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beige fat

Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
Fat tissue is well known for its capacity to store energy and its detrimental role in obesity and metaflammation. However, humans possess different types of fat that have different functions in physiology and metabolic diseases. Apart from white adipose tissue (WAT), the body's main energy storage, there is also brown adipose tissue (BAT) that dissipates energy as a defense against cold and maintains energy balance for the whole body. BAT is present not only in newborns but also in adult humans and its mass correlates with leanness...
October 4, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Qingzhang Zhu, Sarbani Ghoshal, Ana Rodrigues, Su Gao, Alice Asterian, Theodore M Kamenecka, James C Barrow, Anutosh Chakraborty
Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Marta Giralt, Montserrat Cairó, Francesc Villarroya
Recent research has revealed that the activity of adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans is higher than previously thought, and that obese patients show abnormally low levels of brown fat activity. Studies in experimental animals have shown that BAT is a site of energy expenditure, and that BAT activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic diseases. The action of the sympathetic nervous activity on BAT depots is considered the main regulator of BAT activity in rodent models and possibly also in humans...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren
Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Florian W Kiefer
The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ildiko Kasza, Diego Hernando, Alejandro Roldán-Alzate, Caroline M Alexander, Scott B Reeder
Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) was recently recognized for its potential to modify whole body metabolism. Here, we show that dWAT can be quantified using a high-resolution, fat-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Noninvasive MRI has been used to describe adipocyte depots for many years; the MRI technique we describe uses an advanced fat-specific method to measure the thickness of dWAT, together with the total volume of WAT and the relative activation/fat depletion of brown adipose tissues (BAT)...
2016: JCI Insight
L M Laiglesia, S Lorente-Cebrián, P L Prieto-Hontoria, M Fernández-Galilea, S M R Ribeiro, N Sáinz, J A Martínez, M J Moreno-Aliaga
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EPA on the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the ability of EPA to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beiging in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects. Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight females (BMI: 28.1-29.8kg/m(2)) were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) for 24 h...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yi Zhu, Yong Gao, Caroline Tao, Mengle Shao, Shangang Zhao, Wei Huang, Ting Yao, Joshua A Johnson, Tiemin Liu, Aaron M Cypess, Olga Gupta, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta, David C Spray, Herbert B Tanowitz, Lei Cao, Matthew D Lynes, Yu-Hua Tseng, Joel K Elmquist, Kevin W Williams, Hua V Lin, Philipp E Scherer
"Beige" adipocytes reside in white adipose tissue (WAT) and dissipate energy as heat. Several studies have shown that cold temperature can activate pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC) neurons and increase sympathetic neuronal tone to regulate WAT beiging. WAT, however, is traditionally known to be sparsely innervated. Details regarding the neuronal innervation and, more importantly, the propagation of the signal within the population of "beige" adipocytes are sparse. Here, we demonstrate that beige adipocytes display an increased cell-to-cell coupling via connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction channels...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Jean Z Lin, Stephen R Farmer
In this issue of Genes & Development, Zeng and colleagues (pp. 1822-1836) identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) as a pivotal regulator of whole-body energy expenditure by controlling the oxidative and thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT). They show that LSD1 interacts with PRDM16 to repress select white adipose tissue (WAT) genes but also represses hydroxysteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) independently of PRDM16 to prevent production of glucocorticoids that impair BAT functions. Their study provides important insight into epigenetic mechanisms regulating the function of BAT...
August 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Dorothée Rigo, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex, Ana Stevanovic Dokic, Didier J Colin, Mirko Trajkovski
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan from yeast to mammals, delays onset of age-associated diseases, and improves metabolic health. We show that CR stimulates development of functional beige fat within the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, contributing to decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice kept at room temperature or at thermoneutrality and in obese leptin-deficient mice. These metabolic changes are mediated by increased eosinophil infiltration, type 2 cytokine signaling, and M2 macrophage polarization in fat of CR animals...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
P Vargovic, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
OBJECTIVE: Continuous exposure to cold leads to an activation of adaptive thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in the white adipose tissue. Thermogenic response is associated with alternatively activated macrophages producing catecholamines, which subsequently activate the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of cold exposure on catecholamine and immune responses associated with adipocyte browning in the mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT) of rat...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Wenshan Wang, Patrick Seale
Brown and beige adipocytes expend chemical energy to produce heat and are therefore important in regulating body temperature and body weight. Brown adipocytes develop in discrete and relatively homogenous depots of brown adipose tissue, whereas beige adipocytes are induced to develop in white adipose tissue in response to certain stimuli - notably, exposure to cold. Fate-mapping analyses have identified progenitor populations that give rise to brown and beige fat cells, and have revealed unanticipated cell-lineage relationships between vascular smooth muscle cells and beige adipocytes, and between skeletal muscle cells and brown fat...
August 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas
All mammals own two main forms of fat. The classical white adipose tissue builds up energy in the form of triglycerides and is useful for preventing fatigue during periods of low caloric intake and the brown adipose tissue instead of inducing fat accumulation can produce energy as heat. Since adult humans possess significant amounts of active brown fat depots and their mass inversely correlates with adiposity, brown fat might play an important role in human obesity and energy homeostasis. New evidence suggests two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features: classical brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Paul Cohen, Bruce M Spiegelman
The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion...
August 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Gema Medina-Gómez, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been also considered as the main thermogenic organ responsible of maintenance body temperature through heat production. However, a new type of thermogenic fat has been characterized during the last years, the beige or brite fat, that is developed from white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to different stimuli by a process known as browning. The activities of brown and beige adipocytes ameliorate metabolic disease, including obesity in mice and correlate with leanness in humans...
August 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Yung-Li Wang, Shih-Pei Lin, Patrick C H Hsieh, Shih-Chieh Hung
The accumulation of fat, which results in obesity, is related to many metabolic disorders. Besides white and brown adipose tissue, beige adipose tissue has recently been recognized as a new type of accumulated fat. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Through analyzing levels of mRNA and protein markers associated with beige adipocyte, we found concomitant beige adipocyte differentiation upon induction of MSCs into brown adipocytes in a defined medium containing triiodothyronine, insulin, dexamethasone, and indomethacin...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Takahiro Seki, Kayoko Hosaka, Sharon Lim, Carina Fischer, Jennifer Honek, Yunlong Yang, Patrik Andersson, Masaki Nakamura, Erik Näslund, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Meili Sun, Hideki Iwamoto, Xuri Li, Yizhi Liu, Nilesh J Samani, Yihai Cao
Cold- and β3-adrenoceptor agonist-induced sympathetic activation leads to angiogenesis and UCP1-dependent thermogenesis in mouse brown and white adipose tissues. Here we show that endothelial production of PDGF-CC during white adipose tissue (WAT) angiogenesis regulates WAT browning. We find that genetic deletion of endothelial VEGFR2, knockout of the Pdgf-c gene or pharmacological blockade of PDGFR-α impair the WAT-beige transition. We further show that PDGF-CC stimulation upregulates UCP1 expression and acquisition of a beige phenotype in differentiated mouse WAT-PDGFR-α(+) progenitor cells, as well as in human WAT-PDGFR-α(+) adipocytes, supporting the physiological relevance of our findings...
2016: Nature Communications
Carlo Amadeo Alonzo, Sevasti Karaliota, Dimitra Pouli, Zhiyi Liu, Katia P Karalis, Irene Georgakoudi
Current methods for evaluating adipose tissue function are destructive or have low spatial resolution. These limit our ability to assess dynamic changes and heterogeneous responses that occur in healthy or diseased subjects, or during treatment. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence enables functional imaging of adipocyte metabolism with subcellular resolution. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence from intracellular metabolic co-factors and lipid droplets can distinguish the functional states of excised white, brown, and cold-induced beige fat...
2016: Scientific Reports
Paul Tan, Carolane Blais, Thi M-D Nguyen, Peter W Schiller, Jolanta Gutkowska, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. METHODS: Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. RESULTS: In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT...
September 2016: Obesity
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