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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237539/cdkn2a-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-browning
#1
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Xavier Gromada, Elisabet Salas, Xi Yao, Frédérik Oger, Charlène Carney, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Amélie Bonnefond, Emilie Caron, Lluis Fajas, Christian Dani, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have reported that DNA polymorphisms at the CDKN2A locus modulate fasting glucose in human and contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Yet the causal relationship between this gene and defective energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we sought to understand the contribution of Cdkn2a to metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: We first analyzed glucose and energy homeostasis from Cdkn2a-deficient mice subjected to normal or high fat diets...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233981/a-mir-327-fgf10-fgfr2-mediated-autocrine-signaling-mechanism-controls-white-fat-browning
#2
Carina Fischer, Takahiro Seki, Sharon Lim, Masaki Nakamura, Patrik Andersson, Yunlong Yang, Jennifer Honek, Yangang Wang, Yanyan Gao, Fang Chen, Nilesh J Samani, Jun Zhang, Masato Miyake, Seiichi Oyadomari, Akihiro Yasue, Xuri Li, Yun Zhang, Yizhi Liu, Yihai Cao
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating beige adipocyte formation may lead to the development of new therapies to combat obesity. Here, we report a miRNA-based autocrine regulatory pathway that controls differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocytes. We identify miR-327 as one of the most downregulated miRNAs targeting growth factors in the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) under conditions that promote white adipose tissue (WAT) browning in mice. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that miR-327 targets FGF10 to prevent beige adipocyte differentiation...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209828/regulation-of-immunometabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#3
REVIEW
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188818/no-evidence-of-white-adipocyte-browning-after-endurance-exercise-training-in-obese-men
#4
T Tsiloulis, A L Carey, J Bayliss, B Canny, R C R Meex, M J Watt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170539/adipose-tissue-noncanonical-beige-fat-thermogenesis
#5
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170465/egr1-deficiency-induces-browning-of-inguinal-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#6
Cécile Milet, Marianne Bléher, Kassandra Allbright, Mickael Orgeur, Fanny Coulpier, Delphine Duprez, Emmanuelle Havis
Beige adipocyte differentiation within white adipose tissue, referred to as browning, is seen as a possible mechanism for increasing energy expenditure. The molecular regulation underlying the thermogenic browning process has not been entirely elucidated. Here, we identify the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 as a negative regulator of the beige fat program. Loss of Egr1 in mice promotes browning in the absence of external stimulation and leads to an increase of Ucp1 expression, which encodes the key thermogenic mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158445/pdgfr%C3%AE-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-balance-modulates-progenitor-cell-differentiation-into-white-and-beige-adipocytes
#7
Zhanguo Gao, Alexes C Daquinag, Fei Su, Brad Snyder, Mikhail G Kolonin
Relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its metabolic activity. The roles of adipocyte progenitor cells, which express PDGFRα or PDGFRβ, in adipose tissue function have remained unclear. Here, by defining the developmental timing of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression in mouse subcutaneous and visceral adipose depots, we uncover depot-specificity of preadipocyte delineation. We demonstrate that PDGFRα expression precedes PDGFRβ expression in all subcutaneous but only in a fraction of visceral adipose stromal cells...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#8
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138356/the-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-does-not-influence-lithium-induced-diabetes-insipidus-but-does-provoke-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#9
Kevin T Yang, Fei Wang, Xiaohan Lu, Kexin Peng, Tianxin Yang, J David Symons
Earlier we reported that the recombinant soluble (pro) renin receptor sPRR-His upregulates renal aquoporin-2 (AQP2) expression, and attenuates polyuria associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) induced by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonism. Patients that receive lithium therapy develop polyuria associated NDI that might be secondary to downregulation of renal AQP2. We hypothesized that sPRR-His attenuates indices of NDI associated with lithium treatment. Eight-week-old male C57/BL6 mice consumed chow supplemented with LiCl (40 mmol/kg diets) for 14 days...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#10
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#11
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131158/ucp1-independent-signaling-involving-serca2b-mediated-calcium-cycling-regulates-beige-fat-thermogenesis-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#12
Kenji Ikeda, Qianqian Kang, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Joao Paulo Camporez, Hiroko Maki, Mayu Homma, Kosaku Shinoda, Yong Chen, Xiaodan Lu, Pema Maretich, Kazuki Tajima, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Tomoyoshi Soga, Shingo Kajimura
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) plays a central role in nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat; however, its role in beige fat remains unclear. Here we report a robust UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanism in beige fat that involves enhanced ATP-dependent Ca(2+) cycling by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2). Inhibition of SERCA2b impairs UCP1-independent beige fat thermogenesis in humans and mice as well as in pigs, a species that lacks a functional UCP1 protein...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111497/effects-of-growth-hormone-on-uncoupling-protein-1-in-white-adipose-tissues-in-obese-mice
#13
Misa Hayashi, Kumi Futawaka, Rie Koyama, Yue Fan, Midori Matsushita, Asuka Hirao, Yuki Fukuda, Ayako Nushida, Syoko Nezu, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: The transition of white adipocytes to beige cells (a phenomenon referred to as browning or beigeing) during obesity has been previously reported. Our study aimed to examine the mechanisms through which obesity induced by a high fat diet (HFD) affects uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression via signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5s). DESIGN: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or HFD for 11weeks. Body weight, white adipose tissue weight, and blood lipid and glucose levels were measured...
October 24, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102386/understanding-the-biology-of-thermogenic-fat-is-browning-a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
July 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077154/the-differentiation-of-beige-adipocyte-in-pericardial-and-epicardial-adipose-tissues-induces-atrial-fibrillation-development
#15
Y He, N Ma, M Tang, Z-L Jiang, H Liu, J Mei
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence has identified that excessive accumulation of pericardial adipose tissues (PAT) and epicardial adipose tissues (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) development. Moreover, beige adipocytes, present in PAT and EAT, have been proved beneficial in consumption of fatty acid and promotion of weight lose by nonshivering thermogenesis. The objective of this prospective, observational study was to reveal the potential association between beige adipocytes and AF development...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064586/a-pivotal-role-of-ampk-signaling-in-medicarpin-mediated-formation-of-brown-and-beige-adipocytes-from-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Khan Mohammad Imran, Dahyeon Yoon, Yong-Sik Kim
Obesity poses a substantial threat of a worldwide epidemic and requires better understanding of adipose-tissue biology as well as necessitates research into the etiology and therapeutic interventions. In this study, Medicarpin (Med), a natural pterocarpan, was selected (by screening) as a small-molecule inducer of adipocyte differentiation among 854 candidates by using C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell; a cellular model of adipogenesis. Med induced the expression of brown-adipocyte commitment marker Bmp7 as well as the early regulators of brown fat fate Pparγ, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α during differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells...
October 24, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040448/male-brown-fat-specific-double-knockout-of-igfir-ir-atrophy-mitochondrial-fission-failure-impaired-thermogenesis-and-obesity
#17
Vanesa Viana-Huete, Carlos Guillén, Gema García, Silvia Fernández, Ana García-Aguilar, C R Kahn, Manuel Benito
It is unknown how the lack of IR (insulin receptor)/ IGFIR (insulin like growth factor receptor) in a tissue-specific manner does affect brown fat development and mitochondrial integrity and function and its impact on the redistribution of the adipose organ and the metabolic status. To address this important issue, we have developed the IR/IGFIR double knockout in brown adipose tissue-specific manner (DKO). Lack of those receptors caused a severe brown fat atrophy, an enhanced beige cell clusters in inguinal fat, loss of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial damage related to cristae disruption, and the loss of proteins involved in autophagosome formation, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control and dynamics and thermogenesis...
October 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033835/farnesol-has-an-anti-obesity-effect-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-induces-the-development-of-beige-adipocytes-in-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Hye-Lin Kim, Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Beom Su Lee, Mi-Young Jeong, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat and hence have an important therapeutic capacity for obesity. Development of brown-like adipocytes (also called beige) is also another attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of farnesol, an isoprenoid, on adipogenesis in adipocytes and on the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) as well as on the weight gain of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Farnesol inhibited adipogenesis and the related key regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α through the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#19
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983409/systems-biology-reveals-uncoupling-beyond-ucp1-in-human-white-fat-derived-beige-adipocytes
#20
Elin Nyman, Stefano Bartesaghi, Rebecka Melin Rydfalk, Sandra Eng, Charlotte Pollard, Peter Gennemark, Xiao-Rong Peng, Gunnar Cedersund
Pharmaceutical induction of metabolically active beige adipocytes in the normally energy storing white adipose tissue has potential to reduce obesity. Mitochondrial uncoupling in beige adipocytes, as in brown adipocytes, has been reported to occur via the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, several previous in vitro characterizations of human beige adipocytes have only measured UCP1 mRNA fold increase, and assumed a direct correlation with metabolic activity. Here, we provide an example of pharmaceutical induction of beige adipocytes, where increased mRNA levels of UCP1 are not translated into increased protein levels, and perform a thorough analysis of this example...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
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