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Caryn E Peterson, Sara C Gordon, Charles W Le Hew, J A Dykens, Gina D Jefferson, Malavika P Tampi, Olivia Urquhart, Mark Lingen, Karriem S Watson, Joanna Buscemi, Marian L Fitzgibbon
In response to the increasing incidence of certain oral and oropharyngeal cancers, the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) calls on healthcare providers and legislators to expand awareness of oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk factors, increase early detection, and support policies that increase utilization of dental services. SBM supports the American Dental Association's 2017 guideline for evaluating potentially malignant oral cavity disorders and makes the following recommendations to healthcare providers and legislators...
July 11, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Rossella Snenghi, Guido Pelletti, Anna Chiara Frigo, Giovanni Forza, Alessandro Nalesso, Massimo Montisci, Donata Favretto
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of drug and polydrug use among drunk-drivers during the driving license regranting program, in order to assess the inclusion of toxicological tests on hair and urine samples in the systematic methodology in this category of subjects. Short summary: A total of 2160 drunk-drivers were tested for alcohol and drugs during driving license regranting. Thirty-one subjects showed alcohol use, 212 illicit drug use and, among these, 131 were polydrug users...
July 11, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Francesca Mallamaci, Charalampos Loutradis, Robert Ekart, Claudia Torino, Antonios Karpetas, Vasileios Raptis, Athanasios Bikos, Aikaterini Papagianni, Olga Balafa, Konstantinos Siamopoulos, Giovanni Pisani, Massimo Morosetti, Antonio Del Giudice, Fillipo Aucella, Luca Di Lullo, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Kitty Jager, Friedo Dekker, Gerard London, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Population-specific consensus documents recommend that the diagnosis of hypertension in haemodialysis patients be based on 48-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. However, until now there is just one study in the USA on the prevalence of hypertension in haemodialysis patients by 44-h recordings. Since there is a knowledge gap on the problem in European countries, we reassessed the problem in the European Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine working group Registry of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association...
July 10, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Linda J Titus, Lisa M Reisch, Anna N A Tosteson, Heidi D Nelson, Paul D Frederick, Patricia A Carney, Raymond L Barnhill, David E Elder, Martin A Weinstock, Michael W Piepkorn, Joann G Elmore
Objectives: The impact of malpractice concerns on pathologists' use of defensive medicine and interpretations of melanocytic skin lesions (MSLs) is unknown. Methods: A total of 207 pathologists interpreting MSLs responded to a survey about past involvement in malpractice litigation, influence of malpractice concerns on diagnosis, and use of assurance behaviors (defensive medicine) to alleviate malpractice concerns. Assurance behaviors included requesting second opinions, additional slides, additional sampling, and ordering specialized tests...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
F Salamanna, V Borsari, D Contartese, N Nicoli Aldini, M Fini
Different fields of cancer management consider bone health to be of increasing clinical importance for patients: 1) presence of bone metastases in many solid tumors, 2) use of bone-targeted treatments in the reduction of bone metastasis, 3) effects of cancer treatment on reproductive hormones, critical for normal bone remodeling maintenance. Additionally, bone microenvironment is further complicated by the decline of ovarian sex steroid production and by the related increase in inflammatory factors linked to menopause, which result in accelerated bone loss and increased risk of osteoporosis (OP)...
June 22, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Guangrui Huang, Kai Yuan, Qingqing Zhu, Shan Zhang, Qingyi Lu, Mengmeng Zhu, Honghao Sheng, Ruipeng Yu, Guangbin Luo, Anlong Xu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration into the joints and cartilage destruction. Neutrophils play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of RA. Triptolide (TP) is a bioactive compound derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which has been used in folk medicine as a treatment for a variety of inflammatory disorders, including RA, for many centuries. Previous studies have shown that TP possesses anti-arthritic activity. However, the anti-arthritic mechanism of TP remains to be fully defined...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Cai Zhang, Xian Zheng, Hui Ni, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li
Quality control (QC) is crucial for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Due to extremely complicated phytochemical matrices and characteristic mode of "multi-component, multi-target, integrated adjustment", discovering of QC markers from TCMs is a big challenge. Fingerprint-efficacy (FE) modeling method is currently proposed as an effective and reasonable attempt. This review summarizes the methodologies of FE modeling and applications in screening QC markers, meanwhile the future perspectives are also briefly discussed so as to provide inspiration and reference for follow-up study of FE relationship for TCMs...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Andrea Cockett, Carole Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the literature relating to the use of rubrics in Higher Education. DESIGN: A systematic search using three databases was undertaken, the question used to guide the search strategy was: What are the benefits and challenges of using rubrics as part of the assessment process in Higher Education? DATA SOURCES: Three electronic databases were searched: British Education Index, Education Resources Information Centre and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Ilana Dubovi
BACKGROUND: Online computer-based simulations are becoming more widespread in nursing education. Therefore, an understanding of when and how to implement the variety of instructional strategies related to these simulations is fundamental. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effectiveness of online computer-based simulations designed using two alternative instructional approaches-Productive Failure and Simple-to-Complex sequencing-on learning of clinical reasoning skills...
July 6, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Gabriella Clarke, Peter Harley, Ella-Louise Hubber, Teodora Manea, Luigi Manuelli, Emily Read, Fiona M Watt
Regenerative medicine is a diverse and rapidly evolving field, employing core expertise from biologists, engineers, and clinicians. Recently the field has made significant progress towards regenerating or replacing tissues lost to age, disease or injury. Current strategies include transplantation of adult or pluripotent stem cells to replace tissue or support tissue healing. Promising approaches for the future of regenerative medicine include stimulating endogenous stem cells for in situ repair, transplantation of organoids to repair minor tissue injury, and the use of interspecies chimerism to produce functional metabolic organs for transplantation...
July 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Omid Ghafari, Aram Sharifi, Ali Ahmadi, Bahar Nayeri Fasaei
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is recognized as one of the major cause of infections in communities and hospitals. In this study, anti-pneumococcal and anti-efflux pump activity of two medicinal plants (Thymus daenensis and Origanum vulgare) essential oils were evaluated. Checkerboard assay test was performed for investigation of the effects of selected EOs on ciprofloxacin and ethidium bromide uptake in pmrA overexpressed fluoroquinolone resistant pneumococcus. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR the PmrA efflux pump gene (pmrA) expression was evaluated following treatment with selected EOs...
July 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ashwin Gupta, Molly Harrod, Martha Quinn, Milisa Manojlovich, Karen E Fowler, Hardeep Singh, Sanjay Saint, Vineet Chopra
Background Traditionally, research has examined systems- and cognitive-based sources of diagnostic error as individual entities. However, half of all errors have origins in both domains. Methods We conducted a focused ethnography of inpatient physicians at two academic institutions to understand how systems-based problems contribute to cognitive errors in diagnosis. Medicine teams were observed on rounds and during post-round work after which interviews were conducted. Field notes related to the diagnostic process and the work system were recorded, and findings were organized into themes...
July 14, 2018: Diagnosis
Wenzheng Ding, Hanxue Wang, Quan Zhou, Jinrong Wu, Xuemei Cheng, Changhong Wang
Gentiana macrophylla Radix (GMR) is officially used as traditional Chinese medicine, but easily confused with Gentianae radix et rhizoma (GRR) and adulterants. The paper aims to establish a HPLC method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of GMR based on characteristic components, anofinic acid and its derivatives. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid as mobile phase, and detected at 240 nm, by conventional methodology validation...
July 14, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Sandra A Springer, P Todd Korthuis, Carlos Del Rio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
U A Halim, D M Riding
BACKGROUND: Bullying, undermining behaviour and harassment (BUBH) have been reported in entertainment, politics and sport. Such behaviours may also be common in surgery, and are frequently associated with poor patient care and inferior outcomes. The aim was to define the prevalence and impact of this behaviour in the international surgical workplace, and to explore counterstrategies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in August 2017...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Sandia Machado, Sara R Fernandes, Luise L Chaves, Sofia A C Lima, Eduarda M P Silva, Luísa Barreiros, Salette Reis, Marcela Alves Segundo
The low bioavailability and non-specific distribution of dapsone and clofazimine, commonly applied in combination for the treatment of leprosy, can produce toxic effects. Nanotechnological approaches enhance the delivery of these drugs. Therefore, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of dapsone and clofazimine loaded in nanoformulations for quality control purposes. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Kinetex core-shell C18 column, followed by spectrophotometric detection at 280 nm...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Bishara Atiye, Fadel Chahine
Breast surgery has long been viewed as an art more than a science. However, defining and objectively measuring the ideal breast morphology and aesthetic proportions are fundamental for surgical planning and to setting the goals of surgery as well as to evaluate surgical outcomes. Despite the fact that much has been written about aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery, there is still no real consensus about what the attributes are of an ideal breast. Moreover, there are in fact no objective standard measurement systems and guidelines to describe ideal or even normal breast shape...
July 13, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Dee Mangin, Gülistan Bahat, Beatrice A Golomb, Laurie Herzig Mallery, Paige Moorhouse, Graziano Onder, Mirko Petrovic, Doron Garfinkel
Globally, the number of drug prescriptions is increasing causing more adverse drug events, which is now a significant cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability that has reached epidemic proportions. The risk of adverse drug events is correlated to very old age, multiple co-morbidities, dementia, frailty, and limited life expectancy, with the major contributor being polypharmacy. Each characteristic alters the risk-benefit balance of medications, typically reducing anticipated benefits and amplifying risk...
July 14, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Meijie Li, Rui Nian, Mo Xian, Haibo Zhang
The biotechnological production of isoprene and isopentenol has recently been studied. Isoprene, which is currently made mainly from petroleum, is an important platform chemical for synthesizing pesticides, medicines, oil additives, fragrances, and more and is especially important in the rubber production industry. Isopentenols, which have better combustion properties than well-known biofuels (ethanol), have recently received more attention. Supplies of petroleum, the conventional source of isoprene and isopentenols, are unsustainable, and chemical synthesis processes could cause serious environmental problems...
July 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hanna Heiman, Christian Keinki, Jutta Huebner
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to learn more about the association between the sources of information cancer patients and caregivers use and their eHealth literacy. METHODS: We distributed a standardized questionnaire among participants of a lecture program on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). RESULTS: Among 182 attendants, the Internet was the third most important source of information (57%), preceded by the oncologist (67%) and print media (61%)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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