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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534682/diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-common-debut-of-diabetes-among-african-americans-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Priyathama Vellanki, Guillermo E Umpierrez
OBJECTIVE: More than half of African Americans (AA) with a new diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis have clinical and metabolic features of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. This particular presentation of diabetes has been termed as ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPDM) or atypical diabetes. METHODS: We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology and acute and long-term management of AA with KPDM and compare these similarities to patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534195/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-facilitates-the-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-escs-and-mouse-embryonic-pancreatic-explants-into-pancreatic-endocrine-cells
#2
Yasushi Kondo, Taro Toyoda, Ryo Ito, Michinori Funato, Yoshiya Hosokawa, Satoshi Matsui, Tomomi Sudo, Masahiro Nakamura, Chihiro Okada, Xiaotong Zhuang, Akira Watanabe, Akira Ohta, Nobuya Inagaki, Kenji Osafune
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta-like cells generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) or human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer an appealing donor tissue source. However, differentiation protocols that mainly use growth factors are costly. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to establish efficient differentiation protocols to change hiPSCs/hESCs to insulin (INS)(+) cells using novel small-molecule inducers. METHODS: We screened small molecules that increased the induction rate of INS(+) cells from hESC-derived pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1)(+) pancreatic progenitor cells...
May 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531555/microbial-detoxification-of-carvedilol-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-antagonist-by-the-filamentous-fungus-cunninghamella-echinulata
#3
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Katarzyna Lisowska
Beta adrenergic antagonists like carvedilol are typical environmental pollutants detected in wastewater and surface water. Human metabolism of carvedilol is well investigated, while its environmental fates are still unknown. In recent years, there have been appearing reports on high toxicity of β-blockers toward aquatic organisms. In this paper the ability of the filamentous fungus C. echinulata to eliminate the β-blocker has been described for the first time. An 83% loss of carvedilol was observed after 120 h incubation of the tested fungus with the compound, where hydroxylated carvedilol metabolites were identified as the major biotransformation products...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527697/antibiotics-induce-mitonuclear-protein-imbalance-but-fail-to-inhibit-respiration-and-nutrient-activation-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#4
Jaime Santo-Domingo, Isabelle Chareyron, Charlotte Broenimann, Steve Lassueur, Andreas Wiederkehr
Chloramphenicol and several other antibiotics targeting bacterial ribosomes inhibit mitochondrial protein translation. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis leads to mitonuclear protein imbalance and reduced respiratory rates as confirmed here in HeLa and PC12 cells. Unexpectedly, respiration in INS-1E insulinoma cells and primary human islets was unaltered in the presence of chloramphenicol. Resting respiratory rates and glucose stimulated acceleration of respiration were also not lowered when a range of antibiotics including, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, gentamycin and doxycycline known to interfere with bacterial protein synthesis were tested...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#5
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526921/glp-1-signalling-compensates-for-impaired-insulin-signalling-in-regulating-beta-cell-proliferation-in-%C3%AE-irko-mice
#6
Dan Kawamori, Jun Shirakawa, Chong Wee Liew, Jiang Hu, Tomoaki Morioka, Alokesh Duttaroy, Bryan Burkey, Rohit N Kulkarni
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate potential interactions between insulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signalling pathways in the regulation of beta cell-cycle dynamics in vivo, in the context of the therapeutic potential of GLP-1 to modulate impaired beta cell function. METHODS: Beta cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO) mice, which exhibit beta cell dysfunction and an age-dependent decrease in beta cell mass, were treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526920/effects-of-semaglutide-on-beta-cell-function-and-glycaemic-control-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Christoph Kapitza, Kirsten Dahl, Jacob B Jacobsen, Mads B Axelsen, Anne Flint
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its effects on first- and second-phase insulin secretion and other measures of beta cell function and glycaemic control were assessed. METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, conducted at the Profil Institut für Stoffwechselforschung, Germany, 75 adult (aged 18-64 years) participants with type 2 diabetes (eligibility: HbA1c of 6...
May 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526409/expression-and-purification-of-functional-pdgf-receptor-beta
#8
Qingbin Shang, Liang Zhao, Xiaojing Wang, Meimei Wang, Sen-Fang Sui, Li-Zhi Mi
Platelet Derived Growth Factor receptors (PDGFRs), members of receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily, play essential roles in early hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and organ development. Dysregulation of PDGF receptor signaling under pathological conditions associates with cancers, vascular diseases, and fibrotic diseases. Therefore, they are attractive targets in drug development. Like any other membrane proteins with a single-pass transmembrane domain, the high-resolution structural information of the full-length PDGF receptors is still not resolved...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#9
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525364/ogtt-1h-serum-c-peptide-to-plasma-glucose-concentration-ratio-is-more-related-to-beta-cell-function-and-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Hongmei Zhang, Bingxian Bian, Fan Hu, Qing Su
Objective To clarify the association between C-peptide index and pancreatic beta cell function and diabetes.Materials and methods We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1021 patients aged 27 to 80 without diabetes from January 2012 to January 2016. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the glucose load. Plasma glucose concentrations, serum insulin levels, C-peptide levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and other biochemical indicators were determined...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524456/endothelial-microparticles-released-by-activated-protein-c-protect-beta-cells-through-epcr-par1-and-annexin-a1-fpr2-pathways-in-islets
#11
Guillaume Kreutter, Mohamad Kassem, Ali El Habhab, Philippe Baltzinger, Malak Abbas, Julie Boisrame-Helms, Lamia Amoura, Jean Peluso, Blandine Yver, Zobairi Fatiha, Geneviève Ubeaud-Sequier, Laurence Kessler, Florence Toti
Islet transplantation is associated with early ischaemia/reperfusion, localized coagulation and redox-sensitive endothelial dysfunction. In animal models, islet cytoprotection by activated protein C (aPC) restores islet vascularization and protects graft function, suggesting that aPC triggers various lineages. aPC also prompts the release of endothelial MP that bear EPCR, its specific receptor. Microparticles (MP) are plasma membrane procoagulant vesicles, surrogate markers of stress and cellular effectors...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523126/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-a-master-regulator-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-cell-interactions
#12
REVIEW
David Bauché, Julien C Marie
The relationship between host organisms and their microbiota has co-evolved towards an inter-dependent network of mutualistic interactions. This interplay is particularly well studied in the gastrointestinal tract, where microbiota and host immune cells can modulate each other directly, as well as indirectly, through the production and release of chemical molecules and signals. In this review, we define the functional impact of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on this complex interplay, especially through its modulation of the activity of local regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 17 helper (Th17) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and B cells...
April 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518142/mir-130a-3p-attenuates-activation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-nonalcoholic-fibrosing-steatohepatitis-by-directly-targeting-tgfbr1-and-tgfbr2
#13
Yang Wang, Jinghua Du, Xuemin Niu, Na Fu, Rongqi Wang, Yuguo Zhang, Suxian Zhao, Dianxing Sun, Yuemin Nan
Nonalcoholic fibrosing steatohepatitis is a uniform process that occurs throughout nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the biological processes, but the role and molecular mechanism of miRNAs in NAFLD are not entirely clear. In this study, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of miR-130a-3p in livers of a mouse model with fibrosis induced by a methionine-choline-deficient diet, of NAFLD patients, and in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514502/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-er%C3%AE-splice-variants-implications-for-the-aging-brain
#14
REVIEW
Chun K Kim, Audrey Torcaso, AnnaDorothea Asimes, Wilson C J Chung, Toni R Pak
Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is a multifunctional nuclear receptor that mediates the actions of estrogenic compounds. Despite its well defined role in mediating the actions of estrogens, a substantial body of evidence demonstrates that ERβ has broad range of physiological functions that are independent of those normally attributed to estrogen signaling. These functions can, in part, be achieved by the activity of several alternatively spliced isoforms that have been identified for ERβ. This short review will describe structural differences between the ERβ splice variants that are known to be translated into proteins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513838/the-emerging-role-of-npnt-in-tissue-injury-repair-and-bone-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Youqiang Sun, Vincent Kuek, Heng Qiu, Jennifer Tickner, Leilei Chen, Haibin Wang, Wei He, Jiake Xu
Nephronectin (NPNT), a highly conserved extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in regulating cell adhesion, differentiation, spreading and survival. NPNT protein belongs to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like superfamily and exhibits several common structural determinants; including EGF-like repeat domains, MAM domain (Meprin, A5 Protein, and Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase µ), RGD motif (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a coiled-coil domain. It regulates integrins-mediated signaling pathways via the interaction of its RGD motif with integrin α8β1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510423/phycocyanin-functionalized-selenium-nanoparticles-reverse-palmitic-acid-induced-pancreatic-beta-cells-apoptosis-by-enhancing-cellular-uptake-and-blocking-ros-mediated-mitochondria-dysfunction
#16
Chang Liu, Yuanting Fu, Chang-E Li, Tianfeng Chen, Xiaoling Li
Accumulation of palmitic acid (PA) in human bodies could cause damage to pancreatic beta cells and lead to chronic diseases by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, it is of great significance to search for nutrition available agents with antioxidant activity to protect pancreatic islet cells against PA-induced damage. Phycocyanin (PC) and selenium (Se) have been reported to have excellent antioxidant activity. In this study, PC-functionalized selenium nanoparticles (PC-SeNPs) were synthesized to investigate the in vitro protective effects on INS-1E rat insulinoma beta cells against PA-induced cell death...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509877/human-beta-defensin-2-selectively-inhibits-hiv-1-in-highly-permissive-ccr6%C3%A2-%C2%BAcd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells
#17
Mark K Lafferty, Lingling Sun, Aaron Christensen-Quick, Wuyuan Lu, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)⁺CD4⁺ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4⁺ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507444/antibodies-against-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-and-indices-of-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-secretion-in-nondiabetic-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Carlos O Mendivil, Freddy Jk Toloza, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Álvarez, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, Hernán N Lemus
BACKGROUND: Autoimmunity against insulin-producing beta cells from pancreatic islets is a common phenomenon in type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Some reports have also related beta-cell autoimmunity to insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which autoimmunity against components of beta cells is present and relates to IR and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults is uncertain. AIM: To explore the association between antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), a major antigen from beta cells, and indices of whole-body IR and beta-cell capacity/insulin secretion in adults who do not have diabetes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506962/pair-feeding-but-not-insulin-phloridzin-or-rosiglitazone-treatment-curtails-markers-of-beta-cell-dedifferentiation-in-db-db-mice
#19
Emi Ishida, Ja Young Kim-Muller, Domenico Accili
Beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Among several cellular biological mechanisms of cellular dysfunction, we and others have recently proposed that dedifferentiation of beta cells can explain the slowly progressive onset and partial reversibility of beta-cell failure. Accordingly, we provided evidence of such processes in humans and experimental animal models of insulin-resistant diabetes. In this study, we asked whether beta cell dedifferentiation can be prevented with diet or pharmacological treatment of diabetes...
May 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506643/epithelial-basement-membrane-injury-and-regeneration-modulates-corneal-fibrosis-after-pseudomonas-corneal-ulcers-in-rabbits
#20
Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Santhanam Abirami, Luciana L Dibbin, Thangavadivel Shanmugapriya, Carla S Medeiros, Karthikeyan Bose, Kwai Ping Tam, Steven E Wilson
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy...
May 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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