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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346488/a-subretinal-cell-delivery-method-via-suprachoroidal-access-in-minipigs-safety-and-surgical-outcomes
#1
Marc D de Smet, Jessica L Lynch, Nadine S Dejneka, Michael Keane, I John Khan
Purpose: This study evaluated a new subretinal method for delivery of human or pig umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC or pUTC, respectively) using a novel subretinal injection cannula and suprachoroidal approach in Göttingen minipig eyes. hUTC (palucorcel) are currently under development for treating geographic atrophy in humans. Methods: Twenty-four Göttingen minipigs (divided into eight groups) were subretinally administered palucorcel, pUTC, or vehicle. In some cases, fluorescently labeled cells and vehicle were administered...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346439/interspecies-diversity-of-chloride-channel-regulators-calcium-activated-3-genes
#2
Lars Mundhenk, Nancy A Erickson, Nikolai Klymiuk, Achim D Gruber
Members of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family, have been implicated in diverse biomedical conditions, including chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, the activation of macrophages, and the growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Several observations, however, could not be repeated across species boundaries and increasing evidence suggests that select CLCA genes are particularly prone to dynamic species-specific evolvements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346283/the-biological-role-of-hyaluronan-rich-oocyte-cumulus-extracellular-matrix-in-female-reproduction
#3
REVIEW
Eva Nagyova
Fertilization of the mammalian oocyte requires interactions between spermatozoa and expanded cumulus extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds the oocyte. This review focuses on key molecules that play an important role in the formation of the cumulus ECM, generated by the oocyte-cumulus complex. In particular, the specific inhibitors (AG1478, lapatinib, indomethacin and MG132) and progesterone receptor antagonist (RU486) exerting their effects through the remodeling of the ECM of the cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte have been described...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346111/single-scan-high-resolution-2-d-j-resolved-spectroscopy-in-inhomogeneous-magnetic-fields
#4
Kaiyu Wang, Yuqing Huang, Pieter E S Smith, Zhiyong Zhang, Shuhui Cai, Zhong Chen
OBJECTIVE: A method is proposed to obtain high-resolution 2-D -resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. METHODS: The proposed experiment enables the acquisition of an entire 2-D spectrum in a single scan by utilizing intermolecular double-quantum coherences and the spatial encoding of NMR observables. RESULTS: Chemical shifts, coupling constants, and multiplet patterns are recovered even when field inhomogeneities are severe enough to completely obscure conventional NMR spectra...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344352/the-use-of-feed-grade-amino-acids-in-lactating-sow-diets
#5
Laura Greiner, Pairat Srichana, James L Usry, Casey Neill, Gary L Allee, Joseph Connor, Kevin J Touchette, Christopher D Knight
Background: The use of feed grade amino acids can reduce the cost of lactation feed. With changing genetics, increasing feed costs, and higher number of pigs weaned with heavier wean weights further evaluation of higher inclusion levels of feed-grade amino acid in lactation diets than previously published is warranted. Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the optimal inclusion level of L-lysine HCl to be included in swine lactation diets while digestible lysine levels remain constant across dietary treatments and allowing feed grade amino acids to be added to the diet to maintain dietary ratios relative to lysine to maximize litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344054/the-carnitine-status-does-not-affect-the-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotype-of-skeletal-muscle-in-pigs
#6
Daniel Kaup, Janine Keller, Erika Most, Joachim Geyer, Klaus Eder, Robert Ringseis
Background: Recently, supplementation of L-carnitine to obese rats was found to improve the carnitine status and to counteract an obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. However, it has not been resolved if the change of muscle fiber distribution induced in obese rats and the restoration of the "normal" muscle fiber distribution, which is found in lean rats, in obese rats by supplemental L-carnitine is causally linked with the carnitine status. In the present study we hypothesized that fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle is dependent on carnitine status...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343428/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-the-swine-model-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-tablet-for-human-influenza-viruses-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
V Busignies, G Simon, G Mollereau, O Bourry, V Mazel, M Rosa-Calatrava, P Tchoreloff
Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343310/effect-of-dietary-fish-oil-on-selected-inflammatory-markers-in-pigs
#8
T Komprda, P Ondráčková, M Vícenová, V Rozíková, N Procházková, L Levá, M Faldyna
The present study tested a hypothesis that dietary fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid) in a commonly achievable dose ameliorates a systemic inflammation in pigs. Two groups of pigs of 16 animals each were fed a diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F) or a control diet with 2.5% of palm oil (P). After 70 days of fattening, eight F and eight P pigs were challenged (F+; P+) i.v. by lipopolysaccharide. After 3 h, all pigs were sacrificed and blood, liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples were taken...
January 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342947/understanding-tail-biting-in-pigs-through-social-network-analysis
#9
Yuzhi Li, Haifeng Zhang, Lee J Johnston, Wayne Martin
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between social structure and incidence of tail-biting in pigs. Pigs (n = 144, initial weight = 7.2 ± 1.57 kg, 4 weeks of age) were grouped based on their litter origin: littermates, non-littermates, and half-group of littermates. Six pens (8 pigs/pen) of each litter origin were studied for 6 weeks. Incidence of tail injury and growth performance were monitored. Behavior of pigs was video recorded for 6 h at 6 and 8 weeks of age. Video recordings were scanned at 10 min intervals to register pigs that were lying together (1) or not (0) in binary matrices...
January 15, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340822/a-preclinical-animal-study-of-a-novel-simple-and-secure-duct-and-vessel-occluder-for-laparoscopic-surgery
#10
Amir Szold, Arnold Miller, Nir Lilach, Ana-Maria Botero-Anug, Raanan Miller, Steven D Schwaitzberg
BACKGROUND: Secure occlusion of large blood vessels and ductal structures is critical to all surgeries and remains a challenge in many minimally invasive procedures. This study compares in vivo use of the Amsel Occluder (AO) for secure laparoscopic blood vessel and duct closure, with one of the many commercially available hemoclips (Ligaclip®), in the porcine model. METHODS: Laparoscopic closure of vessels and ducts was performed on 12 swine to compare the ease of use, safety and efficacy of the AO with a hemoclip, as well as the tissue response at > 30 days (10 swine)...
January 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340799/fully-automated-life-support-an-implementation-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-healthy-pigs
#11
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340456/new-strategy-to-improve-quality-control-of-montenegro-skin-test-at-the-production-level
#12
Deborah Carbonera Guedes, João Carlos Minozzo, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Craig Faulds, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
INTRODUCTION: The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. METHODS: Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340436/dietary-pectin-and-mango-pulp-effects-on-small-intestinal-enzyme-activity-levels-and-macronutrient-digestion-in-grower-pigs
#13
Anton M Pluschke, Barbara A Williams, Dagong Zhang, Michael J Gidley
The effects of refined pectin and mango pulp on macronutrient digestion and small intestinal enzyme activity were studied in grower pigs. Diets based on wheat starch with and without apple pectin or dried mango fruit pulp were fed to 30 grower pigs for 21 days. Pigs were euthanized two hours postprandially, and their gastrointestinal contents recovered. Starch and protein digestion as well as α-amylase activity were all increased in pigs fed pectin. In contrast, fat digestion, lipase and protease (trypsin) activities were all significantly reduced in these pigs...
January 17, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340234/achilles-heel-of-a-powerful-invader-restrictions-on-distribution-and-disappearance-of-feral-pigs-from-a-protected-area-in-northern-pantanal-western-brazil
#14
Jose L P Cordeiro, Gabriel S Hofmann, Carlos Fonseca, Luiz Flamarion B Oliveira
This paper focuses on a rare case of natural disappearance of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in an extensive area without using traditional methods of eradication programs. The study was conducted both in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH) Sesc Pantanal and in an adjacent traditional private cattle ranch. In 1998, feral pigs were abundant and widely distributed in the PRNH. However, the feral pigs gradually disappeared from the area and currently, the absence of pigs in the PRNH contrasts with the adjacent cattle ranch where the species is abundant...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#15
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340059/microrna-95-promotes-myogenic-differentiation-by-down-regulation-of-aminoacyl-trna-synthase-complex-interacting-multifunctional-protein-2
#16
Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Ting Gao, Jinzeng Yang, Wentao Cui
MicroRNA-95 (miR-95) is well known for its ability to promote the proliferation of a variety of cancer cells, but its function in skeletal muscle development has not been reported so far. Our laboratory has recently generated genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a loss-of-function myostatin (MSTN) mutant (MSTN-/-). These MSTN-/- pigs grow and develop normally but show clear double muscle phenotype as observed in Belgian cattle. We observed that the expression of miR-95 was up-regulated in the longissimus dorsi from MSTN-/- Meishan pigs at day 65 during embryo development...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339754/baicalin-modulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-signaling-in-porcine-aortic-vascular-endothelial-cells-infected-by-haemophilus-parasuis-causing-gl%C3%A3-sser-s-disease
#17
Shulin Fu, Huashan Liu, Lei Xu, Yinsheng Qiu, Yu Liu, Zhongyuan Wu, Chun Ye, Yongqing Hou, Chien-An Andy Hu
Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) can cause vascular inflammatory injury, but the molecular basis of this effect remains unclear. In this study,we investigated the effect of the anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agent, baicalin, on the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway in pig primary aortic vascular endothelial cells. Activation of the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway was induced in H. parasuis-infected cells. However, baicalin reduced the production of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and activation of the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway in infected cells...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339750/a-single-dose-of-modified-vaccinia-ankara-expressing-ebola-virus-like-particles-protects-nonhuman-primates-from-lethal-ebola-virus-challenge
#18
Arban Domi, Friederike Feldmann, Rahul Basu, Nathanael McCurley, Kyle Shifflett, Jackson Emanuel, Michael S Hellerstein, Farshad Guirakhoo, Chiara Orlandi, Robin Flinko, George K Lewis, Patrick W Hanley, Heinz Feldmann, Harriet L Robinson, Andrea Marzi
Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, was the causative agent of the West African epidemic devastating predominantly Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from 2013-2016. While several experimental vaccine and treatment approaches have been accelerated through human clinical trials, there is still no approved countermeasure available against this disease. Here, we report the construction and preclinical efficacy testing of a novel recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine expressing the EBOV-Makona glycoprotein GP and matrix protein VP40 (MVA-EBOV)...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339713/neuroprotective-effect-of-selective-antegrade-cerebral-perfusion-during-prolonged-deep-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-cerebral-metabolism-evidence-in-a-pig-model
#19
Zhixian Tang, Mengya Liang, Guangxian Chen, Jian Rong, Jianping Yao, Zhen Chen, Xiao Yang, Zhongkai Wu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of cerebral injury and to evaluate selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) as a superior neuroprotective strategy for prolonged deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). METHODS: Twelve pigs (6-8-week old) were randomly assigned to DHCA alone (n=6) and DHCA with SACP (n=6) at 18°C for 80 min groups. Serum S100 was determined using an immunoassay analyzer. The concentrations of cerebral dialysate glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and glutamate were measured using a microdialysis analyzer...
January 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339072/deep-sequencing-of-a-qtl-rich-region-spanning-128-136mbp-of-pig-chromosome-15
#20
K Piórkowska, K Żukowski, K Ropka-Molik, M Tyra
The present study shows the characterization of the chromosome 15 (SSC15) region that is highly rich in quantitative traits loci (QTLs) associated with pork quality, growth performance, fat and meat carcass contents. The analytic method that was utilized included targeted enrichment DNA sequencing and RNA hybridisation probes. The research included two pig breeds (Puławska and Polish Landrace) that are significantly different in terms of carcass and meat quality features. Filtered sequences were aligned to the Sscrofa10...
January 12, 2018: Gene
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