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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110366/atomoxetine-treatment-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-outcomes-on-parent-rated-core-symptomatology
#1
REVIEW
Jessica L Gayleard, Matthew P Mychailyszyn
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) impacts a significant number of children and adolescents and often leads to deleterious functional impairment. Psychostimulant medication has historically been the first line of pharmacological intervention, though recent years have seen greater attention paid to non-stimulant alternatives. The objective of the present study was to conduct the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date evaluating the efficacy of atomoxetine in reducing core symptomatology of ADHD according to parent report...
January 21, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110354/molecular-modelling-approaches-for-the-analysis-of-histamine-receptors-and-their-interaction-with-ligands
#2
Andrea Strasser, Hans-Joachim Wittmann
Several experimental techniques to analyse histamine receptors are available, e.g. pharmacological characterisation of known or new compounds by different types of assays or mutagenesis studies. To obtain insights into the histamine receptors on a molecular and structural level, crystal structures have to be determined and molecular modelling studies have to be performed. It is widely accepted to generate homology models of the receptor of interest based on an appropriate crystal structure as a template and to refine the resulting models by molecular dynamic simulations...
January 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110352/effects-of-methylphenidate-on-attention-in-wistar-rats-treated-with-the-neurotoxin-n-2-chloroethyl-n-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine-dsp4
#3
Joachim Hauser, Andreas Reissmann, Thomas-A Sontag, Oliver Tucha, Klaus W Lange
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on attention in rats as measured using the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time task (5CSRTT) and to investigate whether methylphenidate has effects on DSP4-treated rats. Methylphenidate is a noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and commonly used in the pharmacological treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Wistar rats were trained in the 5CSRTT and treated with one of three doses of DSP4 or saline...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110103/the-retromer-complex-system-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-ad-influence-of-age
#4
Jin Chu, Domenico Praticò
Deficiencies of the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex have been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic manipulation of retromer modulates brain amyloidosis in Tg2576 mice. However, whether the complex is altered during the development of the AD-like phenotype remains unknown. In this study we assayed the expression levels of the vacuolar sorting protein 35 (VPS35), VPS26, VPS29, and its cargo proteins, cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, sortilin-related receptor in brains of Tg2576 and controls at the ages of 3, 8, and 14 months...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109915/ethnobotanical-survey-of-medicinal-plants-used-in-the-traditional-treatment-of-diabetes-in-chtouka-ait-baha-and-tiznit-western-anti-atlas-morocco
#5
M Barkaoui, A Katiri, H Boubaker, F Msanda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Morocco, diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with more than 1.5 million cases in 2014. Medicinal plants are widely used by the Moroccan population to treat the illness. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit provinces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was carried out by means of semi-structured questionnaires...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109780/neuroimaging-studies-towards-understanding-the-central-effects-of-pharmacological-cannabis-products-on-patients-with-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109678/paclitaxel-induced-increase-in-mitochondrial-volume-mediates-dysregulation-of-intracellular-ca-2-in-putative-nociceptive-glabrous-skin-neurons-from-the-rat
#7
Eser Yilmaz, Simon C Watkins, Michael S Gold
We have recently demonstrated that in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), there is a significant decrease in the duration of the depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) transient in small diameter, IB4+, and capsaicin-responsive neurons innervating the glabrous skin of the hindpaw. This change was specific to the transient duration and significantly smaller if not undetectable in neurons innervating the dorsal skin of the hindpaw or the skin of the inner thigh. Given the importance of mitochondria in intracellular Ca(2+) regulation and the findings of chemotherapy-associated increase in mitotoxicity along the sensory neuron axons, we hypothesized that CIPN is due to both increases and decreases in mitochondria function, with changes manifest in distinct subpopulations of afferents...
January 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109576/beta-blockers-reduced-the-risk-of-cardiac-rupture-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-control-trials
#8
Wei Gong, Siting Feng, Xiao Wang, Jingyao Fan, Aobo Li, Shao-Ping Nie
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rupture (CR) is a catastrophic complication that occurs after acute myocardial infarction (MI) and, at present, there are no effective pharmacological strategies for preventing this condition. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of beta-blockers on CR in patients with acute MI. METHODS: An extensive search of the PUBMED, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE and Cochrane was performed to retrieve the studies of beta-blockers treatment in patients with acute MI...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109328/the-nucleation-of-protein-aggregates-from-crystals-to-amyloid-fibrils
#9
Alexander K Buell
The condensation and aggregation of individual protein molecules into dense insoluble phases is of relevance in such diverse fields as materials science, medicine, structural biology and pharmacology. A common feature of these condensation phenomena is that they usually are nucleated processes, i.e. the first piece of the condensed phase is energetically costly to create and hence forms slowly compared to its subsequent growth. Here we give a compact overview of the differences and similarities of various protein nucleation phenomena, their theoretical description in the framework of colloid and polymer science and their experimental study...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109197/everolimus-is-better-than-rapamycin-in-attenuating-neuroinflammation-in-kainic-acid-induced-seizures
#10
Ming-Tao Yang, Yi-Chin Lin, Whae-Hong Ho, Chao-Lin Liu, Wang-Tso Lee
BACKGROUND: Microglia is responsible for neuroinflammation, which may aggravate brain injury in diseases like epilepsy. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is related to microglial activation with subsequent neuroinflammation. In the present study, rapamycin and everolimus, both as mTOR inhibitors, were investigated in models of kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. METHODS: In vitro, we treated BV2 cells with KA and LPS...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109077/simultaneous-but-not-consecutive-combination-with-folinate-salts-potentiates-5-fluorouracil-antitumor-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Antonello Di, Paola Orlandi, Teresa Di, Romano Danesi, Guido Bocci
The combination of folinate salts to 5-fluoruracil (5-FU)-based schedules is an established clinical routine in the landscape of the colorectal cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological differences between the sequential administration of folinate salts (1 h before, as in clinical routine) followed by 5-FU and the simultaneous administration of both drugs. Proliferation and apoptotic assays were performed on human colon cancer cells exposed to 5-FU, calcium (CaLV) or disodium (NaLV) levofolinate or their simultaneous and sequential combination for 24 and 72h...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109049/production-of-the-antibiotic-secondary-metabolite-solanapyrone-a-by-the-fungal-plant-pathogen-ascochyta-rabiei-during-fruiting-body-formation-in-saprobic-growth
#12
Wonyong Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Frank M Dugan, Tobin L Peever, David R Gang, George Vandemark, Weidong Chen
Fungi are noted producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites, many of which are of pharmacological importance. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of these molecules during the fungal life cycle in nature remain elusive. Solanapyrones are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by diverse fungal species including the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei. This molecule was originally thought to function as a phytotoxin facilitating pathogenesis of A. rabiei. Chemical profiling and gene expression studies showed that solanapyrone A was specifically produced during saprobic, but not parasitic growth of A...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108781/potentially-inappropriate-medications-predictor-for-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-community-dwelling-older-adults
#13
Mariana Martins Gonzaga do Nascimento, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Josélia Oliveira Araújo Firmo, Sérgio William Viana Peixoto, Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use is a predictor for mortality in a community-based population of older adults. METHODS: A cohort study was performed between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, based on data from a representative sample of the population aged 60 years or older living in Bambuí, Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the association between the variable of interest (use of PIM or pharmacological groups of PIM) and mortality were based on the extended Cox model for proportional hazards...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108747/national-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-literature-review-and-evidence-analysis
#14
Marjolein Verbiest, Evelyn Brakema, Rianne van der Kleij, Kate Sheals, Georgia Allistone, Siân Williams, Andy McEwen, Niels Chavannes
: National guidelines for smoking cessation in primary care can be effective in improving clinical practice. This study assessed which parties are involved in the development of such guidelines worldwide, which national guidelines address primary care, what recommendations are made for primary care settings, and how these recommendations correlate with each other and with current evidence. We identified national guidelines using an online resource. Only the most recent version of a guideline was included...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108508/two-pore-channel-function-is-crucial-for-migration-of-invasive-cancer-cells
#15
Ong Nam Phuong Nguyen, Christian Grimm, Lina S Schneider, Yu-Kai Chao, Carina Atzberger, Karin Bartel, Anna Watermann, Melanie Ulrich, Doris Mayr, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel, Angelika M Vollmar
Metastatic invasion is the major cause of cancer-related deaths. In this study, we introduce two-pore channels (TPC), a recently described class of NAADP- and PI(3,5)P2-sensitive Ca2+-permeable cation channels in the endolysosomal system of cells, as candidate targets for the treatment of invasive cancers. Inhibition of the channel abrogated migration of metastatic cancer cells in vitro. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of the two-pore channel TPC2 reduced lung metastasis of mammary mouse cancer cells...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108482/inhibition-of-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-decreases-muscle-fibrosis-following-chronic-rotator-cuff-tear
#16
J P Gumucio, M D Flood, A Bedi, H F Kramer, A J Russell, C L Mendias
OBJECTIVES: Rotator cuff tears are among the most frequent upper extremity injuries. Current treatment strategies do not address the poor quality of the muscle and tendon following chronic rotator cuff tears. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that activates many genes that are important in skeletal muscle regeneration. HIF-1α is inhibited under normal physiological conditions by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). In this study, we used a pharmacological PHD inhibitor, GSK1120360A, to enhance the activity of HIF-1α following the repair of a chronic cuff tear, and measured muscle fibre contractility, fibrosis, gene expression, and enthesis mechanics...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108383/traditional-uses-of-medicinal-plants-reported-by-the-indigenous-communities-and-local-herbal-practitioners-of-bajaur-agency-federally-administrated-tribal-areas-pakistan
#17
Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Amir Hasan Khan, Muhammad Adnan, Izatullah Izatullah
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the study area, knowledge related to the traditional uses of medicinal plants is totally in the custody of elder community members and local herbalists. The younger generation is unaware of the traditional knowledge, however with only few exceptions. Therefore, this study was planned with objective to document the medicinal importance of plants, conserve this precious indigenous knowledge, and share it among other communities through published literature...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108311/rip1-and-rip3-contribute-to-shikonin-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-glioma-cells-via-increase-of-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species
#18
Zijian Zhou, Bin Lu, Chen Wang, Zongqi Wang, Tianfei Luo, Meihua Piao, Fankai Meng, Guangfan Chi, Yinan Luo, Pengfei Ge
Shikonin has been reported to induce glioma cell death via necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis primarily mediated by RIP1 and RIP3. Although RIP1 and RIP3 are found to regulate some features of necrosis such as energy depletion and cellular membrane disruption, it remains unclear whether RIP1 and RIP3 could modulate DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which is a crucial event leading to chromatinolysis. In this study, we used glioma cell lines and mice model of xenograft glioma to investigate the roles of RIP1 and RIP3 in shikonin-induced DNA DSBs...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108179/symptomatic-treatment-of-cough-among-adult-patients-with-lung-cancer-chest-guidelines-and-expert-panel-report
#19
Alex Molassiotis, Jaclyn A Smith, Peter Mazzone, Fiona Blackhall, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough among patients with lung cancer is a common but often undertreated symptom. We have used a recent Cochrane systematic review, among other sources of evidence, to update the recommendations and suggestions of the CHEST 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework were used. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the Cochrane systematic review on the topic, uncontrolled studies, case studies, and the clinical context...
January 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107791/design-and-synthesis-of-28-hydroxy-protopanaxadiol-as-a-novel-probe-template
#20
Ze-Yun Liu, Heng-Yuan Zhang, Yi Bi, Xian-Xuan Liu, Jing Lu, Xiao-Chen Zhang, Jin-Yi Xu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
To explore the antitumour mechanism of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) while maintaining its uncovered pharmacological active site 3-hydroxyl, 28-hydroxy protopanaxadiol (17), a small molecular probe template of PPD was first designed and synthesised based on the Baldwin's reaction. Thus, 28-hydroxyl of 17 was built successfully as a derivatized site of molecular probe's functional and report groups. The important intermediates and final product were confirmed by ESI-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra with good yield...
January 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
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