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Stephen J Jacquemin, Mark Pyron
BACKGROUND: Aquatic habitats have been altered over the past century due to a variety of anthropogenic influences. Ecomorphology is an area of aquatic ecology that can both directly and indirectly assess the effects of habitat alterations on organisms. However, few studies have explored long term trends in morphological variation. Long term changes in morphology can potentially impact niche and ultimately contribute to organismal success and the ecosystem. Therefore, in this study we assessed long term morphological variation with body size, sex, time, and hydrology using museum collections of five species of Cyprinidae (Minnows) from lentic and lotic systems over the past 100 years to gain insight into long term patterns in morphology...
October 20, 2016: BMC Ecology
Cheryl R Laratta, Willis H Tsai, James Wick, Sachin R Pendharkar, Kerri A Johannson, Paul E Ronksley
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition associated with significant morbidity and health-care utilization. We determined the validity of an algorithm derived from administrative data for identifying OSA using the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) as the reference standard. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults in Alberta, Canada referred for facility and community-based sleep diagnostic testing between July 2005 and August 2007. Validity indices were estimated for several case definitions of OSA derived from outpatient physician billing claims and hospital discharge codes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Silvia Echeverría-Sáenz, Freylan Mena, María Arias-Andrés, Seiling Vargas, Clemens Ruepert, Paul J Van den Brink, Luisa E Castillo, Jonas S Gunnarsson
The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
F Basak
PURPOSE: Trauma care poses many challenges in small hospitals in rural settings. This report was designed to assess the role of a rural general surgeon with trauma patients. METHODS: A cohort study was designed using a retrospective analysis of a cohort at Bozkır Community Hospital that included trauma patients admitted to the emergency department between June 2007 and May 2009. The patients of group 1 were those treated during the first year of the study period, when the hospital staff was only non-specialist physicians...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Yarelis Alvarado Reyes, Alexandra Perez, Gloria Rodriguez-Vega
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk and adverse outcomes in many clinical settings including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and critically ill patients. Therefore we aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency had any effect in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective record review was conducted in a tertiary community hospital in Puerto Rico. Adult patients admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU) with a diagnosis of aSAH from January 2013 to July 2014, who had a 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level drawn, were included...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Katie J Sheehan, Boris Sobolev, Pierre Guy, Lisa Kuramoto, Suzanne N Morin, Jason M Sutherland, Lauren Beaupre, Donald Griesdale, Michael Dunbar, Eric Bohm, Edward Harvey
BACKGROUND: Where patients with hip fracture undergo treatment may influence their outcome. We compared the risk of in-hospital death after hip fracture by treatment setting in Canada. METHODS: We examined all discharge abstracts from the Canadian Institute for Health Information with diagnosis codes for hip fracture involving patients 65 years and older who were admitted to hospital with a nonpathological first hip fracture between Jan. 1, 2004, and Dec. 31, 2012, in Canada (excluding Quebec)...
October 17, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Lanxing Fu, Peter Aspinall, Gary Bennett, Jay Magidson, Andrew J Tatham
PURPOSE: To quantify the influence of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) on decision-making in patients with suspected glaucoma. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 40 eyes of 20 patients referred by community optometrists due to suspected glaucoma. All patients had disc photographs and standard automated perimetry (SAP), and results were presented to 13 ophthalmologists who estimated pre-test probability of glaucoma (0-100%) for a total of 520 observations...
October 18, 2016: Current Eye Research
Paul M Harris, Lynne M Drummond
Aims and method To examine how often referring community mental health teams (CMHTs) utilised treatment recommendations made by the national highly specialised service for patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We analysed all patient notes for admissions to the unit (August 2012-August 2014) and recorded how many treatment recommendations were implemented by CMHTs prior to admission and at 6 months post-discharge. Results Overall, 66% of our recommendations were met by CMHTs prior to admission and 74% after discharge...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Samuel A Silver, Ziv Harel, Eric McArthur, Danielle M Nash, Rey Acedillo, Abhijat Kitchlu, Amit X Garg, Glenn M Chertow, Chaim M Bell, Ron Wald
BACKGROUND: The risk of hospital readmission in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors is not well understood. We estimated the proportion of AKI patients who were rehospitalized within 30 days and identified characteristics associated with hospital readmission. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of patients who survived a hospitalization complicated by AKI from 2003-2013 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was 30-day hospital readmission. We used a propensity score model to match patients with and without AKI, and a Cox proportional hazards model with death as a competing risk to identify predictors of 30-day readmission...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Kristi Reynolds, Alan S Go, Thomas K Leong, Denise M Boudreau, Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Stephen P Fortmann, Robert J Goldberg, Jerry H Gurwitz, David J Magid, Karen L Margolis, Catherine J McNeal, Katherine M Newton, Rachel Novotny, Charles P Quesenberry, Wayne D Rosamond, David H Smith, Jeffrey J VanWormer, Suma Vupputuri, Stephen C Waring, Marc S Williams, Stephen Sidney
BACKGROUND: Monitoring trends in cardiovascular events can provide key insights into the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Leveraging data from electronic health records provides a unique opportunity to examine contemporary, community-based trends in acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations. METHODS: We examined trends in hospitalized acute myocardial infarction incidence among adults aged ≥25 years in 13 U.S. health plans in the Cardiovascular Research Network...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Brent C Pottenger, Richard O Davis, Joanne Miller, Lisa Allen, Melinda Sawyer, Peter J Pronovost
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) teams could be used to enhance patient experience by improving care transitions and discharge processes in a 318-bed community hospital. METHODS: In 2015, CUSP teams produced feasible solutions by participating in a design-thinking initiative, coupled with performance improvement tools involving data analytics and peer-learning communities. Teams completed a 90-day sprint challenge, involving weekly meetings, monthly department leader meetings, and progress trackers...
October 2016: Quality Management in Health Care
Derenda Lovelace, Diane Hancock, Sabrina S Hughes, Phyllis R Wyche, Claire Jenkins, Cindy Logan
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) in Richmond, VA, had a cumulative readmission rate and emergency department (ED) revisits for discharged Veterans of 1 in 5. In 2012, a transitional care program (TCP) was implemented to improve care coordination and outcomes among Veterans, with an emphasis on geriatric patients with chronic disease. This TCP was created with an interdisciplinary approach using intensive case management interventions, with a goal of reducing Veteran ED and hospital revisits by 30%...
November 2016: Professional Case Management
Alan D Cook, Jeanette G Ward, Kristina M Chapple, Hassan Akinbiyi, Mark Garrett, Forrest O'Dell Moore
BACKGROUND: Representing 2 % of the general population, American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) were associated with 0.5 % (63) of the estimated 12,500 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) reported to the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistic Center in 2013. To date, the trend in health care disparities among AIs/ANs in the SCI community has not been examined. We sought to compare the rate of discharge to rehabilitation facilities (DRF) following traumatic SCI among adult AIs/ANs to other racial/ethnic groups for patients 15 to 64 years old...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Michelle K Haas, Kristen Dalton, Bryan C Knepper, Sarah A Stella, Lilia Cervantes, Connie S Price, William J Burman, Philip S Mehler, Timothy C Jenkins
Background.  Syndrome-specific interventions are a recommended approach to antibiotic stewardship, but additional data are needed to understand their potential impact. We implemented an intervention to improve the management of inpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and evaluated its effects on antibiotic and resource utilization. Methods.  A stakeholder group developed and implemented a clinical practice guideline and order set for inpatient, non-intensive care unit CAP recommending a short course (5 days) of a fluoroquinolone-sparing antibiotic regimen in uncomplicated cases...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
C Norotte, C Omnès, C Crozier, C Verlyck, M Romanos
INTRODUCTION: The availability of short-stay beds for brief admission (less than 72hours) of crisis patients presenting to the emergency room is a model that has gained a growing interest because it allows time for developing alternatives to psychiatric hospitalization and favors a maintained functioning in the community. Still, the determinants influencing the disposition decision at discharge after crisis intervention remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine the factors predicting aftercare dispositions at crisis unit discharge: transfer for further hospitalization or return to the community...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Xiaojia He, Donee' McAlliser, Winfred G Aker, Huey-Min Hwang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are among the most widely manufactured nanomaterials on a global scale. However, prudent and vigilant surveillance, incumbent upon the scientific community with the advent of new technologies, has revealed potentially undesirable effects of TiO2 NPs on biological systems and the natural environment during their application and discharge. Such effects are likely best evaluated by first assessing the fate of the TiO2 NPs in natural environments. In this study, the effects of terrestrial humic acid (HA) and tannic acid (TA), two major members of the collective: dissolved organic matter (DOM), on the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs to Escherichia coli were investigated in the presence and absence of natural sunlight...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Christine Graven, Kim Brock, Keith D Hill, Sue Cotton, Lynette Joubert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is a common issue after stroke. A focus on assisting people to achieve their personal participation goals may reduce levels of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a person-centered, integrated approach on facilitating goal achievement in the first year poststroke on depressive symptoms. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial that addressed ways to enhance participation in patient-valued activities and intermittently screen for adverse sequelae postdischarge from rehabilitation...
October 13, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Thomas E Smith, Maria Abraham, Michael Bivona, Myles J Brakman, Isaac S Brown, Gita Enders, Sara Goodman, Liam McNabb, Joseph W Swinford
Objective: The study aimed to clarify the potential role and impact of behavioral health peer support providers on community hospital acute inpatient psychiatric units. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted to examine perspectives of peer support providers (peers) and individuals who initially received peer services (recipients) during an inpatient stay on a community hospital psychiatric unit. Interviews elicited perspectives on interactions between peers and recipients, the role of peers vis-à-vis the clinical treatment team, and involvement of peers in discharge planning and transitions to community-based care...
October 13, 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Eleftheria Chaini, Nikolaos D Chainis, Anastasios Ioannidis, Maria Magana, Chryssoula Nikolaou, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Melina-Vassiliki Liakata, Panagiotis Katopodis, Leonidas Papastavrou, George P Tegos, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Lactobacilli are human commensals found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although generally conceived as non-pathogenic microorganisms, the existence of several reports implicating them in certain severe pathological entities renders this species as opportunistic pathogens. The case of a 58-year-old woman with mixed Lactobacillus infection is described. The patient was admitted in an outpatient clinic with community acquired pneumonia, and on the third day of hospitalization she presented rapid pneumonia deterioration...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Trine Herland, Ellen M Apalset, Geir Egil Eide, Grethe S Tell, Sverre Lehmann
AIM: To investigate whether airflow limitation is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A community sample of 5,100 subjects 47-48 and 71-73 years old and living in Bergen was invited. Participants filled in questionnaires and performed a post-bronchodilator spirometry measuring forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). All attendants were invited to have a BMD measurement of the hip. During 10 years of follow-up, information on death was collected from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry, and incident hip fractures were registered from regional hospital records of discharge diagnoses and surgical procedure codes...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
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