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Pharmaceutical chemistry

Tommi O Kääriäinen, Marianna Kemell, Marko Vehkamäki, Marja-Leena Kääriäinen, Alexandra Correia, Hélder A Santos, Luis M Bimbo, Jouni Hirvonen, Pekka Hoppu, Steven M George, David C Cameron, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are predominantly organic solid powders. Due to their bulk properties many APIs require processing to improve pharmaceutical formulation and manufacturing in the preparation for various drug dosage forms. Improved powder flow and protection of the APIs are often anticipated characteristics in pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this work, we have modified acetaminophen particles with atomic layer deposition (ALD) by conformal nanometer scale coatings in a one-step coating process...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zulfiqar Ali Khan, Ahsan Iqbal, Sohail Anjum Shahzad
Compounds belonging to the stilbene family have gained remarkable significance in pharmaceutical as well as material chemistry. The current review covers the various synthetic approaches for the syntheses of stilbene scaffold and related structures over last 30 years. In addition, this review also highlights the role of stilbene intermediates used in the synthesis of important molecules with diverse applications in the field of pharmaceutics and material science.
April 21, 2017: Molecular Diversity
Rasmus Linde Bang Elnegaard, Niels Erik Møllegaard, Qiang Zhang, Frank Kjeldsen, Thomas J D Jørgensen
The uranyl ion (UO22+) binds phosphopeptides with high affinity and when irradiated with UV-light, it cleaves the peptide backbone. In this study, high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays were used to characterize the photocleavage products resulting from the uranyl photocleavage reaction of a tetraphosphorylated β-casein model peptide. We show that the primary photocleavage products of the uranyl catalysed reaction are C-terminally amidated. This observation could be of great interest to pharmaceutical industry, as efficient peptide amidating reactions are one of the top challenges of green pharmaceutical chemistry...
April 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Mariana Ruesgas-Ramon, Maria Cruz Figueroa-Espinoza, Erwann Durand
The green chemistry era has pushed the scientific community to investigate and implement new solvents in the phenolic compounds (PC) extraction, as alternative to the organic solvents which are toxic and may be dangerous. Recently, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) have been applied as extraction solvents of PC. They have the advantages to be biodegradable, easy to handle with very low toxicity. Nevertheless, the extraction process is affected by several factors: affinity between DES and the target compounds, the water content, the molar ratio between DES' starting molecules, the liquid:solid ratio between the DES and sample, and the conditions and extraction method...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sujit Ghosh, Kinkar Biswas, Suchandra Bhattacharya, Pranab Ghosh, Basudeb Basu
The synthesis of propargylamines via A(3) coupling mostly under metal-catalyzed procedures is well known. This work invented an unprecedented effect of salicylaldehyde, one of the A(3) coupling partners, which could lead to the formation of propargylamine, an important pharmaceutical building block, in the absence of any metal catalyst and under mild conditions. The role of the hydroxy group in ortho position of salicylaldehyde has been explored, which presumably activates the Csp-H bond of the terminal alkyne leading to the formation of propargylamines in good to excellent yields, thus negating the function of the metal catalyst...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Kim Truc Nguyen, Zhouran Wu, Tiantian Huang, Chor Yong Tay
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates numerous biological processes that are important in the maintenance of homeostatic balance in the human body. Due to its innate biological significance, much effort has been vested to exploit NO as a pharmaceutical agent in recent years. The key to fully harness NO's therapeutic potential will require the innovative integration of the NO releasing molecules (NORMs) with cytocompatible nano-scale carriers so that controlled spatiotemporal delivery of NO to targeted diseases sites can be attained...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
David E Nichols
This chapter will summarize structure-activity relationships (SAR) that are known for the classic serotonergic hallucinogens (aka psychedelics), focusing on the three chemical types: tryptamines, ergolines, and phenethylamines. In the brain, the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor plays a key role in regulation of cortical function and cognition, and also appears to be the principal target for hallucinogenic/psychedelic drugs such as LSD. It is one of the most extensively studied of the 14 known types of serotonin receptors...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Eric W Ottesen
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the leading genetic diseases of children and infants. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7. While various regulatory elements that modulate SMN2 exon 7 splicing have been proposed, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most promising target thus far for antisense oligonucleotide-mediated splicing correction in SMA...
January 2017: Translational Neuroscience
Hua Wang, Zhuo Xin, Yuehui Li
Ureas are an important class of bioactive organic compounds in organic chemistry and exist widely in natural products, agricultural pesticides, uron herbicides, pharmaceuticals. Even though urea itself has been synthesized from CO2 and ammonia for a long time, the selective and efficient synthesis of substituted ureas is still challenging due to the difficulty of dehydration processes. Efficient and economic fixation of CO2 is of great importance in solving the problems of resource shortages, environmental issues, global warming, etc...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Anatoli Bogdan, Mario J Molina
In super-cooled aqueous solutions, ice nucleation is the initial stage of the freezing process. In this paper, we present experimental results that indicate that during the freezing of aqueous solutions, freeze-induced phase separation (FIPS) into pure ice and a freeze-concentrated solution (FCS) takes place. Our observations involve the use of an optical cryo-microscope (OC-M) to record images and movies. The results visually indicate for the first time that there are two freezing processes for (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2O solutions: (i) contact freezing, as is the case for pure water drops, and (ii) the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process, which is the growth of frozen drops (ice) at the expense of liquid ones...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jitendra K Bera, Kuldeep Singh, Abir Sarbajna, Indranil Dutta, Pragati Pandey
A Ni(II) complex 1 containing pyridyl- and hydroxy-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) is synthesized and its catalytic utility for selective nitrile hydration to amide under base-free condition is evaluated. The title compound exploits hemilabile pyridyl unit to interact with a catalytically relevant water molecule via hydrogen-bonding and promote nucleophilic water attack to the nitrile. A wide variety of nitriles are hydrated to the corresponding amides including pharmaceutical drugs Rufinamide, Rifater and Piracetam...
April 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anne-Frédérique Pécharman, Annie L Colebatch, Michael S Hill, Claire L McMullin, Mary F Mahon, Catherine Weetman
Organoboranes are some of the most synthetically valuable and widely used intermediates in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry. Their synthesis, however, is limited by the behaviour of common boron starting materials as archetypal Lewis acids such that common routes to organoboranes rely on the reactivity of boron as an electrophile. While the realization of convenient sources of nucleophilic boryl anions would open up a wealth of opportunity for the development of new routes to organoboranes, the synthesis of current candidates is generally limited by a need for highly reducing reaction conditions...
April 7, 2017: Nature Communications
Toru Kawanishi
 The practice of regulatory science (RS) for drug development is described. In the course material for education in pharmaceutical sciences drafted by the RS Division of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, RS for pharmaceuticals is defined as the science of predicting, assessing, and judging the quality, efficacy, and safety of pharmaceutical products throughout their lifespan. RS is also described as an integrated science based on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and clinical trial methodology, and social sciences such as decision science, risk assessment, and communication science...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Yu Qu, Lishun Huang, Li Wang, Zhongyue Zhang
Circular dichroism (CD) is useful in molecular chemistry, pharmaceuticals, and bio-sensing. In this paper, twisted Z-shaped nanostructure (TZN) is proposed to achieve giant CD. The TZN is composed of three vertical and twisted nanorods. Given that the resonance of vertical nanorod is only observable for left circularly polarized light excitation but is subdued for right circularly polarized light excitation, which leads to the giant CD effect approaching 88%. The subdued resonance of vertical nanorod can be excited by rotating the bottom nanorod...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
Nevenka Kragelj Lapanja, Renata Toplak Časar, Sabina Jurca, Bojan Doljak
Mutagenic impurities (MIs) are of serious concern for pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies and public health. The first guideline addressing the control of genotoxic impurities (GTIs) dates back to 2006. Since then there have been several updates and refinements, which eventually resulted in the guideline, published by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) in June 2014. The ICH M7 guideline, compared to previous ones, offers greater flexibility in terms of control strategies for GTIs in drug substances...
2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Horst Kisch
Photocatalysis at semiconductor surfaces is a growing field of general photocatalysis because of its importance for the chemical utilization of solar energy. By analogy with photoelectrochemistry the basic mechanism of semiconductor photocatalysis can be broken down into three steps: photogenerated formation of surface redox centers (electron-hole pairs), interfacial electron transfer from and to substrates (often coupled with proton-transfer), and conversion of primary redox intermediates into the products...
April 5, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ketan Patel, Satej S Deshmukh, Dnyaneshwar Bodkhe, Manoj Mane, Kumar Vanka, Dinesh Shinde, Pattuparambil R Rajamohanan, Shyamapada Nandi, Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan, Samir H Chikkali
Discovered by Hugo Schiff, condensation between amine and aldehyde represents one of the most ubiquitous reactions in chemistry. This classical reaction is widely used to manufacture pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. However, the rapid and reversible formation of Schiff base prohibits formation of alternative products, of which benzoxazinones are an important class. Therefore, manipulating the reactivity of two partners to invert the course of this reaction is an elusive target. Presented here is a synthetic strategy that regulates the sequence of Schiff base reaction via weak secondary interactions...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Hiroshi Kouno, Yosuke Iwai, Yoshiaki Uchida, Yuichiro Hirota, Norikazu Nishiyama
The evaluation of the transport rates of hydrophilic substances is important in agricultural and pharmaceutical chemistry and in the cosmetics and food-processing industries. Although there are some estimation methods focusing on the diffusion of the substances through the oil phase of the W/O/W core-shell double emulsions (oil microcapsules), all of them take several hours or days. This long-time measurement has a risk of rupture of the oil microcapsules, which causes significant errors. If it were possible to measure the transport rate of substances in the oil phase of the oil microcapsules in real time, the risk of rupture could be reduced...
April 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Houmei Liu, Zhan Li, Makoto Takafuji, Hirotaka Ihara, Hongdeng Qiu
A novel and versatile adsorbent based on 1-octadecylimidazolium ionic liquid modified magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@ImC18) possessing of both magnetic property and excellent adsorption ability was successfully synthesized. Twelve compounds from four kinds of substances (alkylbenzenes, PAHs, flavonoids and organic acids) were chosen as probe molecules to evaluate adsorption properties of the new adsorbent. A series of adsorption experiments were conducted and results indicated both synergism and competition effects were existed and multiple interactions took place during adsorption process...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Soohwan Ahn, Kantappa Halake, Jonghwi Lee
The development of antioxidant polymers through the chemical conjugation of natural polyphenols onto polysaccharides has important applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic fields. Due to their labile characteristics, the covalent conjugation of polyphenols while retaining antioxidant properties has been a challenging task. Herein, four structurally different polyphenols, three with and one without a catechol group, were conjugated onto pectin macromolecules via a simple and efficient preparation method involving epichlorohydrin chemistry...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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