Walsh, C M Nyachoti
Information on effects of supplementing fibrous diets with exogenous enzymes on nutrient absorption and energetic demands of visceral organs is scarce. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of supplementing a high-fiber (HF) diet with a multi-enzyme cocktail (MC) on net glucose and lactate portal fluxes, insulin production, and O consumption by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and whole animal in growing pigs. The MC supplied (analyzed values) 5,397 U of xylanase, 162 U of β-glucanase, and 2,000 U of protease per kg of diet, and guaranteed minimum activities of 1,000 U of α-amylase and 25 U of pectinase per kg of diet...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898864/comparison-of-variability-in-pork-carcass-composition-and-quality-between-barrows-and-gilts
#9
M F Overholt, E K Arkfeld, D A Mohrhauser, D A King, T L Wheeler, A C Dilger, S D Shackelford, D D Boler
Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898858/effect-of-selection-for-residual-feed-intake-during-the-grow-finish-phase-of-production-on-sow-reproductive-performance-and-lactation-efficiency
#10
J M Young, R Bergsma, E F Knol, J F Patience, J C M Dekkers
As feed costs continue to rise and efficiency during finishing is emphasized, the impact of selecting for more efficient grow/finish pigs on reproductive performance and feed efficiency of sows must be evaluated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate correlated responses for sow reproductive performance and lactation feed efficiency to selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during the grow/finish phase of production (RFI) in 2 selection lines of pigs developed at Iowa State University (Ames, IA) and to estimate heritabilities of these traits...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898787/zeolite-combined-with-alum-and-polyaluminum-chloride-mixed-with-agricultural-slurries-reduces-carbon-losses-in-runoff-from-grassed-soil-boxes
#11
J G Murnane, R B Brennan, O Fenton, M G Healy
Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893834/selective-pressure-promotes-tetracycline-resistance-of-chlamydia-suis-in-fattening-pigs
#12
Sabrina Wanninger, Manuela Donati, Antonietta Di Francesco, Michael Hässig, Karolin Hoffmann, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Hanna Marti, Nicole Borel
In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893617/differential-role-of-b-cells-and-il-17-versus-ifn-%C3%AE-during-early-and-late-rejection-of-pig-islet-xenografts-in-mice
#13
Hee Kap Kang, Shusen Wang, Anil Dangi, Xiaomin Zhang, Amar Singh, Lei Zhang, James M Rosati, Wilma Suarez-Pinzon, Xuelian Deng, Xiaoyan Chen, Edward B Thorp, Bernhard J Hering, Stephen D Miller, Xunrong Luo
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic islet transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option for diabetic patients. However, immunological tolerance to xenogeneic islets remains a challenge. METHODS: The current study used a pig-to-mouse discordant xenogeneic islet transplant model to examine anti-donor xenogeneic immune responses during early and late rejection, and to determine experimental therapeutic interventions that promote durable pig islet xenograft survival. RESULTS: We found that during early acute rejection of pig islet xenografts, the rejecting hosts exhibited a heavy graft infiltration with B220 B cells and a robust anti-pig antibody production...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892877/detection-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-and-influenza-a-virus-iav-in-oral-fluid-of-pigs
#14
Kinga Biernacka, Paweł Karbowiak, Paweł Wróbel, Tomasz Charęza, Michał Czopowicz, Gyula Balka, Christa Goodell, Rolf Rauh, Tomasz Stadejek
Recently oral fluid has become a novel sample type for pathogen nucleic acid and antibody detection, as it is easy to obtain with non-invasive procedures. The objective of the study was to analyze porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) circulation in growing pigs from three Polish production farms, using Real Time PCR and ELISA testing of oral fluid and serum. Oral fluids were collected every 2weeks, in the same 3-4 pens of pigs aged between 5 and 17weeks. Additionally, blood samples were collected every 4weeks from 4 pigs corresponding to the same pens as oral fluid and tested for the presence of PRRSV nucleic acid (pooled by 4) and antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892875/the-zoonotic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-an-overview-on-microbiology-epidemiology-virulence-factors-and-relationship-with-its-presence-in-foods
#15
REVIEW
Alicia Gibello, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, M Mar Blanco, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Lucas Domínguez, José F Fernández-Garayzábal
Lactococcus garvieae is a relevant worldwide fish pathogen affecting various farmed and wild marine and freshwater species. It has also been isolated from other animals, such as ruminants with subclinical mastitis and pigs with pneumonia. From the early 90s, L. garvieae has been associated with different human infections, mainly endocarditis. During the last five years, human infections by this bacterium appear to be increasing, likely due to the improvement in microbiological methods for bacterial identification and the alertness of this bacterium by physicians...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892866/effectiveness-of-a-bhv-1-befv-bivalent-vaccine-against-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1-infection-in-cattle
#16
Yao-Chi Chung, Hsiu-Yen Shen, Li-Ting Cheng, Shyh-Shyan Liu, Chun-Yen Chu
Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) causes acute febrile respiratory diseases (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR), decreased milk production, weight loss and abortion. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes acute febrile respiratory disease, with pulmonary emphysema and pulmonary edema as the main signs. These viruses infect domesticated herds and lead to significant economic losses. In our previous study, an inactivated BHV-1 and BEFV bivalent vaccine was formulated with water-in-oil-in-water adjuvant, and vaccine efficacy was evaluated in guinea pigs...
October 13, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886128/worldwide-mycotoxins-exposure-in-pig-and-poultry-feed-formulations
#18
REVIEW
Philippe Guerre
The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885948/urinary-signature-of-pig-carcasses-with-boar-taint-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#19
Cristina C Jacob, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Yoann Deceuninck, Audrey Gicquiau, Patrick Chevillon, Michel Bonneau, Bruno Le Bizec
Boar taint is an offensive odor that can occur while cooking pork or pork products and is identified in some uncastrated male pigs that have reached puberty. It is widely held that boar taint is the result of the accumulation in back-fat of two malodorous compounds: androstenone and skatole. The purpose of the present study was to assess a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics strategy to investigate the metabolic profile of urine samples from pig carcasses presenting low (untainted) and high (tainted) levels of androstenone and skatole in back fat...
November 25, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881419/oral-administration-of-a-select-mixture-of-bacillus-probiotics-affects-the-gut-microbiota-and-goblet-cell-function-in-newly-weaned-muc4-resistant-pigs-following-escherichia-coli-challenge
#20
Wei Zhang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Dong Zhou, Qiong Wu, Dan Song, Johan Dicksved, Jiu-Feng Wang
: Structural disruption of the gut microbiota and impaired goblet cell function are collateral etiologic factors in enteric diseases. Low, moderate, or high doses of a Bacillus licheniformis-B. subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to MUC4 resistant piglets for 1 week before the F4-expressing ETEC strain (F4(+) ETEC) challenge. The luminal contents were collected from the mucosa of colon on day 8 after F4(+) ETEC challenge. BLS-mix attenuated E. coli-induced expansion of Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium eligens, Acetanaerobacterium and Sporobacter populations...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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