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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440419/epitope-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-to-fsh%C3%AE-increase-bone-mass
#1
Yaoting Ji, Peng Liu, Tony Yuen, Shozeb Haider, Jiahuan He, Raquel Romero, Hao Chen, Madison Bloch, Se-Min Kim, Daria Lizneva, Lubna Munshi, Chunxue Zhou, Ping Lu, Jameel Iqbal, Zhen Cheng, Maria I New, Aaron J Hsueh, Zhuan Bian, Clifford J Rosen, Li Sun, Mone Zaidi
Pituitary hormones have long been thought solely to regulate single targets. Challenging this paradigm, we discovered that both anterior and posterior pituitary hormones, including FSH, had other functions in physiology. We have shown that FSH regulates skeletal integrity, and, more recently, find that FSH inhibition reduces body fat and induces thermogenic adipose tissue. A polyclonal antibody raised against a short, receptor-binding epitope of FSHβ was found not only to rescue bone loss postovariectomy, but also to display marked antiobesity and probeiging actions...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425108/neck-adipose-tissue-tying-ties-in-metabolic-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandzic Jaksic, Danijela Grizelj, Ana Livun, Drago Boscic, Marko Ajduk, Rajko Kusec, Ozren Jaksic
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot...
February 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424439/divergent-response-of-murine-and-porcine-adipocytes-to-stimulation-of-browning-genes-by-18-carbon-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-beta-receptor-agonists
#3
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are known to activate brown and beige adipocytes. However, very little is known about the effects of the number and the position of double bonds in LCFA with the same length on brown fat-specific gene expression. To determine the specificity of LCFA in the regulation of these genes in different adipocyte models, fully differentiated 10T1/2, 3T3-L1, murine, or porcine primary adipocytes (obtained from the subcutaneous fat pad of C57BL/6 mice or Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred piglets) were treated with 50 μM of the following 18-carbon fatty acids: stearic acid (STA; 18:0), oleic acid (OLA; 18:1, Δ9), linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2, Δ9,12), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3, Δ9,12,15), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3, Δ6,9,12), or pinolenic acid (PLA; 18:3, Δ5,9,12) for 24 h with or without 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment...
February 9, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386128/caloric-restriction-and-diet-induced-weight-loss-do-not-induce-browning-of-human-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-women-and-men-with-obesity
#4
Valentin Barquissau, Benjamin Léger, Diane Beuzelin, Frédéric Martins, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani, Wim H M Saris, Arne Astrup, Jean-José Maoret, Jason Iacovoni, Sébastien Déjean, Cédric Moro, Nathalie Viguerie, Dominique Langin
Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384242/circulating-molecules-that-control-brown-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-and-thermogenic-capacity
#5
REVIEW
Raissa G Ludwig, Andréa L Rocha, Marcelo A Mori
Obesity may be counteracted by increased energy expenditure. Circulating molecules act in the adipose tissue to influence brown and beige adipocyte function, differentiation, and thermogenic capacity, which in turn affects substrate utilization and impacts energy balance at the organismal level. These molecules have been envisioned as biomarkers and potential candidates for pharmacological interventions to treat obesity. Here we summarize studies that demonstrate the roles of endogenous circulating molecules of a wide variety in regulating the thermogenic potential of brown and beige fat cells...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378832/membrane-trafficking-protein-cdp138-regulates-fat-browning-and-insulin-sensitivity-through-controlling-catecholamine-release
#6
Qiong L Zhou, Ye Song, Chun-Hong Huang, Jun-Yuan Huang, Zhenwei Gong, Zhangping Liao, Andria G Sharma, Lily Greene, Justin Z Deng, Michael C Rigor, Xiangyang Xie, Songtao Qi, Julio E Ayala, Zhen Y Jiang
CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here we report mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138-/- mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and body temperature in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice. CDP138 is exclusively expressed in adrenal medulla and is co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of sympathetic nervous terminals, in the inguinal fat. In comparison with WT controls, CDP138-/- mice had altered catecholamine levels in the circulation, adrenal grand, and inguinal fat...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366777/the-common-and-distinct-features-of-brown-and-beige-adipocytes
#7
REVIEW
Kenji Ikeda, Pema Maretich, Shingo Kajimura
Two types of thermogenic fat cells, brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, play a key role in the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis in mammals. Both brown fat and beige fat possess thermogenic properties in addition to common morphological and biochemical characteristics, including multilocular lipid droplets and cristae-dense mitochondria. Recent studies also identify features that are distinct between the two types of thermogenic fat cells, such as their developmental regulation and function. Of particular interest is the role of beige fat in the regulation of glucose homeostasis via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent mechanisms...
January 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359735/an-oltam-system-for-analysis-of-brown-beige-fat-thermogenic-activity
#8
D-I Kim, J Liao, M P Emont, M-J Park, H Jun, S K Ramakrishnan, J D Lin, Y M Shah, M B Omary, J Wu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Thermogenic fat is present in humans and emerging evidence indicates that increasing the content and activity of these adipocytes may lead to weight loss and improved metabolic health. Multiple reporter systems have been developed to assay thermogenic fat activity based on the transcriptional and translational activation of Ucp1, the key molecule that mediates nonshivering thermogenesis. Our study aims to develop a much-needed tool to monitor thermogenic fat activity through a mechanism independent of Ucp1 regulation, therefore effectively assaying not only canonical β-adrenergic activation but also various non-UCP1-mediated thermogenic pathways that have been increasingly appreciated...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358393/increased-thermogenesis-by-a-noncanonical-pathway-in-angptl3-8-deficient-mice
#9
Serena Banfi, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada, Jonathan C Cohen, Helen H Hobbs
Dietary triglyceride (TG) is the most efficient energy substrate. It is processed and stored at substantially lower metabolic cost than is protein or carbohydrate. In fed animals, circulating TGs are preferentially routed for storage to white adipose tissue (WAT) by angiopoietin-like proteins 3 (A3) and 8 (A8). Here, we show that mice lacking A3 and A8 (A3-/-A8-/- mice) have decreased fat mass and a striking increase in temperature (+1 °C) in the fed (but not fasted) state, without alterations in food intake or physical activity...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#10
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348847/distinct-roles-of-traf6-and-tak1-in-the-regulation-of-adipocyte-survival-thermogenesis-program-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Yann S Gallot, Joseph D McMillan, Guangyan Xiong, Kyle R Bohnert, Alex R Straughn, Bradford G Hill, Ashok Kumar
Chronic low-grade inflammation, adipocyte hypertrophy, and glucose intolerance are common features of obesity and a risk factor for cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein that also possesses a non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. In response to receptor-mediated events, TRAF6 activates transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which leads to activation of the MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. However, the roles of TRAF6 and TAK1 in the regulation of adipocyte function remain less understood...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339725/tgr5-signalling-promotes-mitochondrial-fission-and-beige-remodelling-of-white-adipose-tissue
#12
Laura A Velazquez-Villegas, Alessia Perino, Vera Lemos, Marika Zietak, Mitsunori Nomura, Thijs Willem Hendrik Pols, Kristina Schoonjans
Remodelling of energy storing white fat into energy expending beige fat could be a promising strategy to reduce adiposity. Here, we show that the bile acid-responsive membrane receptor TGR5 mediates beiging of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) under multiple environmental cues including cold exposure and prolonged high-fat diet feeding. Moreover, administration of TGR5-selective bile acid mimetics to thermoneutral housed mice leads to the appearance of beige adipocyte markers and increases mitochondrial content in the scWAT of Tgr5 +/+ mice but not in their Tgr5 -/- littermates...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#13
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322691/raspberry-supplementation-improves-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-brown-like-adipocyte-development-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#14
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenolics and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320712/serca2b-cycles-its-way-to-ucp1-independent-thermogenesis-in-beige-fat
#15
Emilio P Mottillo, Vanesa D Ramseyer, James G Granneman
A new study in Nature Medicine, by Ikeda et al. (2017), reports that calcium cycling in beige adipocytes elevates energy expenditure and glucose oxidation in the absence of uncoupling protein 1. Thermogenic calcium cycling in beige fat is mediated by SERCA2b and improves cold tolerance and metabolic status.
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320705/an-adipose-tissue-atlas-an-image-guided-identification-of-human-like-bat-and-beige-depots-in-rodents
#16
Fang Zhang, Guiyang Hao, Mengle Shao, Kien Nham, Yu An, Qiong Wang, Yi Zhu, Christine M Kusminski, Gedaa Hassan, Rana K Gupta, Qiwei Zhai, Xiankai Sun, Philipp E Scherer, Orhan K Oz
[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging has been invaluable for visualizing metabolically active adipose tissues in humans with potential anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. To explore whether mice display human-like fat depots in anatomically comparable regions, we mapped fat depots using glucose or fatty acid imaging tracers, such as 18F-FDG through PET/CT or [123/125I]-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid with SPECT/CT imaging, to analogous depots in mice. Using this type of image analysis with both probes, we define a large number of additional areas of high metabolic activity corresponding to novel fat pads...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320703/three-dimensional-adipose-tissue-imaging-reveals-regional-variation-in-beige-fat-biogenesis-and-prdm16-dependent-sympathetic-neurite-density
#17
Jingyi Chi, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Lily Nguyen, Saba Tegegne, Sarah E Ackerman, Audrey Crane, François Marchildon, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Paul Cohen
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306658/elevating-adipose-eosinophils-in-obese-mice-to-physiologically-normal-levels-does-not-rescue-metabolic-impairments
#18
W Reid Bolus, Kristin R Peterson, Merla J Hubler, Arion J Kennedy, Marnie L Gruen, Alyssa H Hasty
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and leads to increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, certain cancers, and various other diseases. Obesity and its comorbidities are associated with impaired adipose tissue (AT) function. In the last decade, eosinophils have been identified as regulators of proper AT function. Our study aimed to determine whether normalizing the number of AT eosinophils in obese mice, to those of lean healthy mice, would reduce obesity and/or improve metabolic fitness...
December 16, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237539/cdkn2a-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-browning
#19
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Xavier Gromada, Elisabet Salas, Xi Yao, Frédérik Oger, Charlène Carney, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Amélie Bonnefond, Emilie Caron, Lluis Fajas, Christian Dani, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have reported that DNA polymorphisms at the CDKN2A locus modulate fasting glucose in human and contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Yet the causal relationship between this gene and defective energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we sought to understand the contribution of Cdkn2a to metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: We first analyzed glucose and energy homeostasis from Cdkn2a-deficient mice subjected to normal or high fat diets...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233981/a-mir-327-fgf10-fgfr2-mediated-autocrine-signaling-mechanism-controls-white-fat-browning
#20
Carina Fischer, Takahiro Seki, Sharon Lim, Masaki Nakamura, Patrik Andersson, Yunlong Yang, Jennifer Honek, Yangang Wang, Yanyan Gao, Fang Chen, Nilesh J Samani, Jun Zhang, Masato Miyake, Seiichi Oyadomari, Akihiro Yasue, Xuri Li, Yun Zhang, Yizhi Liu, Yihai Cao
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating beige adipocyte formation may lead to the development of new therapies to combat obesity. Here, we report a miRNA-based autocrine regulatory pathway that controls differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocytes. We identify miR-327 as one of the most downregulated miRNAs targeting growth factors in the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) under conditions that promote white adipose tissue (WAT) browning in mice. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that miR-327 targets FGF10 to prevent beige adipocyte differentiation...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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