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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108330/pleiotropic-responses-to-methionine-restriction
#1
Gene Ables, Jay Johnson
Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan across different species. The main responses of rodent models to MR are well-documented in adipose tissue (AT) and liver, which have reduced mass and improved insulin sensitivity, respectively. Recently, molecular mechanisms that improve healthspan have been identified in both organs during MR. In fat, MR induced a futile lipid cycle concomitant with beige AT accumulation, producing elevated energy expenditure. In liver, MR upregulated fibroblast growth factor 21 and improved glucose metabolism in aged mice and in response to a high-fat diet...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107636/visceral-white-adipose-tissue-following-chronic-intermittent-and-sustained-hypoxia-in-mice
#2
David Gozal, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Rene Cortese, Yan Li, Isaac Almendros, Zhuanhong Qiao, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Jorge Andrade, Abdelnaby Khalyfa
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, a process induced by hypoxia in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) in the context of obesity, mediates obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH) induce body weight reductions and insulin resistance of differing magnitude, suggesting different HIF-1α-related activity. METHODS: 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice (n=10-12/group) were exposed to either IH, SH,or room air (RA)...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099842/brown-adipogenic-reprogramming-induced-by-a-small-molecule
#3
Baoming Nie, Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Ping Gu, Liufeng Mao, Kuai Li, Ran Yuan, Jiashun Zheng, Haixia Wang, Ke Li, Shibing Tang, Yu Zhang, Tao Xu, Aimin Xu, Donghai Wu, Sheng Ding
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, bexarotene (Bex), that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#4
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#5
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049156/rutin-ameliorates-obesity-through-brown-fat-activation
#6
Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Yilin You, Yuanyuan Huang, Hyuek Jong Lee, Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Tao Hu, Hanlin Zhang, Chuanhai Zhang, Huiqiao Zhou, Rongcai Ye, Xiaolong Qi, Baiqiang Zhai, Weidong Huang, Shunai Liu, Wen Xie, Qingsong Liu, Xiaomeng Liu, Chengbi Cui, Donghao Li, Jicheng Zhan, Jun Cheng, Zengqiang Yuan, Wanzhu Jin
Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
January 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046166/expression-of-uncoupling-protein-1-in-bovine-muscle-cells
#7
M A Abd Eldaim, O Hashimoto, H Ohtsuki, T Yamada, M Murakami, K Onda, R Sato, Y Kanamori, Y Qiao, S Tomonaga, T Matsui, M Funaba
Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012150/at1-receptor-antagonist-induces-thermogenic-beige-adipocytes-in-the-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#8
Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Felipe de Oliveira Santos, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Vanessa Souza-Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day)...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#9
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967236/pka-riib-deficiency-induces-brown-fat-like-adipocytes-in-inguinal-wat-and-promotes-energy-expenditure-in-male-fvb-nj-mice
#10
Su Jing, Wei Wu, Shan Huang, Ruidan Xue, Yi Wang, Yun Wan, Lv Zhang, Lang Qin, Qiongyue Zhang, Xiaoming Zhu, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Xiaohui Wu, Yiming Li
Obesity has become the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue formation, hence, a functional increase in energy expenditure may counteract obesity. Mice lacking type II-beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-RIIB) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity (DIO). PKA-RIIB, encoded by the Prkar2b gene, is most abundant in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brain. In this study, we show that mice lacking PKA-RIIB have increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, and improved glucose metabolism...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932592/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#11
Janina A Vaitkus, Francesco S Celi
Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923808/ucp1-inhibition-in-cidea-overexpressing-mice-is-physiologically-counteracted-by-brown-adipose-tissue-hyperrecruitment
#12
Alexander W Fischer, Irina G Shabalina, Charlotte L Mattsson, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergard, Natasa Petrovic
Cidea is a gene highly expressed in thermogenesis-competent (UCP1-containing) adipose cells, both brown and brite/beige. Here we initially demonstrate a remarkable adipose-depot specific regulation of Cidea expression. In classical brown fat, Cidea mRNA is expressed continuously and invariably, irrespective of tissue recruitment. However, Cidea protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, being conspicuously induced in the thermogenically recruited state. In contrast, in brite fat, Cidea protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, and Cidea mRNA and protein levels are proportional to tissue "briteness"...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913603/the-tumor-suppressor-flcn-mediates-an-alternate-mtor-pathway-to-regulate-browning-of-adipose-tissue
#13
Shogo Wada, Michael Neinast, Cholsoon Jang, Yasir H Ibrahim, Gina Lee, Apoorva Babu, Jian Li, Atsushi Hoshino, Glenn C Rowe, James Rhee, José A Martina, Rosa Puertollano, John Blenis, Michael Morley, Joseph A Baur, Patrick Seale, Zoltan Arany
Noncanonical mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways remain poorly understood. Mutations in the tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) cause Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a hamartomatous disease marked by mitochondria-rich kidney tumors. FLCN functionally interacts with mTOR and is expressed in most tissues, but its role in fat has not been explored. We show here that FLCN regulates adipose tissue browning via mTOR and the transcription factor TFE3. Adipose-specific deletion of FLCN relieves mTOR-dependent cytoplasmic retention of TFE3, leading to direct induction of the PGC-1 transcriptional coactivators, drivers of mitochondrial biogenesis and the browning program...
November 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#14
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892486/short-chain-fatty-acids-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-regulating-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-gut-microbiota
#15
Yuanyuan Lu, Chaonan Fan, Ping Li, Yanfei Lu, Xuelian Chang, Kemin Qi
Elucidating the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids (SCFA) reduce body weight may assist in the development of an effective weight control strategy. Dietary supplementation of acetate, propionate, butyrate or their admixture was shown to significantly inhibit the body weight gain induced by high-fat diet feeding. Supplementation of SCFAs caused significant changes in the expressions of G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and GPR41 characterized by increases in the adipose tissue and reductions in the colon...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891610/resveratrol-supplementation-to-high-fat-diet-fed-pregnant-mice-promotes-brown-and-beige-adipocyte-development-and-prevents-obesity-in-male-offspring
#16
Tiande Zou, Daiwen Chen, Qiyuan Yang, Bo Wang, Mei-Jun Zhu, Peter W Nathanielsz, Min Du
Promoting beige/brite adipogenesis and thermogenic activity is considered as a promising therapeutic approach to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Maternal obesity impairs offspring brown adipocyte function and correlates with obesity in offspring. We previously found that dietary resveratrol (RES) induces beige adipocyte formation in adult mice. Here we further evaluated the effect of resveratrol supplementation to pregnant mice on offspring thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Female C57BL/6 J mice were fed a control diet (CON) or a high fat diet (HFD) with/without 0...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#17
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855539/mouse-p2y4-nucleotide-receptor-is-a-negative-regulator-of-cardiac-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiation-and-cardiac-fat-formation
#18
Anne Lemaire, Marion Vanorlé, Michael Horckmans, Larissa di Pietrantonio, Sophie Clouet, Bernard Robaye, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Didier Communi
Cardiac adipose tissue-derived stem cells (cASCs) have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages giving them a high potential for use in regenerative medicine. Cardiac fat tissue still raises many unsolved questions related to its formation and features. P2Y nucleotide receptors have already been described as regulators of differentiation of bone-marrow derived stem cells, but remain poorly investigated in cASCs. We defined, in this study, the P2Y4 nucleotide receptor as a negative regulator of cardiac fat formation and cASC adipogenic differentiation...
December 23, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853148/the-lipid-sensor-gpr120-promotes-brown-fat-activation-and-fgf21-release-from-adipocytes
#19
Tania Quesada-López, Rubén Cereijo, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Anna Planavila, Montserrat Cairó, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Ricardo Moure, Roser Iglesias, Marta Giralt, Decio L Eizirik, Francesc Villarroya
The thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue are important components of energy expenditure. Here we show that GPR120, a receptor for polyunsaturated fatty acids, promotes brown fat activation. Using RNA-seq to analyse mouse BAT transcriptome, we find that the gene encoding GPR120 is induced by thermogenic activation. We further show that GPR120 activation induces BAT activity and promotes the browning of white fat in mice, whereas GRP120-null mice show impaired cold-induced browning...
November 17, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799465/paradoxical-leanness-in-the-imprinting-centre-deletion-mouse-model-for-prader-willi-syndrome
#20
David M Golding, Daniel J Rees, Jennifer R Davies, Dinko Relkovic, Hannah V Furby, Irina A Guschina, Anna L Hopkins, Jeffrey S Davies, James L Resnick, Anthony R Isles, Timothy Wells
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of paternal gene expression from 15q11-q13, is characterised by growth retardation, hyperphagia and obesity. However, as single gene mutation mouse models for this condition display an incomplete spectrum of the PWS phenotype, we have characterised the metabolic impairment in a mouse model for 'full' PWS, in which deletion of the imprinting centre (IC) abolishes paternal gene expression from the entire PWS cluster. We show that PWS-IC(del) mice displayed postnatal growth retardation, with reduced body weight, hyperghrelinaemia and marked abdominal leanness; proportionate retroperitoneal, epididymal/omental and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights being reduced by 82%, 84% and 67%, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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