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Dao P Zhang, Hong T Zhang, Suo Yin, Fu L Yan
This series case report aimed to elucidate the underlying pathology and outcomes of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) using perfusion weighted imaging (PWI). Four patients were diagnosed with LMI based on high-field diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-DWI) and PWI. The national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores were recorded on days 1, 7, and 30, and the Barthel index was assessed on days 7 and 30. Three patients exhibited relative regional hypoperfusion of medullary lesion in the perfusion maps...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Peter A Starreveld, Wido La Heij
The picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm and the Stroop color-word interference task are often assumed to reflect the same underlying processes. On the basis of a PRP study, Dell'Acqua et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14: 717-722, 2007) argued that this assumption is incorrect. In this article, we first discuss the definitions of Stroop- and picture-word interference. Next, we argue that both effects consist of at least four components that correspond to four characteristics of the distractor word: (1) response-set membership, (2) task relevance, (3) semantic relatedness, and (4) lexicality...
October 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Y Duan, B Q Yang, C C Chang, J Zhou, H Y Li, Z H Xu, Z W Wang, D Y Li
Objective: To evaluate the level of lexiscan-induced blood-brain barrier opening of healthy rabbits via CT perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) scan. Methods: Between November 2014 and May 2015, thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: the experimental group A1 which received one injection of lexiscan(1 ml/kg); the experimental group A2 which received three times injection of lexiscan(total dose: 1.5 ml/kg), finished within 15 minutes; the control group B which was injected the same volume normal saline(1 ml/kg), after 30 minutes, CT PWI scan was performed...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Prabhat Kumar, Ayotunde M Bamimore, Jennifer D Schwartz, Eugene H Chung, Anil K Gehi, Andy C Kiser, James P Hummel, J Paul Mounsey
BACKGROUND: The left atrial posterior wall (PW) often contains sites required for maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Electrical isolation of the PW is an important feature of all open surgeries for AF. This study assessed the ability of current ablation techniques to achieve PW isolation (PWI) and its effect on recurrent AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients with persistent or high-burden paroxysmal AF underwent catheter ablation, which was performed using an endocardial-only (30) or a hybrid endocardial-epicardial procedure (27)...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Simona Gaudino, Rosellina Russo, Tommaso Verdolotti, Massimo Caulo, Cesare Colosimo
INTRODUCTION: Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is an umbrella term that includes diffusion (DWI) and diffusion tensor (DTI), perfusion (PWI), spectroscopy (MRS), and functional (fMRI) imaging. These advanced modalities have improved the imaging of brain tumors and provided valuable additional information for treatment planning. Despite abundant literature on advanced MRI techniques in adult brain tumors, few reports exist for pediatric brain ones, potentially because of technical challenges...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
The colour-word Stroop task and the picture-word interference task (PWI) have been used extensively to study the functional processes underlying spoken word production. One of the consistent behavioural effects in both tasks is the Stroop-like effect: The reaction time (RT) is longer on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. The effect in the Stroop task is usually linked to word planning, whereas the effect in the PWI task is associated with either word planning or perceptual encoding. To adjudicate between the word planning and perceptual encoding accounts of the effect in PWI, we conducted an EEG experiment consisting of three tasks: a standard colour-word Stroop task (three colours), a standard PWI task (39 pictures), and a Stroop-like version of the PWI task (three pictures)...
2016: PloS One
Louis Lassalle, Guillaume Turc, Marie Tisserand, Sylvain Charron, Pauline Roca, Stephanie Lion, Laurence Legrand, Myriam Edjlali, Olivier Naggara, Jean-François Meder, Jean-Louis Mas, Jean-Claude Baron, Catherine Oppenheim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapid and reliable assessment of the perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI)/diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) mismatch is required to promote its wider application in both acute stroke clinical routine and trials. We tested whether an evaluation based on the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) reliably identifies the PWI/DWI mismatch. METHODS: A total of 232 consecutive patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke who underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (PWI and DWI) were retrospectively evaluated...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Lucas A Anderson, Mike B Anderson, Jill A Erickson, Jesse Chrastil, Christopher L Peters
BACKGROUND: The anterior wall index (AWI) and posterior wall index (PWI) have been proposed to quantify anterior and posterior acetabular coverage using AP pelvic radiographs. However, these indices have only been reported in symptomatic patients with apparent pathomorphologies (dysplasia, overcoverage, and retroversion) undergoing osteochondroplasty or reorientation osteotomy. QUESTIONS: (1) What are the ranges for AWI and PWI from measurements obtained on AP pelvic radiographs of asymptomatic senior athletes with well-functioning hips? (2) Is there a difference between the AWI and PWI in asymptomatic athletes with acetabular morphology consistent with acetabular dysplasia, overcoverage, and retroversion when compared with asymptomatic hips that do not meet the radiographic definitions for those morphologies (controls)? METHODS: Five hundred five athletes (998 asymptomatic native hips) were independently evaluated by two readers on AP pelvic radiographs for AWI and the PWI after excluding hips with prior surgery, inadequate radiographs, or poor function (modified Harris hip score < 80)...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Ruihua Shi, Tao Jiang, Lifang Si, Min Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlations of magnetic resonance, perfusion-weighed imaging (PWI) parameters and microvessel density (MVD) in meningioma. METHODS: 48 patients with pathologically confirmed meningioma (grade I, 38 cases; grade II+III, 10 cases) completed preoperative routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PWI. The cerebral blood volume (CBV) map of solid tumor region and the mean of maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were then calculated...
May 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Kelvin K Wong, Steve H Fung, Pamela Z New, Stephen T C Wong
Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) is widely used in clinical settings for the radiological diagnosis of brain tumor. The signal change in brain tissue in gradient echo-based DSC PWI is much higher than in spin echo-based DSC PWI. Due to its exquisite sensitivity, gradient echo-based sequence is the preferred method for imaging of all tumors except those near the base of the skull. However, high sensitivity also comes with a dynamic range problem. It is not unusual for blood volume to increase in gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy-treated glioblastoma patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Wei Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Jinhua Yu
Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) utilizes harmonic signals generating within the tissue as the result of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. With inadequate transmitting acoustic energy, THI is incapable to detect the small objects since poor harmonic signals have been generated. In most cases, high transmission energy cannot be guaranteed because of the imaging safety issue or specific imaging modality such as the plane wave imaging (PWI). Discrimination of small point targets such as calcification, however, is particularly important in the ultrasound diagnosis...
December 2016: Ultrasonics
Seunghyun Lee, Tae Jin Yun, Koung Mi Kang, Jung Hyo Rhim, Chul-Kee Park, Tae Min Kim, Sung-Hye Park, Il Han Kim, Seung Hong Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) of ganglioglioma (GG) compared with oligodendroglioma (ODG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients with histopathologically confirmed GG (12 patients) or ODG (24 patients). The volumetric analyses of normalized ADC (nADC) and normalized CBV (nCBV) maps, tumor volume, and ratio of enhancing portion compared to the tumor volume were performed...
October 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Praneil Patel, Hediyeh Baradaran, Diana Delgado, Gulce Askin, Paul Christos, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Ajay Gupta
BACKGROUND: Distinction between tumor and treatment related changes is crucial for clinical management of patients with high-grade gliomas. Our purpose was to evaluate whether dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) metrics can effectively differentiate between recurrent tumor and posttreatment changes within the enhancing signal abnormality on conventional MRI. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed for studies evaluating PWI-based differentiation of recurrent tumor and posttreatment changes in patients with high-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grades III and IV)...
August 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
Kyungjin Lee, Chunhui Suh, Jong-Eun Kim, Jae Oh Park
This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-SF). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for demographic variables and psychosocial working conditionsto examine associations between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses...
August 6, 2016: Industrial Health
Paul P Park, Paul B Umbanhowar, Julio M Ottino, Richard M Lueptow
We introduce mixing with piecewise isometries (PWIs) on a hemispherical shell, which mimics features of mixing by cutting and shuffling in spherical shells half-filled with granular media. For each PWI, there is an inherent structure on the hemispherical shell known as the exceptional set E, and a particular subset of E, E+, provides insight into how the structure affects mixing. Computer simulations of PWIs are used to visualize mixing and approximations of E+ to demonstrate their connection. While initial conditions of unmixed materials add a layer of complexity, the inherent structure of E+ defines fundamental aspects of mixing by cutting and shuffling...
July 2016: Chaos
Y B Huang, Y X Zhao, J J Xiao, M W Li, R Zhang, S L Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of children male soccer players' ankle imaging features. METHODS: From October 2015 to February 2016, a total of 32 male children players of two soccer clubs in Guangzhou were enrolled in this study.The ages of all cases were from 10 to 14 years, average age was (11.3±0.9) years.A total of 15 male children in region ordinary primary and secondary school students were set as control group, ages were from 10 to 14 years, average age was (12...
July 5, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
M Kerkhof, R E Hagenbeek, B F W van der Kallen, G J Lycklama À Nijeholt, L Dirven, M J B Taphoorn, M J Vos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited value for differentiation of true tumor progression and pseudoprogression in treated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) may be helpful in the differentiation of these two phenomena. Here interobserver variability in routine radiological evaluation of GBM patients is assessed using MRI, including PWI. METHODS: Three experienced neuroradiologists evaluated MR scans of 28 GBM patients during temozolomide chemoradiotherapy at three time points: preoperative (MR1) and postoperative (MR2) MR scan and the follow-up MR scan after three cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (MR3)...
October 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Simone Salice, Roberto Esposito, Domenico Ciavardelli, Stefano Delli Pizzi, Rossella di Bastiano, Armando Tartaro
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the combination of imaging biomarkers obtained by means of different 3 Tesla (3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) advanced techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation between benign and malignant single ring-enhancing brain masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 patients presenting at conventional 3T MRI single brain mass with similar appearance as regard ring enhancement, presence of peri-lesional edema and absence of hemorrhage signs were included in the study...
2016: PloS One
Sibu Mundiyanapurath, Peter Arthur Ringleb, Sascha Diatschuk, Mikkel Bo Hansen, Kim Mouridsen, Leif Østergaard, Wolfgang Wick, Martin Bendszus, Alexander Radbruch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) is inherently unreliable in patients with severe perfusion abnormalities. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a novel index of microvascular flow-patterns, so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) to that of the commonly used delay parameter Tmax in patients with bilateral high grade internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). METHODS: Consecutive patients with bilateral ICAS ≥ 70%NASCET who underwent PWI were retrospectively examined...
2016: PloS One
Alex Förster, Holger Wenz, Johannes Böhme, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden
PURPOSE: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of blood brain barrier injury in posterior circulation infarction as demonstrated by the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR). METHODS: From a MRI report database we identified patients with posterior circulation infarction who underwent MRI, including perfusion-weighted images (PWI), within 12 hours after onset and follow-up MRI within 24 hours and analyzed diffusion-weighted images (DWI), PWI, FLAIR, and MR angiography (MRA)...
2016: PloS One
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