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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#1
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937406/tolerance-in-xenotransplantation
#2
Kazuhiko Yamada, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent progress in tolerance-inducing strategies across xenogeneic immunological barriers as well as the potential benefit of a tolerance strategy for islets and kidney xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advanced gene editing technologies, xenotransplantation from multitransgenic alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs has demonstrated marked prolongation of renal xenograft survival, ranging from days to greater than several months for life-supporting kidneys, and more than 2 years in a heterotopic nonlife-supporting cardiac xenograft model...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937249/vagotomy-decreases-the-neuronal-activities-of-medulla-oblongata-and-alleviates-neurogenic-inflammation-of-airways-induced-by-repeated-intra-esophageal-instillation-of-hcl-in-guinea-pigs
#3
Z Chen, H Chen, F Chen, D Gu, L Sun, W Zhang, L Fan, Y Lin, R Dong, K Lai
Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935925/interference-of-stress-with-the-somatotropic-axis-in-pigs-lights-on-new-biomarkers
#4
Elisa Wirthgen, Martin Kunze, Sébastien Goumon, Christina Walz, Christine Höflich, Marion Spitschak, Julia Brenmoehl, Ellen Kanitz, Margret Tuchscherer, Winfried Otten, Ulrike Gimsa, Peter Schön, Christian Manteuffel, Armin Tuchscherer, Ralf Pfuhl, Cornelia C Metges, Bernd Stabenow, Sandra Erdmann, Kathleen Schluricke, Luigi Faucitano, Andreas Hoeflich
The acceptance of animal products is increasingly associated with standardized animal welfare, which relates to appropriate animal husbandry from birth to slaughter. In particular, shipment to the slaughterhouse is considered as a critical process exposing the animals to a number of, in part severe, stressors. New biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of animal welfare. The IGF-system has been assessed in a commercial pig transport in conjunction with established markers of stress response. Furthermore, the effect of repeated restraint as an experimental model for repeated acute stress was investigated...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935871/evaluation-of-biochars-from-different-stock-materials-as-carriers-of-bacterial-strain-for-remediation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soil
#5
Ting Wang, Hongwen Sun, Xinhao Ren, Bing Li, Hongjun Mao
Two kinds of biochars, one derived from corn straw and one from pig manure, were studied as carriers of a mutant genotype from Bacillus subtilis (B38) for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation. After amendment with biochar, the heavy metal bioavailability decreased. Moreover, the heavy metal immobilization ability of the biochar was enhanced by combining it with B38. The simultaneous application of B38 and pig manure-derived biochar exhibited a superior effect on the promotion of plant growth and the immobilization of heavy metals in soil...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935792/advances-in-organ-transplant-from-pigs
#6
Joachim Denner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935722/genome-and-plasmid-sequences-of-escherichia-coli-kv7-an-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-isolate-derived-from-feces-of-a-healthy-pig
#7
Michael D Bateman, Stefan P W de Vries, Srishti Gupta, Luca Guardabassi, Lina M Cavaco, Andrew J Grant, Mark A Holmes
We present single-contig assemblies for Escherichia coli strain KV7 (serotype O27, phylogenetic group D) and its six plasmids, isolated from a healthy pig, as determined by PacBio RS II and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The chromosome of 4,997,475 bp and G+C content of 50.75% harbored 4,540 protein-encoding genes.
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935594/self-replicating-rna-vaccine-functionality-modulated-by-fine-tuning-of-polyplex-delivery-vehicle-structure
#8
Thomas Démoulins, Thomas Ebensen, Kai Schulze, Pavlos C Englezou, Panagiota Milona, Maria Pelliccia, Carlos A Guzmán, Nicolas Ruggli, Kenneth C McCullough
The major limitations with large and complex self-amplifying RNA vaccines (RepRNA) are RNase-sensitivity and inefficient translation in dendritic cells (DCs). Condensing RepRNA with polyethylenimine (PEI) gave positive in vitro readouts, but was largely inferior to virus-like replicon particles (VRP) or direct electroporation. In the present study, we improved such polyplex formulation and determined that fine-tuning of the polyplex structure is essential for ensuring efficacious translation. Thereby, three parameters dominate: (i) PEI molecular weight (MW); (ii) RepRNA:PEI (weight:weight) ratio; and (iii) inclusion of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935349/spinal-ischemia-in-thoracic-aortic-procedures-impact-of-radiculomedullary-artery-distribution
#9
Fabian A Kari, Karin Wittmann, Sonja Krause, Babak Saravi, Luisa Puttfarcken, Katharina Förster, Bartosz Rylski, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of thoracic anterior radiculomedullary artery (tARMA) distribution on spinal cord perfusion in a thoracic aortic surgical model. METHODS: Twenty-six pigs (34 ± 3 kg; study group, n = 20; sham group, n = 6) underwent ligation of the left subclavian artery and thoracic segmental arteries. End points were spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP), regional spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), and neurologic outcome with an observation time of 3 hours...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935119/effects-of-cdk-inhibitors-on-the-maturation-transcription-and-mpf-activity-of-porcine-oocytes
#10
Reza K Oqani, Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, So Yeon Kim, Jung Won Kang, Dong Il Jin
In mammals, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are involved in regulating both the cell cycle and transcription. Although CDK1 is known to act as the kinase subunit of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), the roles of the other CDKs in mammalian oocyte maturation are not yet understood. Here, we show that inhibition of various CDKs by small molecule inhibitors has different effects on the maturation and transcriptional activity of pig oocytes in vitro. Inhibition of CDK1 did not significantly affect cumulus cell expansion, but its kinase activity was necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD)...
September 18, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934965/seroprevalence-of-anti-hepatitis-e-virus-antibodies-in-domestic-pigs-in-mexico
#11
Montserrat Elemi García-Hernández, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, José Iván Sánchez-Betancourt, Oscar Rico-Chávez, Arely Vergara-Castañeda, María E Trujillo, Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in industrialized countries, HEV infection is often associated with travel to endemic regions or ingestion of contaminated animal products. Limited information on both, human and animal HEV infection in Mexico is available. As a consequence, the distribution of the virus in the country is largely unknown...
September 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934946/genome-wide-snp-data-unveils-the-globalization-of-domesticated-pigs
#12
Bin Yang, Leilei Cui, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Aleksei Traspov, Richard P M A Crooijmans, Natalia Zinovieva, Lawrence B Schook, Alan Archibald, Kesinee Gatphayak, Christophe Knorr, Alex Triantafyllidis, Panoraia Alexandri, Gono Semiadi, Olivier Hanotte, Deodália Dias, Peter Dovč, Pekka Uimari, Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Martien A M Groenen, Lusheng Huang, Hendrik-Jan Megens
BACKGROUND: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global patterns in pig domestication and diversity related to demography, migration, and selection...
September 21, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934773/leptospirosis-in-three-workers-on-a-dairy-farm-with-unvaccinated-cattle
#13
Jackie Benschop, Julie Collins-Emerson, Allie Maskill, Patrick O'Connor, Margaret Tunbridge, Yuni Yupiana, Jenny Weston
AIM: We report a one-health investigation of three cases of leptospirosis on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle in New Zealand. The cases are discussed in the context of diagnostics, risk factors, persistence of symptoms and outbreak mitigation measures. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory records from the human cases were reviewed and serological and molecular investigations were conducted into the Leptospira status of cattle and pigs on the farm. RESULTS: Cases presented early in their illness and all three were confirmed within seven days of onset of symptoms by urine PCR and within 18 days by convalescent MAT (two Hardjo-bovis, one Pomona)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934350/correction-magnetic-cell-labeling-of-primary-and-stem-cell-derived-pig-hepatocytes-for-mri-based-cell-tracking-of-hepatocyte-transplantation
#14
Dwayne R Roach, Wesley M Garrett, Glenn Welch, Dorela D Shuboni-Mulligan, Thomas J Caperna, Neil C Talbot, Erik M Shapiro
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123282.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934348/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-poultry-and-livestock-china
#15
Afrah Kamal Yassin, Jiansen Gong, Patrick Kelly, Guangwu Lu, Luca Guardabassi, Lanjing Wei, Xiangan Han, Haixiang Qiu, Stuart Price, Darong Cheng, Chengming Wang
Poultry and livestock are the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli and use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The aim of our study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from food animals in Jiangsu, China. The disc diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents in 862 clinical isolates collected from chickens, ducks, pigs, and cows between 2004 and 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934259/copper-and-zinc-content-in-wild-game-shot-with-lead-or-non-lead-ammunition-implications-for-consumer-health-protection
#16
Daniela Schlichting, Christine Sommerfeld, Christine Müller-Graf, Thomas Selhorst, Matthias Greiner, Antje Gerofke, Ellen Ulbig, Carl Gremse, Markus Spolders, Helmut Schafft, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt
The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933764/thermographic-evaluation-of-the-hands-of-pig-slaughterhouse-workers-exposed-to-cold-temperatures
#17
Adriana Seára Tirloni, Diogo Cunha Dos Reis, Eliane Ramos, Antônio Renato Pereira Moro
Brazil was rated the fourth leading producer and exporter of pork meat in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature of the hands of pig slaughterhouse workers and its relation to the thermal sensation of the hands and the use of a cutting tool. The study included 106 workers in a pig slaughterhouse. An infrared camera FlirThermaCAM E320 (Flir Systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA) was used to collect the images of the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both hands. A numerical scale was used to obtain the thermal sensation...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933680/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-hepatitis-e-virus-in-veterinarians-in-estonia
#18
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Kädi Neare, Tatjana Tallo, Irina Reshetnjak, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Arvo Viltrop, Irina Golovljova, Pikka Jokelainen
In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series...
September 21, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933511/-renal-pleomorphic-sarcoma-in-four-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#19
Julia Hankel, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Martina Warschau, Anna Milena Thöle, Michael Fehr
OBJECTIVE: Renal tumours apparently are rare not only in cats and dogs, but also in guinea pigs and can be difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings in guinea pigs with renal tumours. Furthermore, the symptoms, diagnostic possibilities and therapy are compared with renal tumours in other small animals, including cats and dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During a period of 4 years and 4 months the data of guinea pigs that had been presented in the clinic were retrospectively analysed...
September 20, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933119/-research-on-rat-models-of-acute-liver-injury-with-syndrome-of-liver-depression-and-spleen-deficiency
#20
Na-Na Huang, Xiao-Qian Sun, Qian Yang, Xiao-Yu Li, Rong Sun
This paper aimed to establish animal models which are suitable for the activity found, efficacy evaluation of herbs resistant to acute liver injury with syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency and new drug research and development based on corresponding of formula and syndrome. The symptoms that are suitable for evaluating the rat models of acute liver injury with syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency were extracted according to the evolution rule of the etiology and pathogenesis in traditional Chinese medicine and the modern pathological mechanism...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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