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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098524/swine-influenza-virus-h1n2-characterization-and-transmission-in-ferrets-chile
#1
Nicolás Bravo-Vasquez, Erik A Karlsson, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Victoria Meliopoulos, Bryan Kaplan, Shauna Marvin, Valerie Cortez, Pamela Freiden, Melinda A Beck, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097776/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-deoxy-adp-pi-activation-of-pre-powerstroke-myosin
#2
Sarah G Nowakowski, Michael Regnier, Valerie Daggett
Myosin activation is a viable approach to treat systolic heart failure. We previously demonstrated that striated muscle myosin is a promiscuous ATPase that can use most nucleoside triphosphates as energy substrates for contraction. When 2-deoxy ATP (dATP) is used, it acts as a myosin activator, enhancing cross-bridge binding and cycling. In vivo, we have demonstrated that elevated dATP levels increase basal cardiac function and rescues function of infarcted rodent and pig hearts. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism underlying this physiological effect...
January 18, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096406/shifting-diets-and-the-rise-of-male-biased-inequality-on-the-central-plains-of-china-during-eastern-zhou
#3
Yu Dong, Chelsea Morgan, Yurii Chinenov, Ligang Zhou, Wenquan Fan, Xiaolin Ma, Kate Pechenkina
Farming domesticated millets, tending pigs, and hunting constituted the core of human subsistence strategies during Neolithic Yangshao (5000-2900 BC). Introduction of wheat and barley as well as the addition of domesticated herbivores during the Late Neolithic (∼2600-1900 BC) led to restructuring of ancient Chinese subsistence strategies. This study documents a dietary shift from indigenous millets to the newly introduced cereals in northcentral China during the Bronze Age Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771-221 BC) based on stable isotope analysis of human and animal bone samples...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095773/dietary-pea-fiber-increases-diversity-of-colonic-methanogens-of-pigs-with-a-shift-from-methanobrevibacter-to-methanomassiliicoccus-like-genus-and-change-in-numbers-of-three-hydrogenotrophs
#4
Yuheng Luo, Hong Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Gang Tian, Jie Yu, Zhiqing Huang, Junqiu Luo, Daiwen Chen
BACKGROUND: Pea fiber (PF) is a potential fibrous supplement in swine production. The influence of dietary PF on microbial community in the colon of pigs remains largely unexplored. Methanogens in the hindgut of monogastric animals play important roles in degradation of dietary fibers and efficient removal of microbial metabolic end product H2. Understanding the impact of dietary PF on the structure of colonic methanogens may help understand the mechanisms of microbe-mediated physiological functions of PF...
January 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094579/expression-profile-of-the-integrin-receptor-subunits-in-the-guinea-pig-sclera
#5
Kevin K Wang, Ravikanth Metlapally, Christine F Wildsoet
PURPOSE: The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research...
January 17, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093083/genetic-analysis-of-teat-number-in-pigs-reveals-some-developmental-pathways-independent-of-vertebra-number-and-several-loci-which-only-affect-a-specific-side
#6
Gary A Rohrer, Dan J Nonneman
BACKGROUND: Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size increases, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. Therefore, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions that affect this trait in a commercial swine population. Genotypic data from the Illumina Porcine SNP60v1 BeadChip were available for 2951 animals with total teat number (TTN) records. A subset of these animals (n = 1828) had number of teats on each side recorded...
January 4, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092103/species-differences-in-hepatic-biotransformation-of-the-anthelmintic-drug-flubendazole
#7
M L Maté, T Geary, C Mackenzie, C Lanusse, G Virkel
Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic used in pigs, poultry, and humans. It has been proposed as a candidate for development for use in elimination programmes for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in humans. Moreover, FLBZ has shown promise in cancer chemotherapy, particularly for neuroblastoma. This work investigated the hepatic carbonyl-reducing pathway of FLBZ in different species, including humans. Microsomal and cytosolic fractions were obtained from sheep, cattle, pig, hen, rat, and human liver...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088897/multiplex-pcr-as-a-rapid-and-sensitive-method-for-identification-of-meat-species-in-halal-meat-products
#8
Mahsa Alikord, Javad Keramat, Mahdi Kadivar, Hassan Momtaz, Mohammad Naghi Eshtiaghi, Aziz Homayouni Rad
BACKGROUND: Species identification and authentication in meat products are important subjects for ensuring the health of consumers. The multiplex-PCR amplification and species-specific primer set were used for identification of horse, donkey, pig and other ruminants in raw and processed meat products. METHODS: Oligonucleotid primers were designed for amplification of species-specific mitochondrial DNA sequences of each species and samples were prepared from binary meat mixtures...
January 13, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087726/benefit-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-in-aki-role-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-rac1
#9
Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Gwennan André-Grégoire, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Sebastian M Lechner, Jérôme Cau, Sonia Prince, Peter Kolkhof, Gervaise Loirand, Vincent Sauzeau, Thierry Hauet, Frédéric Jaisser
AKI is a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. Unfortunately, there is no effective pharmacologic approach for treating or preventing AKI. In rodents, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We investigated the specific role of vascular MR in mediating AKI induced by IR. We also assessed the protective effect of MR antagonism in IR-induced AKI in the Large White pig, a model of human AKI. In mice, MR deficiency in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protected against kidney IR injury...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087492/multi-antibiotic-resistant-and-putative-virulence-gene-signatures-in-enterococcus-species-isolated-from-pig-farms-environment
#10
Abeni Beshiru, Isoken H Igbinosa, Faith I Omeje, Abraham G Ogofure, Martin M Eyong, Etinosa O Igbinosa
The continuous misuse of antimicrobials in food animals both orally and subcutaneously as therapeutic and prophylactic agents to bacterial infections could be detrimental and contribute to the dissemination of resistant clones in livestock production. The present study was carried out to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene characteristics of Enterococcus species from pig farms. A total of 300 faecal samples were obtained from two pig farms in Benin City between February and July, 2016. Standard culture-based and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were adopted in the detection and characterization of the Enterococcus species...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081252/corn-soy-blend-fortified-with-phosphorus-to-prevent-refeeding-hypophosphatemia-in-undernourished-piglets
#11
Anne-Louise Hother, Mikkel Lykke, Torben Martinussen, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Christian Mølgaard, Per Torp Sangild, André Briend, Christian Fink Hansen, Henrik Friis, Kim F Michaelsen, Thomas Thymann
BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). METHODS: Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069291/antagonizing-cytokine-mediated-jak-stat-signaling-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
REVIEW
Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages...
December 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069290/classical-swine-fever-vaccines-state-of-the-art
#13
Sandra Blome, Claudia Moß, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed...
January 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066942/antioxidant-status-and-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-in-gut-and-liver-of-piglets-fed-different-dietary-methionine-concentrations
#14
J O Zeitz, S Kaltenböck, E Most, K Eder
This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary concentrations of methionine (Met), as a precursor of cysteine which is a constituent of glutathione (GSH), affect tissue antioxidant concentrations and the antioxidant defence system in pigs. Forty-five piglets (DanZucht × Pietrain) were allotted to three groups of similar mean body weight (11.0 ± 0.9 kg). The basal diet was composed of barley, wheat, corn starch, soybean oil, sucrose, cellulose and a mineral supplement with suboptimal concentrations of Met and was supplemented with dl-Met to reach 0...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063923/phylogenetic-analysis-of-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-isolated-from-slaughter-age-pigs-in-colombia
#15
Jorge E Forero D, Cristian Gutiérrez-Vergara, Jaime Parra S, Guillermo Correa L, Berardo Rodríguez, Lina A Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier Díaz, Albeiro López-Herrera
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that causes acute hepatitis in humans, and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Pigs are considered to be a reservoir for this infection-mainly where the disease is not endemic. In a previous study conducted in Antioquia, which is a region in Colombia where the production and consumption of pork meat is higher than in the rest of the country, the presence of anti-HEV IgG-type antibodies was reported in slaughter-age pigs. Aiming to identify the HEV genotype circulating in swine, animal liver, and feces samples from five swine cattle slaughterhouses located in six different sub-regions of Antioquia were collected...
January 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#16
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063249/effects-of-feeding-frequency-on-meat-quality-traits-and-longissimus-muscle-proteome-in-finishing-pigs
#17
J B Liu, X Cai, H Xiong, H F Zhang
Sixty-four barrows with an initial body weight of 59.8 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to one of the two feeding frequency regimes (had free access to diet and fed two meals per day). Pigs had free access (FA) to feed were fed on an ad libitum basis during the 8-week experimental period. Pigs fed twice daily (M2) were allowed to consume their meals in 2 h. Pigs fed twice daily had lower average daily feed intake (p < 0.01) and average daily gain (p < 0.1), but a greater G:F (p < 0.05) than FA pigs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061998/effects-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-on-porcine-nasal-cavity-dendritic-cells
#18
Yumeng Shen, Weiwei Hu, Yanna Wei, Zhixin Feng, Qian Yang
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061786/attenuated-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-double-deletion-mutant-s-8%C3%A2-clpp-apxiic-confers-protection-against-homologous-or-heterologous-strain-challenge
#19
Fang Xie, Gang Li, Long Zhou, Yanhe Zhang, Ning Cui, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which leads to large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, S-8△clpP△apxIIC, a double-deletion mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was constructed, and its safety and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. RESULTS: The S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a murine (BALB/c) model, and caused no detrimental effects on pigs even at a dose of up to 1...
January 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056961/rope-based-oral-fluid-sampling-for-early-detection-of-classical-swine-fever-in-domestic-pigs-at-group-level
#20
Klaas Dietze, Anna Tucakov, Tatjana Engel, Sabine Wirtz, Klaus Depner, Anja Globig, Robert Kammerer, Susan Mouchantat
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive sampling techniques based on the analysis of oral fluid specimen have gained substantial importance in the field of swine herd management. Methodological advances have a focus on endemic viral diseases in commercial pig production. More recently, these approaches have been adapted to non-invasive sampling of wild boar for transboundary animal disease detection for which these effective population level sampling methods have not been available. In this study, a rope-in-a-bait based oral fluid sampling technique was tested to detect classical swine fever virus nucleic acid shedding from experimentally infected domestic pigs...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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