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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341340/bias-from-restricting-to-live-births-when-estimating-effects-of-prescription-drug-use-on-pregnancy-complications-a-simulation
#1
Elizabeth A Suarez, Suzanne N Landi, Mitchell C Conover, Michele Jonsson Funk
PURPOSE: Administrative claim databases are increasingly being used to study the safety of medication exposures during pregnancy. These studies are restricted to live births due to a reliance on algorithms for estimating gestational age that are based on codes associated with live delivery. Conditioning on live birth may induce selection bias when studying the effect of a drug on a pregnancy complication if fetal death is a competing risk for the complication or is caused by the complication...
January 17, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325971/incorporation-of-fetal-and-child-pfoa-dosimetry-in-the-derivation-of-health-based-toxicity-values
#2
Kyra Kimberly Kieskamp, Rachel Rogers Worley, Eva D McLanahan, Marc-André Verner
BACKGROUND: Multiple agencies have developed health-based toxicity values for exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Although PFOA exposure occurs in utero and through breastfeeding, current health-based toxicity values have not been derived using fetal or child dosimetry. Therefore, current values may underestimate the potential risks to fetuses and nursing infants. OBJECTIVE: Using fetal and child dosimetry, we aimed to calculate PFOA maternal human equivalent doses (HEDs), corresponding to a developmental mouse study lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 1mg/kg/day)...
December 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324608/quality-assurance-practices-in-obstetric-care-a-survey-of-hospitals-in-california
#3
Lisbet S Lundsberg, Henry C Lee, Grace Villarin Dueñas, Kimberly D Gregory, Holly K Grossetta Nardini, Christian M Pettker, Jessica L Illuzzi, Xiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess hospital practices in obstetric quality management activities and identify institutional characteristics associated with utilization of evidence-supported practices. METHODS: Data for this study came from a statewide survey of obstetric hospitals in California regarding their organization and delivery of perinatal care. We analyzed responses from 185 hospitals that completed quality assurance sections of the survey to assess their practices in a broad spectrum of quality enhancement activities...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324597/internal-podalic-version-and-breech-extraction-enhancing-realistic-sensations-in-a-simulation-model
#4
Jérôme M J Cornette, Jan S Erkamp
BACKGROUND: Experience with internal podalic version and breech extraction is diminishing, especially in the younger generation of obstetricians. Simulation training is essential to teach and maintain these skills. INSTRUMENT: We present a mannequin-based simulation method that enhances realistic sensations during training. EXPERIENCE: By positioning the fetal mannequin into a thin plastic bag filled with water, the impression of palpating, grabbing, and pulling the fetal feet through the plastic bag is similar to reaching feet through intact membranes...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316070/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-severe-lacerations-during-forceps-delivery-in-a-single-teaching-hospital-where-simulation-training-is-held-annually
#5
Yasuko Sano, Chihiro Hirai, Shintaro Makino, Xianglan Li, Jun Takeda, Atsuo Itakura, Satoru Takeda
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of severe lacerations during forceps delivery and the risk factors associated with such delivery in a hospital where simulation training is held annually. METHODS: The medical records of 857 women who underwent forceps delivery at term with singleton cephalic presentation from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. The relationship between clinical characteristics and birth canal trauma was analyzed. Birth canal trauma included third and fourth degree perineal lacerations...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287104/fetal-head-size-and-effect-of-manual-perineal-protection
#6
Magdalena Jansova, Vladimir Kalis, Zdenek Rusavy, Sari Räisänen, Libor Lobovsky, Katariina Laine
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a previously identified modification of Viennese method of perineal protection remains most effective for reduction of perineal tension in cases with substantially smaller or larger fetal heads. METHODS: A previously designed finite element model was used to compare perineal tension of different modifications of the Viennese method of perineal protection to "hands-off" technique for three different sizes of the fetal head...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#7
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247905/the-development-of-a-pregnancy-pbpk-model-for-bisphenol-a-and-its-evaluation-with-the-available-biomonitoring-data
#8
Raju Prasad Sharma, Marta Schuhmacher, Vikas Kumar
Recent studies suggest universal fetal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and its association with the adverse birth outcomes. Estimation of the fetal plasma BPA concentration from the maternal plasma BPA would be highly useful to predict its associated risk to this specific population. The objective of current work is to develop a pregnancy-physiologically based pharmacokinetic (P-PBPK) model to predict the toxicokinetic profile of BPA in the fetus during gestational growth, and to evaluate the developed model using biomonitoring data obtained from different pregnancy cohort studies...
December 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228913/on-the-use-of-the-outcome-variable-small-for-gestational-age-when-gestational-age-is-a-potential-mediator-a-maternal-asthma-perspective
#9
Geneviève Lefebvre, Mariia Samoilenko
BACKGROUND: The variable "small for gestational age," frequently defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile in a gestational age and sex-normalized population, is nowadays generally perceived as a more adequate measure than birth weight or low birth weight (birth weight < 2500 g) to capture fetal growth. However, the use of small for gestational age rather than birth weight or low birth weight as an outcome (dependent) variable may have important impacts on the interpretation of analyses aimed at estimating the causal effect of an exposure of interest on infants...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222728/fetal-electrocardiogram-extraction-and-analysis-using-adaptive-noise-cancellation-and-wavelet-transformation-techniques
#10
P Sutha, V E Jayanthi
Birth defect-related demise is mainly due to congenital heart defects. In the earlier stage of pregnancy, fetus problem can be identified by finding information about the fetus to avoid stillbirths. The gold standard used to monitor the health status of the fetus is by Cardiotachography(CTG), cannot be used for long durations and continuous monitoring. There is a need for continuous and long duration monitoring of fetal ECG signals to study the progressive health status of the fetus using portable devices. The non-invasive method of electrocardiogram recording is one of the best method used to diagnose fetal cardiac problem rather than the invasive methods...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215525/low-fidelity-simulator-for-the-standardized-training-of-fetoscopic-meningomyelocele-repair
#11
Michael A Belfort, William E Whitehead, Andrey Bednov, Alireza A Shamshirsaz
BACKGROUND: Fetoscopic meningomyelocele repair in a gas-filled uterus is a new technique performed in very few centers. There are few opportunities as well as ethical prohibitions on the initial development and subsequent refinement of innovative fetal surgery techniques in humans, and using an animal model is both very expensive and logistically difficult. METHOD: We developed a low-fidelity endoscopic fetal surgery simulation using a plastic doll and pieces of chicken breast to simulate a fetal meningomyelocele, and a polyurethane ball to simulate a gas-filled uterus, along with a standard endoscopy system and instruments...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201497/fibromodulin-reduces-scar-formation-in-adult-cutaneous-wounds-by-eliciting-a-fetal-like-phenotype
#12
Zhong Zheng, Aaron W James, Chenshuang Li, Wenlu Jiang, Joyce Z Wang, Grace X Chang, Kevin S Lee, Feng Chen, Emily A Berthiaume, Yao Chen, Hsin Chuan Pan, Eric C Chen, Weiming Li, Zhihe Zhao, Xinli Zhang, Kang Ting, Chia Soo
Blocking transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 signal transduction has been a central strategy for scar reduction; however, this approach appears to be minimally effective. Here, we show that fibromodulin (FMOD), a 59-kD small leucine-rich proteoglycan critical for normal collagen fibrillogenesis, significantly reduces scar formation while simultaneously increasing scar strength in both adult rodent models and porcine wounds, which simulate human cutaneous scar repair. Mechanistically, FMOD uncouples pro-migration/contraction cellular signals from pro-fibrotic signaling by selectively enhancing SMAD3-mediated signal transduction, while reducing AP-1-mediated TGFβ1 auto-induction and fibrotic extracellular matrix accumulation...
2017: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198465/linear-sound-attenuation-model-for-assessing-external-stimuli-in-prenatal-period
#13
Maria Bieńkowska, Andrzej W Mitas
The popularization of acoustic stimulation during the prenatal period encourages the analysis of sounds reaching the inside of the uterus. To assess the distortion of any sound stimuli, a mathematical model of attenuation has to be used. In this paper a mathematical model is proposed on the basis of data from a physical model. The physical model consisted of muscle slices of two different thicknesses placed in a tank filled with water. The amplitudes of sinusoidal waves between 160 and 2000 Hz were measured under the water surface...
November 22, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197003/ex-vivo-dual-perfusion-of-the-human-placenta-disease-simulation-therapeutic-pharmacokinetics-and-analysis-of-off-target-effects
#14
Paul Brownbill, Neil Sebire, Erin V McGillick, Stacey Ellery, Padma Murthi
In recent years ex vivo dual perfusion of the human placental lobule is seeing an international renaissance in its application to understanding fetal health and development. Here, we discuss the methods and uses of this technique in the evaluation of (1) vascular function, (2) transplacental clearance, (3) hemodynamic and oxygenation changes associated with pregnancy complications on placental structure and function, and (4) placental toxicology and post-perfusion evaluation of tissue architecture.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163753/cytoprotective-effects-of-citicoline-and-homotaurine-against-glutamate-and-high-glucose-neurotoxicity-in-primary-cultured-retinal-cells
#15
Sergio Davinelli, Flavia Chiosi, Roberto Di Marco, Ciro Costagliola, Giovanni Scapagnini
Citicoline and homotaurine are renowned compounds that exhibit potent neuroprotective activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate whether cotreatment with citicoline and homotaurine affects cell survival in primary retinal cultures under experimental conditions simulating retinal neurodegeneration. Primary cultures were obtained from the retina of fetal rats and exposed to citicoline plus homotaurine (100 μM). Subsequently, neurotoxicity was induced using excitotoxic levels of glutamate and high glucose concentrations...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159000/umbilical-cord-prolapse-in-a-labouring-patient-a-multidisciplinary-and-interprofessional-simulation-scenario
#16
Chandrew Rajakumar, Adam Garber, Purnima M Rao, Genevieve Rousseau, George A Dumitrascu, Glenn D Posner
This case is one of an eight-case multidisciplinary curriculum designed and implemented at the University of Ottawa by simulation educators with specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) and anesthesiology. Consultation from a nurse educator maintained quality and relevance of objectives for nursing participants. The curriculum was prepared to train OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents and nurses to hone crisis resource management skills and to recognize and manage rare/critical medical events in an obstetrical setting...
September 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127374/prediction-of-human-prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-bisphenol-a-glucuronide-from-an-ovine-semi-physiological-toxicokinetic-model
#17
Glenn Gauderat, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Rémi Servien, Catherine Viguié, Sylvie Puel, Marlène Z Lacroix, Tanguy Corbel, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Véronique Gayrard
Bisphenol A (BPA) risk assessment is hampered by the difficulty of determining the extent of internal exposure in the human fetus and uncertainties regarding BPA toxicokinetics (TK) in the maternal-fetal unit. A feto-maternal TK model describing BPA and BPA glucuronide (BPAG) disposition in sheep was humanized, using human TK data obtained after d6-BPA administration on a cookie, to predict BPA and BPAG kinetics in the human mother-fetus unit. Validation of the model predictions included the assessed dose proportionality of BPA and BPAG disposition and the similarity between the simulated and measured time courses of BPA and BPAG in fetal rhesus monkeys after BPA maternal dosing...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122364/photocatalytic-degradation-of-4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1-3-disulfonamide-stable-hydrolysis-product-of-hydrochlorothiazide-detection-of-intermediates-and-their-toxicity
#18
Sanja J Armaković, Stevan Armaković, Dragana D Četojević-Simin, Filip Šibul, Biljana F Abramović
In this work we have investigated in details the process of degradation of the 4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-disulfonamide (ABSA), stable hydrolysis product of frequently used pharmaceutical hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), as one of the most ubiquitous contaminants in the sewage water. The study encompassed investigation of degradation by hydrolysis, photolysis, and photocatalysis employing commercially available TiO2 Degussa P25 catalyst. The process of direct photolysis and photocatalytic degradation were investigated under different type of lights...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121458/placental-drug-transport-on-a-chip-a-microengineered-in-vitro-model-of-transporter-mediated-drug-efflux-in-the-human-placental-barrier
#19
Cassidy Blundell, Yoon-Suk Yi, Lin Ma, Emily R Tess, Megan J Farrell, Andrei Georgescu, Lauren M Aleksunes, Dongeun Huh
The current lack of knowledge about the effect of maternally administered drugs on the developing fetus is a major public health concern worldwide. The first critical step toward predicting the safety of medications in pregnancy is to screen drug compounds for their ability to cross the placenta. However, this type of preclinical study has been hampered by the limited capacity of existing in vitro and ex vivo models to mimic physiological drug transport across the maternal-fetal interface in the human placenta...
November 9, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106824/inferring-relevant-cell-types-for-complex-traits-by-using-single-cell-gene-expression
#20
Diego Calderon, Anand Bhaskar, David A Knowles, David Golan, Towfique Raj, Audrey Q Fu, Jonathan K Pritchard
Previous studies have prioritized trait-relevant cell types by looking for an enrichment of genome-wide association study (GWAS) signal within functional regions. However, these studies are limited in cell resolution by the lack of functional annotations from difficult-to-characterize or rare cell populations. Measurement of single-cell gene expression has become a popular method for characterizing novel cell types, and yet limited work has linked single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to phenotypes of interest...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
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