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Mental Illness

Daniel W Bradford, Joseph Goulet, Marcia Hunt, Natasha C Cunningham, Rani Hoff
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with serious mental illness have increased mortality relative to those without these illnesses. Although cancer is a leading cause of death, few studies have evaluated potential disparities relative to mortality for individuals with serious mental illness who are diagnosed with cancer. In this study, we evaluated mortality after diagnosis of a common malignancy (lung cancer) in a prototypical serious mental illness (schizophrenia). METHODS: Using administrative data in the Veterans Affairs system, we identified 34,664 individuals who were diagnosed with lung cancer between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2005...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Patrick Corrigan, Georg Schomerus, Valery Shuman, Dana Kraus, Debbie Perlick, Autumn Harnish, Magdalena Kulesza, Kathleen Kane-Willis, Sang Qin, David Smelson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. METHODS: A review of key studies from the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field...
October 25, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
V Bergink, J T Larsen, M H J Hillegers, S K Dahl, H Stevens, P B Mortensen, L Petersen, T Munk-Olsen
Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
J Lokkerbol, J Nuijen, S Evers, H Knegtering, P Delespaul, H Kroon, R Bruggeman
BACKGROUND People with serious mental illness (SMI) often suffer high healthcare costs and enduring loss of quality of life. Increasing our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of people with SMI is important when striving for optimal health at affordable costs. AIM To describe aspects that can be important for cost-effectiveness research targeting people with SMI. METHOD These aspects are demonstrated by considering pro-active care, rehabilitation and involuntary treatment RESULTS The possible involvement of a large number of stakeholders outside of healthcare requires cost-effectiveness research to also map the costs and benefits outside of healthcare, preferably for each stakeholder specifically...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
P P T Jeurissen, B A Ravesteijn, R T J M Janssen, M A C Tanke
After a decade of robust growth in spending, Dutch mental healthcare is on a more stricter budgetary path since 2012. High prevalence of illness and limited spending, imply the need for efficient mental healthcare delivery.<br/> AIM: To advise how mental health care can be managed more efficiently. There will also have to be more differentiation between mild and serious psychiatric illnesses.<br/> METHOD: Review of academic articles and policy studies.<br/> RESULTS: With regard to the treatment of fairly common disorders, more attention needs to be given to integrated basic care and e-health...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Akihiro Nishio, Ryo Horita, Tadahiro Sado, Seiko Mizutani, Takahiro Watanabe, Ryosuke Uehara, Mayumi Yamamoto
AIMS: Many studies have reported that the prevalence of mental illness and cognitive disability is higher among homeless individuals compared to the general population, and the rates of mental illness among the homeless population have recently increased. This study compared causes of homelessness or barriers to escaping homelessness for people with/without mental illness/cognitive disability, revealed problems with the Japanese homeless policy, and proposed an effective and necessary support system...
October 24, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masashi Mizuno, Sosei Yamaguchi, Ayano Taneda, Hiroaki Hori, Ayako Aikawa, Chiyo Fujii
AIM: The study aimed to develop two Japanese versions of King's Stigma Scale, a full version (version.1) and a short version (version.2), through psychometric property testing. METHODS: The sample included 112 people with mental illness. We tested the constructs of the scales using both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested. We examined convergent validity with self-esteem or perceived stigma, and different group validity, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6)...
October 24, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Tomiko Takeuchi, Koko Muraoka, Megumi Yamada, Yuri Nishio, Isao Hozumi
PURPOSE: Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare, intractable disease with unknown etiology. IBGC3 is a familial genetic disease defined by genetic mutations in the major causative gene (SLC20A2). People with IBGC3 experience distress from the uncommon nature of their illness and uncertainty about treatment and prognoses. The present study aimed to describe the lives and illness of people with IBGC3. METHODS: Participants were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in a genetic study, who were diagnosed with IBGC3 and wanted to share their experiences...
2016: SpringerPlus
Marvin S Swartz, Sayanti Bhattacharya, Allison G Robertson, Jeffrey W Swanson
OBJECTIVE: Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Rob Whitley, JiaWei Wang
OBJECTIVES: The overarching aim of this article is to assess media portrayals of mental illness in Canada. We hypothesise that portrayals have improved over time, related to the various antistigma activities of organisations such as the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). Specific objectives are to assess 1) overall tone and content of newspaper articles, 2) change over time, and 3) variables associated with positive or negative content. METHODS: We collected newspaper articles from print and online editions of over 20 best-selling Canadian newspapers from 2005 to 2015 (N = 24,570) that mentioned key search terms such as mental illness or schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Ank E Nijhawan
The United States leads the world in incarceration, which disproportionately affects disadvantaged individuals, including those who are mentally ill, poor, homeless and racial minorities. Incarceration is disruptive to families and communities and contributes to health disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this grand rounds is to review (1) the epidemiology of incarceration in the United States, (2) the social factors which contribute to high rates of STIs in incarcerated individuals and (3) the HIV care cascade in incarcerated and recently released individuals...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Ebru Fındıklı, Mustafa Gökçe, Vedat Nacitarhan, Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Selçuk Kardaş, Merve Coşgun Şahin, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan
Objective: That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods: Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Žana Kralj, Milenka Dedić, Anđela Kovačević, Mario Malički, Jelena Dedić, Marina Pelivan, Dubravka Vuković, Carrie Fisher, Rachel L Kember, John Nurnberger, Maja Bućan, Dolores Britvić
OBJECTIVE: To test the validity and reliability of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) in patients with mental illness in Croatia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following translation, back-translation, and pilot testing, the Croatian version of DIGS (CRO-DIGS) was administered to a total of 150 inpatients and outpatients diagnosed at the Clinical Hospital in Split with bipolar and major depressive disorder (n=56), schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (n=62), and alcohol dependence or use disorders (n=32)...
October 21, 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
Emmanuel Fortier, Maryam Alavi, Julie Bruneau, Michelle Micallef, Jacinta Perram, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Adrian J Dunlop, Annie C Balcomb, Carolyn A Day, Carla Treloar, Nicky Bath, Paul S Haber, Gregory J Dore, Jason Grebely
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and associated sociodemographic factors among people living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with a history of injecting drug use and to assess the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress and HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. METHODS: The Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings was an observational cohort study evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from 9 community health centers and opioid substitution therapy (OST) clinics (New South Wales, Australia)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Ashley M Smith, Amanda Jensen-Doss
Improving mental health services for youth in usual care (UC) is one of the most critical issues in mental health services research. Identification of change groups in UC (e.g., recovery, improvement, no response, deterioration) can help researchers gain a richer understanding of UC and facilitate efforts to tailor UC to individuals who may not be responding well to treatment. This study used the reliable change index (RCI; Jacobson & Truax, 1991) to examine change groups within youth UC on two parent report outcome measures-symptom severity and functioning-using a large, naturalistic sample of youth (N = 672) treated in UC served at four clinics operating under a large county-wide public mental health authority...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Services
Michael B MacIsaac, Lyndal C Bugeja, George A Jelinek
OBJECTIVE: To review the association between exposure to interpersonal violence and suicide among women. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P), this review examined articles identified by using the key terms 'interpersonal violence', 'suicide' and 'death'. Of 5,536 articles identified, 38 met the a priori inclusion criteria. These required that studies examined interpersonal violence, included women and completed suicide was a measured outcome...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Stephanie A Korenic, Sarah J Nisonger, Benjamin W Krause, S Andrea Wijtenburg, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Fast mapping (FM), a process that promotes the expeditious incidental learning of information, is thought to support rapid vocabulary acquisition in young children through extra-medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. A recent study suggested that patients with MTL damage resulting in profound amnesia were able to learn novel word-image associations using an FM paradigm. The present study investigated whether FM would be an effective strategy to promote learning for individuals with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness associated with compromised MTL functionality...
June 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
C H de Kogel, E J M C Westgeest
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
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