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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679742/adaptive-thermogenesis-by-dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-emerging-evidence-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Rong Fan, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675584/brown-adipokines
#2
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions. Peptidic and non-peptidic molecules, including miRNAs and lipids, are constituents of brown adipokines. Brown adipose tissue remodeling to meet thermogenic needs is dependent on the secretory properties of brown/beige adipocytes. The association between brown fat activity and a healthy metabolic profile, in relation to energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis, is influenced by the endocrine actions of brown adipokines...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669306/paternal-exercise-protects-mouse-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-induced-type-2-diabetes-risk-by-increasing-skeletal-muscle-insulin-signaling
#3
Danielle Krout, James N Roemmich, Amy Bundy, Rolando A Garcia, Lin Yan, Kate J Claycombe-Larson
Paternal obesity increases, while paternal exercise decreases, offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk; however, no studies have determined whether a paternal high-fat (HF) diet and exercise interact to alter offspring body weight (BW), adiposity and T2D risk. Three-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal-fat (NF) diet (16% fat) or an HF diet (45% fat) and assigned to either voluntary wheel running exercise or cage activity for 3 months prior to mating with NF-diet-fed dams. After weaning, male offspring were fed an NF or HF diet for an additional 3 months...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618935/metabolic-profiling-of-follistatin-overexpression-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-metabolic-diseases
#4
Rajan Singh, Shehla Pervin, Se-Jin Lee, Alan Kuo, Victor Grijalva, John David, Laurent Vergnes, Srinivasa T Reddy
Background: Follistatin (Fst) promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in adipose tissues. Methods: Abdominal fat volume (CT scan), glucose clearance (GTT test), and metabolomics analysis (mass spectrometry) of adipose tissues from Fst transgenic (Fst-Tg) and wild type (WT) control mice were analyzed. Oxygen consumption (Seahorse Analyzer) and lipidomics (gas chromatography) was analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: Fst-Tg mice show significant decrease in abdominal fat content, increased glucose clearance, improved plasma lipid profiles and significant changes in several conventional metabolites compared to the WT mice...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609280/-advances-in-the-research-of-relationship-between-brown-or-beige-fat-and-hypermetabolism-after-severe-burn
#5
M Zhang, Y Liu, X Zhang
Hypermetabolism is one of the remarkable characteristics of burn injury. Prolonged hypermetabolism causes insufficient energy supply, which leads to delayed wound healing, immune system dysfunction, increased infection rate, and multi-organ failure. In recent years, it is concerned that the activation of brown or beige adipose tissue may be related to hypermetabolism in severe burn patients. Brown or beige adipose tissue could be regulated by stress hormones and some cytokines which increase and persist in high level for several months after severe burn...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577045/pycnogenol%C3%A2-induces-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-through-the-pka-signaling-pathway-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#6
Huiying Cong, Wenxia Zhong, Yiying Wang, Shoichiro Ikuyama, Bin Fan, Jianqiu Gu
Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) have received considerable recognition because of their potential protective effect against obesity. Pycnogenol (PYC), extracted from French maritime pine bark, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can improve lipid profiles. However, the effect of PYC on obesity has never been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of PYC on obesity and WAT browning in apolipoprotein E- (ApoE-) deficient mice. The results showed that PYC treatment clearly reversed body weight and the mass of eWAT gain resulting from a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCD), but no difference in food intake...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570193/phytol-stimulates-the-browning-of-white-adipocytes-through-the-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#7
Fenglin Zhang, Wei Ai, Xiaoquan Hu, Yingying Meng, Cong Yuan, Han Su, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Ping Gao, Gang Shu, Qingyan Jiang, Songbo Wang
Stimulating the browning of white adipocytes contributes to the restriction of obesity and related metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the browning effects of phytol on mice inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT) and explore the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that phytol administration decreased body weight gain and iWAT index, and stimulated the browning of mice iWAT, with the increased expression of brown adipocyte marker genes (UCP1, PRDM16, PGC1α, PDH, and Cyto C)...
March 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549444/molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-steered-molecular-dynamics-simulation-on-irisin-dimers
#8
Qi Gao, Chao Lu, Xiao-Wen Wang, Jun-Wei Zhang, Youtao Song, You-Lin Xue
Irisin is found closely associated with promoting the browning of beige fat cells in white adipose tissue. The crystal structure reveals that irisin forms a continuous inter-subunit β-sheet dimer. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation were performed to investigate the dissociation process and the intricate interactions between the two irisin monomers. In the process of MD, the interactions between the monomers were roughly analyzed through the average numbers of both hydrophobic contacts and H-bonds...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547798/magnolol-promotes-thermogenesis-and-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#9
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jameel Lone, Jong Pil Park, Jang Won Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the browning and antioxidative effects of magnolol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as recruitment of beige-like adipocytes (browning) by natural compounds is being considered as a promising strategy to fight against obesity. METHODS: Magnolol-induced browning effect was evaluated by determining the expression levels of specific marker genes and proteins using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527907/transcription-regulators-and-hormones-involved-in-the-development-of-brown-fat-and-white-fat-browning-transcriptional-and-hormonal-control-of-brown-beige-fat-development
#10
Jianmei Zhang, Huixiao Wu, Shizhan Ma, Fei Jing, Chunxiao Yu, Ling Gao, Zhao Jiajun
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic complications has inspired research on adipose tissues. Three kinds of adipose tissues are identified in mammals: brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige or brite adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). Beige adipocytes share some characteristics with brown adipocytes such as the expression of UCP1. Beige adipocytes can be activated by environmental stimuli or pharmacological treatment, and this change is accompanied by an increase in energy consumption...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525607/raspberry-promotes-brown-and-beige-adipocyte-development-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet-through-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-1
#11
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523786/cdk6-inhibits-white-to-beige-fat-transition-by-suppressing-runx1
#12
Xiaoli Hou, Yongzhao Zhang, Wei Li, Alexander J Hu, Chi Luo, Wenhui Zhou, Jamie K Hu, Stefano G Daniele, Jinfeng Wang, Jinghao Sheng, Yongsheng Fan, Andrew S Greenberg, Stephen R Farmer, Miaofen G Hu
Whereas white adipose tissue depots contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, brown and beige adipose tissue has beneficial metabolic effects. Here we show that CDK6 regulates beige adipocyte formation. We demonstrate that mice lacking the CDK6 protein or its kinase domain (K43M) exhibit significant increases beige cell formation, enhanced energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Re-expression of CDK6 in Cdk6-/- mature or precursor cells, or ablation of RUNX1 in K43M mature or precursor cells, reverses these phenotypes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521565/fish-oil-as-a-potential-activator-of-brown-and-beige-fat-thermogenesis
#13
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521002/in-vivo-metabolic-imaging-and-monitoring-of-brown-and-beige-fat
#14
Sicong He, Yitai An, Xuesong Li, Xiuqing Wei, Qiqi Sun, Zhenguo Wu, Jianan Y Qu
Activation of the thermogenic brown and beige fat is an effective means to increasing whole-body energy expenditure. In this work, a unique label-free method was developed to quantitatively assess the metabolism and thermogenesis of mouse adipose tissues in vivo. Specifically, an optical redox ratio based on the endogenous fluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes (NADH and FAD) was used to measure the metabolic state of adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that the optical redox ratio provides a label-free and real-time biomarker to determine the thermogenic response of brown, beige and white adipose tissues to a variety of physiological stimulations...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515462/amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-regulates-energy-metabolism-through-modulating-thermogenesis-in-adipose-tissue
#15
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512723/susceptibilities-of-epicardial-and-subcutaneous-fat-tissue-for-browning-gene-expression-and-diet-induced-volume-reduction-are-different
#16
Hiroshi Mikamo, Meizi Jiang, Mahito Noro, Yasuo Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Wolfgang J Schneider, Hideaki Bujo
The upregulation of brown or brown-like beige adipocytes is a potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes and coronary artery diseases in obese patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) differs significantly from subcutaneous fat tissue (SAT) in metabolic properties. To investigate properties of EAT further, thermogenesis gene expression was investigated in human autopsy and murine samples, and adipocytes differentiated from EAT mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, analyzed EAT volume alterations were observed to be associated with weight reduction in obese patients by imaging...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510909/insights-into-the-neurochemical-signature-of-the-innervation-of-beige-fat
#17
Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476394/good-bad-or-ugly-the-biological-roles-of-bone-marrow-fat
#18
REVIEW
Lakshman Singh, Sonia Tyagi, Damian Myers, Gustavo Duque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism...
February 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473916/effects-of-diets-differing-in-composition-of-18-c-fatty-acids-on-adipose-tissue-thermogenic-gene-expression-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#19
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467283/activation-of-hypothalamic-rip-cre-neurons-promotes-beiging-of-wat-via-sympathetic-nervous-system
#20
Baile Wang, Ang Li, Xiaomu Li, Philip Wl Ho, Donghai Wu, Xiaoqi Wang, Zhuohao Liu, Kelvin Kl Wu, Sonata Sy Yau, Aimin Xu, Kenneth Ky Cheng
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat by cold increases energy expenditure. Although their activation is known to be differentially regulated in part by hypothalamus, the underlying neural pathways and populations remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of rat-insulin-promoter-Cre (RIP-Cre) neurons in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) preferentially promotes recruitment of beige fat via a selective control of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), but has no effect on BAT Genetic ablation of APPL2 in RIP-Cre neurons diminishes beiging in sWAT without affecting BAT, leading to cold intolerance and obesity in mice...
February 21, 2018: EMBO Reports
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