Read by QxMD icon Read

drug effects on kidney function

Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Alberto Zanchetti
The question of BP targets of antihypertensive treatment has been debated in recent guidelines, and reopened by publication of SPRINT. Although interpretation of SPRINT is made difficult by a preferential effect of more intense BP lowering on heart failure rather than stroke and myocardial infarction, and by a different method of BP measurement, recent meta-analyses by my group have shown SBP reduction <130 mmHg can reduce risk of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes further, but absolute benefit is smaller than that achieved across the 140 mmHg cutoff, and treatment discontinuations for adverse events become greater...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
William C Cushman
Beginning with the Veterans Administration (VA) Cooperative Hypertension Study of the 1960 s, blood pressure (BP) lowering with antihypertensive medications has been shown to reduce major cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure (HF) and CV and all-cause mortality in randomized controlled CV outcome trials. Multiple drugs were usually required in these trials to lower BP in treated participants. Medication regimens in the early trials, including the VA trial, included a thiazide-type diuretic (TTD) as initial therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zaid Abassi, Jonatan Leor, Natalie Landa, Firas Younis, Kenneth Hollander, Eric Mayoux, Lea Rath-Wolfson, Talma Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension and Diabetes commonly coexist and have been implicated in deterioration of kidneys, heart and impairment of pancreas. Empagliflozin (Empa), a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, is a new agent for treatment of diabetes via enhancing glucosuria, independent of insulin resistance. This study evaluates Empa's prophylactic beneficial effect on glomerular, cardiac and pancreatic integrity, in CRDH animals. DESIGN AND METHOD: Cohen Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive rats (CRDH) were divided into 3 groups: A- Sugar diet (SD) + Empa, B-Sugar Diet + Veh, C-Regular Chow + Veh (Control)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Theodosios D Filippatos, Sebastian Fillippas-Ntekouan, Moses S Elisaf
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2) inhibitors) represent a new class of antidiabetic drugs that act through the inhibition of glucose and sodium reabsorption at proximal tubules. It has been shown that tThese substances may exhibit renonephroprotective properties, since they expressed clinically as a prevention of the deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate and a reductionreduce in the degree of albuminuria in patients with established diabetes-associated kidney disease. In this review we present in detail the pathophysiologic mechanisms that have been recently implicated in the rennephroprotective properties of SGLT-2 inhibitors...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Marianne Uteng, Andreas Mahl, Nicolau Beckmann, Alessandro Piaia, David Ledieu, Valerie Dubost, Elaine Tritto, Armin Wolf, Pierre Moulin, Li Li, Salah-Dine Chibout, Francois Pognan
The aim of this study was to determine the relative safety of four antiviral drugs (telbivudine, tenofovir, adefovir, entecavir) against hepatitis B virus with respect to kidney function and toxicity in male Spraque-Dawley rats. The antiviral drugs were administered once daily for four weeks by oral gavage at about 10 and 25-40 times the human equivalent dose. Main assessments included markers of renal toxicity in urine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of kidney function, histopathology and electron microscopic examination...
October 13, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Joshua Augustine, Donald E Hricik
Although calcineurin inhibitor drugs have been the mostly used therapy in modern immunosuppression in kidney transplantation, their effect on kidney allograft dysfunction has been suboptimal as far as preservation of kidney function is concerned. Additionally, there are metabolic and other nonmetabolic effects including increased risk of malignancy that has necessitated the use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors to reduce exposure to calcineurin inhibitors. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, both sirolimus and everolimus, have been studied in several trials to facilitate preservation of kidney function with variable effects on kidney allograft function and immunogenicity...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Jessica Ann Dominguez Rieg, Samantha de la Mora Chavez, Timo Rieg
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) facilitates Na(+) absorption and H(+) secretion and is expressed in the intestine, proximal tubule and thick ascending limb of the kidney. While the function of NHE3 for Na(+) and HCO3(-) (re)absorption has been defined using conventional NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(-/-)), the recent generation of conditional NHE3 knockout mice started to give critical new insight into the role of this protein by allowing for temporal and spatial control of NHE3 expression. For example, in contrast to NHE3(-/-) mice, knockout of NHE3 in the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule or along the entire tubule/collecting duct does not cause any lethality...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Michelle H T Ta, Kristina G Schwensen, Sheryl Foster, Mayuresh Korgaonkar, Justyna E Ozimek-Kulik, Jacqueline K Phillips, Anthony Peduto, Gopala K Rangan
The disease-modifying effects of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) inhibitors during different stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not well defined. In this study, male Lewis Polycystic Kidney Disease (LPK) rats (a genetic ortholog of human NPHP9, phenotypically characterised by diffuse distal nephron cystic growth) and Lewis controls received either vehicle (V) or sirolimus (S, 0.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 5 days per week) during the early (postnatal weeks 3 to 10) or late stages of disease (weeks 10 to 20)...
2016: PloS One
Neil P Jerome, Jessica K R Boult, Matthew R Orton, James d'Arcy, David J Collins, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh, Simon P Robinson
BACKGROUND: To investigate the combined use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess rat renal function using a 1.5T clinical platform. METHODS: Multiple b-value DW and BOLD MR images were acquired from adult rats using a parallel clinical coil arrangement, enabling quantitation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), IVIM-derived diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction (f), and the transverse relaxation time T2*, for whole kidney, renal cortex, and medulla...
October 3, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Carlo Castellani, Baroukh M Assael
Cystic fibrosis (CF), a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene on chromosome 7, is complex and greatly variable in clinical expression. Airways, pancreas, male genital system, intestine, liver, bone, and kidney are involved. The lack of CFTR or its impaired function causes fat malabsorption and chronic pulmonary infections leading to bronchiectasis and progressive lung damage. Previously considered lethal in infancy and childhood, CF has now attained median survivals of 50 years of age, mainly thanks to the early diagnosis through neonatal screening, recognition of mild forms, and an aggressive therapeutic attitude...
October 5, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hyun Seon Kim, Sun Woo Lim, Long Jin, Jian Jin, Byung Ha Chung, Chul Woo Yang
BACKGROUND: The use of calcineurin inhibitors is a well-known risk factor for hyperuricemia in kidney transplant recipients. We evaluated the effect of febuxostat (Fx), a new uric acid-lowering drug, on hyperuricemia and renal injury in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac)-induced nephropathy. METHODS: Chronic Tac nephropathy was induced by administering Tac (1.5 mg/kg/day) to rats on a low-salt diet (0.05%) with oxonic acid (OA, 2%, 0.2 g/kg/day) for 28 days...
October 5, 2016: Nephron
Asmaa I Owis, Amira M Abo-Youssef, Ahmed H Osman
Cordia boissieri A. DC. (Boraginaceae) is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for diabetes by Hispanic women in Southwestern USA. A recent investigation showed the significant protective effect of ethyl acetate extract against metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the corresponding active principles responsible for this effect and relations between their structure and biological actions remain unclear. Thus, ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography, which yielded seven compounds identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as rutin, hesperidin, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, rosmarinic acid, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and kaempferol...
October 4, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Kavisa Ghosh, N Indra, G Jagadeesan
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid, also called isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), is a commonly used drug for treating tuberculosis. The main drawback is its toxic side effects. Centella asiatica has long been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine owing to its wide medicinal properties. This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of C. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (CA) on INH-treated albino rats. METHODS: The adverse effects induced by INH (50 mg/kg bw) administration on haematological parameters, oxidative status (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione), liver and kidney function markers, and their amelioration by various concentrations of CA (20, 40, 60, and 100 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (SIL) (50 mg/kg bw, administered before 1 h of INH treatment for 30 days to rats) were studied...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Federico Franchi, Xiang Yang Zhu, Tyra A Witt, Lilach O Lerman, Martin Rodriguez-Porcel
The renal microvascular compartment plays an important role in the progression of kidney disease and hypertension, leading to the development of End Stage Renal Disease with high risk of death for cardiovascular events. Moreover, recent clinical studies have shown that renovascular structure and function may have a great impact on functional renal recovery after surgery. Here, we describe a protocol for the delivery of drugs into the renal artery of rats. This procedure offers significant advantages over the frequently used systemic administration as it may allow a more localized therapeutic effect...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zbigniew Heleniak, Magdalena Cieplińska, Tomasz Szychliński, Dymitr Rychter, Kalina Jagodzińska, Alicja Kłos, Izabela Kuźmiuk, Marzena Jakimowicz Tylicka, Leszek Tylicki, Bolesław Rutkowski, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
AIMS: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cornerstone of pain management. There are no detailed data on NSAIDs use in Poland, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of NSAIDs use as well as knowledge of their side-effects in patients with CKD. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 972 individuals with CKD, enrolled in a written survey originally developed by the authors...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Gabriel Fernandes-Silva, Mayara Ivani de Paula, Érika B Rangel
INTRODUCTION: Patient and pancreas allograft survival improved following reductions in surgical complications, tighter donor selection and optimization in immunosuppressive protocols. However, long-term survival of pancreas allografts is adversely affected by rejection and immunosuppressive regimen toxicity. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the existing literature and knowledge of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi). Some clinically relevant drug-drug interactions are highlighted...
September 23, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Laura Rivoli, A D Bastiaan Vliegenthart, Carmelita M J de Potter, Job J M H van Bragt, Nikolaos Tzoumas, Peter Gallacher, Tariq E Farrah, Neeraj Dhaun, James W Dear
AIM: microRNA-122 (miR-122) is a hepatotoxicity biomarker with utility in the management of paracetamol overdose and in drug development. Renal dysfunction and haemodialysis have been associated with a reduction in circulating microRNA. The objective of this study was to determine their effect on miR-122. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis, 22 healthy controls, 30 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 15 patients post-kidney transplantation...
September 21, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Cui Yang, Si-Dao Zheng, Hong-Jin Wu, Shao-Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play critical roles in the fibrotic process in different organs. We summarized the latest research progress on the roles and mechanisms of miRNAs in the regulation of the molecular signaling pathways involved in fibrosis. DATA SOURCES: Papers published in English from January 2010 to August 2015 were selected from the PubMed and Web of Science databases using the search terms "microRNA", "miR", "transforming growth factor β", "tgf β", "mitogen-activated protein kinase", "mapk", "integrin", "p38", "c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase", "jnk", "extracellular signal-regulated kinase", "erk", and "fibrosis"...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Zaid Abassi, Jonatan Leor, Natalie Landa, Firas Younis, Kenneth Hollander, Eric Mayoux, Lea Rath-Wolfson, Talma Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension and Diabetes commonly coexist and have been implicated in deterioration of kidneys, heart and impairment of pancreas. Empagliflozin (Empa), a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, is a new agent for treatment of diabetes via enhancing glucosuria, independent of insulin resistance. This study evaluates Empa's prophylactic beneficial effect on glomerular, cardiac and pancreatic integrity, in CRDH animals. DESIGN AND METHOD: Cohen Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive rats (CRDH) were divided into 3 groups: A- Sugar diet (SD) + Empa, B-Sugar Diet + Veh, C-Regular Chow + Veh (Control)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"