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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213833/molecular-imaging-in-synthetic-biology-and-synthetic-biology-in-molecular-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Assaf A Gilad, Mikhail G Shapiro
Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213808/genotyping-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-dipodascus-capitatus-isolated-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-a-sicilian-hospital
#2
Teresa Fasciana, Mario Giuffrè, Cinzia Calà, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Giuseppe Aquilina, Giuseppa Pinello, Giuseppina Capra, Dario Lipari, Giovanni Corsello, Anna Giammanco
In August 2015, Dipodascus capitatus was isolated from two patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Nosocomial acquisition of the fungus was suspected and epidemiological studies were undertaken. The patients were simultaneously hospitalized, and the comparison of the two isolates by two independent molecular typing methods have confirmed clonal dissemination of a single strain of D. capitatus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was useful for identifying the appropriated antifungal therapy in micafungin...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213714/-current-biomarkers-for-gastric-cancer
#3
G B Baretton, D E Aust
Gastric cancer is still a relevant malignant disease with high morbidity and mortality. Current molecular genetic data show that gastric cancer, as other solid tumors as well, is not a single entity but consists of several molecular subtypes of gastric cancer with diverse biology. The increasing understanding of molecular pathways is the basis for innovative therapies. These either directly target altered signaling pathways or genes in tumor cells or as in immune checkpoint inhibitors, indirectly target tumor cells by blocking tumor-induced immune inhibition leading to improvement in the prognosis...
February 17, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#4
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212996/analysis-of-a-panel-of-druggable-gene-mutations-and-of-alk-and-pd-l1-expression-in-a-series-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors-tets
#5
Marcello Tiseo, Angela Damato, Lucia Longo, Fausto Barbieri, Federica Bertolini, Alessandro Stefani, Mario Migaldi, Letizia Gnetti, Roberta Camisa, Paola Bordi, Sebastiano Buti, Giulio Rossi
INTRODUCTION: Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare neoplasms with different prognosis lacking consistent molecular alterations possibly leading to targeted therapy. We collected a consecutive series of TETs aimed at investigating the mutational status of druggable genes (EGFR, c-KIT, KRAS, BRAF, PDGFR-alpha and -beta, HER2 and c-MET) and the expression of ALK and PD-L1. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred twelve consecutive cases of TETs and relative clinico-pathologic features were collected...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212901/the-dissociation-of-the-hsp60-pro-caspase-3-complex-by-bis-pyridyl-oxadiazole-copper-complex-cubipyoxa-leads-to-cell-death-in-nci-h292-cancer-cells
#6
Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Dragana Nikolic, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Rosario Barone, Filippa Lo Cascio, Emanuele Mocciaro, Giovanni Zummo, Everly Conway de Macario, Alberto Jl Macario, Francesco Cappello, Valentina Giacalone, Andrea Pace, Giampaolo Barone, Antonio Palumbo Piccionello, Claudia Campanella
Cell survival and proliferation are central to carcinogenesis, involving various mechanisms among which those that impede apoptosis are important. In this, the role of the molecular chaperone Hsp60 is unclear since it has been reported that it can be both, pro- or anti-apoptotic. A solution to this riddle is crucial to the development of anti-cancer therapies targeting Hsp60. We addressed this question using a tumor cell line, NCI-H292, and [Cu(3,5-bis(2'-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2, CubipyOXA, a copper-containing compound with cytotoxic properties...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212575/upregulation-of-mucin-glycoprotein-muc1-in-the-progression-to-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-therapeutic-potential-with-a-targeted-photoactive-antibody-drug-conjugate
#7
Mohammed Adil Butt, Hayley Pye, Rehan J Haidry, Dahmane Oukrif, Saif-U-Rehman Khan, Ignazio Puccio, Michael Gandy, Halla W Reinert, Ellie Bloom, Mohammed Rashid, Gokhan Yahioglu, Mahendra P Deonarain, Rifat Hamoudi, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Marco R Novelli, Laurence B Lovat
BACKGROUND: Mucin glycoprotein 1 (MUC1) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein on epithelial cells. We investigate MUC1 as a therapeutic target in Barrett's epithelium (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and provide proof of concept for a light based therapy targeting MUC1. RESULTS: MUC1 was present in 21% and 30% of significantly enriched pathways comparing BE and EA to squamous epithelium respectively. MUC1 gene expression was x2.3 and x2.2 higher in BE (p=<0...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212372/molecular-biology-of-gastroesophageal-cancers-opportunities-and-challenges
#8
Shaheer Khan, Sameh Mikhail, Joanne Xiu, Mohamed E Salem
Gastroesophageal (GE) malignancies make up a significant and growing segment of newly diagnosed cancers. Approximately 80% of patients who have GE cancers die within 5 years of diagnosis, which means that effective treatments for these malignancies need to be found. Currently, targeted therapies have a minimal role in this disease group. Intensive study of the molecular biology of GE cancers is a relatively new and ongoing venture, but it has already led to a significant increase in our understanding of these malignancies...
January 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212371/circulating-tumor-cells-in-prostate-cancer-beyond-enumeration
#9
Jie-Fu Chen, Yi-Tsung Lu, Shirley Cheng, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Robert A Figlin, Edwin M Posadas
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a population of rare cancer cells that have detached from the primary tumor and/or metastatic lesions and entered the peripheral circulation. Enumeration of CTCs has demonstrated value as a prognostic biomarker, and newer studies have pointed to information beyond enumeration that is of critical importance in prostate cancer. Technologic advances that permit examination of the morphology, function, and molecular content of CTCs have made it possible to measure these factors as part of liquid biopsy...
January 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212290/defining-clinical-response-criteria-and-early-response-criteria-for-precision-oncology-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#10
Vivek Subbiah, Hubert H Chuang, Dhiraj Gambhire, Kalevi Kairemo
In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for "go" versus "no go" decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords "response assessment" and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016...
February 15, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212271/carbon-nanotubes-as-an-effective-opportunity-for-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Alessandro Sanginario, Beatrice Miccoli, Danilo Demarchi
Despite the current progresses of modern medicine, the resistance of malignant tumors to present medical treatments points to the necessity of developing new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, numerous studies have focused their attention on the promising use of nanomaterials, like iron oxide nanowires, zinc oxide or mesoporous silica nanoparticles, for cancer and metastasis treatment with the advantage of operating directly at the bio-molecular scale. Among them, carbon nanotubes emerged as valid candidates not only for drug delivery, but also as a valuable tool in cancer imaging and physical ablation...
February 15, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212155/molecular-markers-in-lung-cancer-role-of-ebus
#12
Semra Bilaçeroğlu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As demonstrated by the recent therapeutic advances in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a personalized approach can considerably reduce its mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular tests identifying genetic mutations in NSCLC have led to a shift towards more effective and personalized therapies targeted to these alterations. Adequate tissue is required for diagnosing, subcharacterizing, and genotyping NSCLC by morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular techniques...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212107/rheb-in-neuronal-degeneration-regeneration-and-connectivity
#13
Veena Nambiar Potheraveedu, Miriam Schöpel, Raphael Stoll, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Rheb was originally detected as an immediate early response protein whose expression was induced by NMDA-dependent synaptic activity in the brain. Rheb's activity is highly regulated by its GTPase activating protein (GAP), the tuberous sclerosis complex protein, which stimulates the conversion from the active, GTP-loaded into the inactive, GDP-loaded conformation. Rheb has been established as an evolutionarily conserved molecular switch protein regulating cellular growth, cell volume, cell cycle, autophagy, and amino acid uptake...
February 17, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211920/evaluation-of-acridine-orange-derivatives-as-dna-targeted-radiopharmaceuticals-for-auger-therapy-influence-of-the-radionuclide-and-distance-to-dna
#14
Edgar Pereira, Letícia do Quental, Elisa Palma, Maria Cristina Oliveira, Filipa Mendes, Paula Raposinho, Isabel Correia, João Lavrado, Salvatore Di Maria, Ana Belchior, Pedro Vaz, Isabel Santos, António Paulo
A new family of (99m)Tc(I)- tricarbonyl complexes and (125)I-heteroaromatic compounds bearing an acridine orange (AO) DNA targeting unit was evaluated for Auger therapy. Characterization of the DNA interaction, performed with the non-radioactive Re and (127)I congeners, confirmed that all compounds act as DNA intercalators. Both classes of compounds induce double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA but the extent of DNA damage is strongly dependent on the linker between the Auger emitter ((99m)Tc or (125)I) and the AO moiety...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211885/the-novel-bmi-1-inhibitor-ptc596-downregulates-mcl-1-and-induces-p53-independent-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-progenitor-cells
#15
Y Nishida, A Maeda, M J Kim, L Cao, Y Kubota, J Ishizawa, A AlRawi, Y Kato, A Iwama, M Fujisawa, K Matsue, M Weetall, M Dumble, M Andreeff, T W Davis, A Branstrom, S Kimura, K Kojima
Disease recurrence is the major problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Relapse is driven by leukemia stem cells, a chemoresistant subpopulation capable of re-establishing disease. Patients with p53 mutant AML are at an extremely high risk of relapse. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) is required for the self-renewal and maintenance of AML stem cells. Here we studied the effects of a novel small molecule inhibitor of BMI-1, PTC596, in AML cells. Treatment with PTC596 reduced MCL-1 expression and triggered several molecular events consistent with induction of mitochondrial apoptosis: loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, BAX conformational change, caspase-3 cleavage and phosphatidylserine externalization...
February 17, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211800/upregulated-mir-483-5p-expression-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Liying Xue, Jinglong Nan, Li Dong, Cuiying Zhang, Hui Li, Rentura Na, Huijie He, Yadi Wang
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cause of cancer-associated mortality. Uncovering novel molecular biomarkers that can predict ESCC development will improve personalized therapy. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern of miR-483-5p and determine its prognostic value in ESCC. METHODS: We first analyzed miRNA-seq data obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-483-5p in ESCC...
February 3, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211606/nrf2-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-fragile-x-syndrome-is-modulated-by-nnz2566
#17
Robert M J Deacon, Michael J Hurley, Camila Martínez Rebolledo, Mike Snape, Francisco J Altimiras, Leandro Farías, Michael Pino, Rodolfo Biekofsky, Larry Glass, Patricia Cogram
Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of genetic conditions resulting from the partial or complete loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Among these disorders is fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. Progress in basic neuroscience has led to identification of molecular targets for treatment in FXS; however, there is a gap in translation to targeted therapies in humans. The present study introduces a novel therapeutic target for FXS: nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor known to induce expression of over 100 cytoprotective genes...
February 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210973/renal-drug-transporters-and-drug-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Anton Ivanyuk, Françoise Livio, Jérôme Biollaz, Thierry Buclin
Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210903/role-of-exchange-protein-directly-activated-by-camp-epac1-in-breast-cancer-cell-migration-and-apoptosis
#19
Naveen Kumar, Sonal Gupta, Surbhi Dabral, Shailja Singh, Seema Sehrawat
Despite the current progress in cancer research and therapy, breast cancer remains the leading cause of mortality among half a million women worldwide. Migration and invasion of cancer cells are associated with prevalent tumor metastasis as well as high mortality. Extensive studies have powerfully established the role of prototypic second messenger cAMP and its two ubiquitously expressed intracellular cAMP receptors namely the classic protein kinaseA/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the more recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP/cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (EPAC/cAMP-GEF) in cell migration, cell cycle regulation, and cell death...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210865/the-impact-of-melanoma-genetics-on-treatment-response-and-resistance-in-clinical-and-experimental-studies
#20
M Kunz, M Hölzel
Recent attempts to characterize the melanoma mutational landscape using high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified new genes and pathways involved in the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma. Apart from mutated BRAF, NRAS, and KIT, a series of new recurrently mutated candidate genes with impact on signaling pathways have been identified such as NF1, PTEN, IDH1, RAC1, ARID2, and TP53. Under targeted treatment using BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors either alone or in combination, a majority of patients experience recurrences, which are due to different genetic mechanisms such as gene amplifications of BRAF or NRAS, MEK1/2 and PI3K mutations...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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