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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805868/a-microfluidic-flow-cytometer-enabling-absolute-quantification-of-single-cell-intracellular-proteins
#1
Xiufeng Li, Beiyuan Fan, Shanshan Cao, Deyong Chen, Xiaoting Zhao, Dong Men, Wentao Yue, Junbo Wang, Jian Chen
Quantification of single-cell proteomics provides key insights into cellular heterogeneity while conventional flow cytometry cannot provide absolute quantification of intracellular proteins of single cells due to the lack of calibration approaches. This paper presents a constriction channel (with a cross sectional area smaller than cells) based microfluidic flow cytometer, capable of collecting copy numbers of specific intracellular proteins. In this platform, single cells stained with fluorescence labelled antibodies were forced to squeeze through the constriction channel with the fluorescence intensities quantified and since cells fully filled the constriction channel during the squeezing process, solutions with fluorescence labelled antibodies were flushed into the constriction channel to obtain calibration curves...
August 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802060/taurine-upregulated-gene-1-functions-as-a-master-regulator-to-coordinate-glycolysis-and-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Yang-Hsiang Lin, Meng-Han Wu, Ya-Hui Huang, Chau-Ting Yeh, Mei-Ling Cheng, Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Chung-Ying Tsai, I-Hsiao Chung, Ching-Ying Chen, Kwang-Huei Lin
Cancer cells display altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference for aerobic glycolysis. The aerobic glycolytic phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often correlated with tumor progression and poorer clinical outcomes. However, the issue of whether glycolytic metabolism influences metastasis in HCC remains unclear. In the current study, we showed that knockdown of Taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) induces marked inhibition of cell migration, invasion and glycolysis via suppression of miR-455-3p...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801948/a-proteomics-method-using-immunoaffinity-fluorogenic-derivatization-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-fd-lc-ms-ms-to-identify-a-set-of-interacting-proteins
#3
Katsunori Nakata, Ryoichi Saitoh, Masaki Ishigai, Kazuhiro Imai
Biological functions in organisms are usually controlled by a set of interacting proteins, and identifying the proteins that interact is useful for understanding the mechanism of the functions. Immunoprecipitation is a method that utilizes the affinity of an antibody to isolate and identify the proteins that have interacted in a biological sample. In this study, the FD-LC-MS/MS method, which involves fluorogenic derivatization followed by separation and quantification by HPLC and finally identification of proteins by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry, was used to identify proteins in immunoprecipitated samples, using Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a model of an interacting protein in HepaRG cells...
August 12, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801274/mannich-base-approach-to-5-methoxyisatin-3-4-isopropylphenyl-hydrazone-a-water-soluble-prodrug-for-a-multitarget-inhibition-of-cholinesterases-beta-amyloid-fibrillization-and-oligomer-induced-cytotoxicity
#4
Leonardo Pisani, Annalisa De Palma, Nicola Giangregorio, Daniela V Miniero, Paolo Pesce, Orazio Nicolotti, Francesco Campagna, Cosimo D Altomare, Marco Catto
Targeting protein aggregation for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases remains elusive for medicinal chemists, despite a number of small molecules known to interfere in amyloidogenesis, particularly of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein. Starting from previous findings in the antiaggregating activity of a class of indolin-2-ones inhibiting Aβ fibrillization, 5-methoxyisatin 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)hydrazone 1 was identified as a multitarget inhibitor of Aβ aggregation and cholinesterases with IC50s in the low μM range...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800317/identification-of-prostate-cancer-hub-genes-and-therapeutic-agents-using-bioinformatics-approach
#5
Enhao Fang, Xiuqing Zhang, Qi Wang, Daoming Wang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in America. As the molecular mechanism of PCa has not yet been completely discovered, identification of hub genes and potential drug of this disease is an important area of research that could provide new insights into exploring the mechanisms underlying PCa. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers and novel drug for prostate cancer treatment...
July 30, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799137/ethanol-alters-app-processing-and-aggravates-alzheimer-associated-phenotypes
#6
Daochao Huang, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Dandan Lou, Weitao Zhou, Lingling Zheng, Zhe Wang, Fang Cai, Weihui Zhou, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
The majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic with unknown causes. Many dietary factors including excessive alcohol intake have been reported to increase the risk to develop AD. The effect of alcohol on cognitive functions and AD pathogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ethanol exposure and Alzheimer's disease. Cell cultures were treated with ethanol at different dosages for different durations up to 48 h and an AD model mouse was fed with ethanol for 4 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797712/estrogen-receptor-beta-as-epigenetic-mediator-of-mir-10b-and-mir-145-in-mammary-cancer
#7
Zoi Piperigkou, Marco Franchi, Martin Götte, Nikos K Karamanos
Even though the role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the modulation of breast cancer cells' behavior is thoroughly studied, the biological functions of its isoform, ERβ, are less elucidated. The suppression of ERβ in the aggressive ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and major changes in the basic functional properties expression levels of certain matrix components of breast cancer cells. This arrest in metastatic potential of breast cancer cells suggests the contribution of ERβ in the induction of a more aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
August 7, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797631/hspb1-mutations-causing-hereditary-neuropathy-in-humans-disrupt-non-cell-autonomous-protection-of-motor-neurons
#8
Patrick L Heilman, SungWon Song, Carlos J Miranda, Kathrin Meyer, Amit K Srivastava, Amy Knapp, Christopher G Wier, Brian K Kaspar, Stephen J Kolb
Heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional protein chaperone. Mutations in HSPB1 result in the development of a late-onset, distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II (dHMN) and axonal Charcot-Marie Tooth disease with sensory involvement (CMT2F). The functional consequences of HSPB1 mutations associated with hereditary neuropathy are unknown. HSPB1 also displays neuroprotective properties in many neuronal disease models, including the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796938/effect-of-intrapancreatic-fat-on-diabetes-outcomes-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation
#9
Muhammed Kizilgul, Joshua J Wilhelm, Gregory J Beilman, Srinath Chinnakotla, Ty B Dunn, Timothy L Pruett, Muhamad Abdulla, David Heller, Martin L Freeman, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Bernhard J Hering, Melena D Bellin
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fat might adversely affect beta-cell mass and function, possibly via the local release of non-esterified fatty acids (NE-FAs) and pro-inflammatory and vasoactive factors released by adipose tissue, however, the impact of intrapancreatic fat has never been studied in patients with pancreatitis undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). We aimed to test whether pancreatic fatty infiltration has a negative effect on metabolic outcomes following TPIAT METHODS: We studied the association between pancreatic fatty infiltration and diabetes outcomes in 79 patients undergoing TPIAT with low (LPF; n = 53) or high (HPF; n = 26) pancreatic fat content...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796060/candidate-genes-investigation-for-severe-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-based-on-bioinformatics-analysis
#10
Shan Qi, Changhong Wang, Chunfu Li, Pu Wang, Minghui Liu
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver condition worldwide. However, its etiology and fundamental pathophysiology for the disease process are poorly understood. In this study, we thus used bioinformatics to identify candidate genes potentially causative of severe NAFLD. METHODS: Gene expression profile data GSE49541 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Tissues samples from 32 severe and 40 mild NAFLD patients were evaluated to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups, followed by analyses of Gene Ontology (GO) functions and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794034/an-epstein-barr-virus-microrna-blocks-il-1-signaling-by-targeting-the-interleukin-1-receptor-1
#11
Camille M Skinner, Nikita S Ivanov, Sarah A Barr, Yan Chen, Rebecca L Skalsky
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes >44 viral microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed throughout infection, can be detected in EBV-positive tumors, and manipulate several biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. Here, we show that EBV BHRF1-2 miRNAs block NF-kB activation following treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin-1 beta. Analysis of EBV PAR-CLIP miRNA targetome datasets combined with pathway analysis revealed multiple BHRF1-2 miRNA targets involved in interleukin signaling pathways...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792951/how-stable-is-repression-of-disallowed-genes-in-pancreatic-islets-in-response-to-metabolic-stress
#12
Katleen Lemaire, Mikaela Granvik, Anica Schraenen, Lotte Goyvaerts, Leentje Van Lommel, Ana Gómez-Ruiz, Peter In 't Veld, Patrick Gilon, Frans Schuit
The specific phenotype of mature differentiated beta cells not only depends on the specific presence of genes that allow beta cell function but also on the selective absence of housekeeping genes ("disallowed genes") that would interfere with this function. Recent studies have shown that both histone modifications and DNA methylation via the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3A are involved in repression of disallowed genes in neonatal beta cells when these cells acquire their mature phenotype. It is unknown, however, if the environmental influence of advanced age, pregnancy and the metabolic stress of high fat diet or diabetes could alter the repression of disallowed genes in beta cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792539/active-microorganisms-thrive-among-extremely-diverse-communities-in-cloud-water
#13
Pierre Amato, Muriel Joly, Ludovic Besaury, Anne Oudart, Najwa Taib, Anne I Moné, Laurent Deguillaume, Anne-Marie Delort, Didier Debroas
Clouds are key components in Earth's functioning. In addition of acting as obstacles to light radiations and chemical reactors, they are possible atmospheric oases for airborne microorganisms, providing water, nutrients and paths to the ground. Microbial activity was previously detected in clouds, but the microbial community that is active in situ remains unknown. Here, microbial communities in cloud water collected at puy de Dôme Mountain's meteorological station (1465 m altitude, France) were fixed upon sampling and examined by high-throughput sequencing from DNA and RNA extracts, so as to identify active species among community members...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791027/cd56-in-the-immune-system-more-than-a-marker-for-cytotoxicity
#14
REVIEW
Heleen H Van Acker, Anna Capsomidis, Evelien L Smits, Viggo F Van Tendeloo
Over the past years, the phenotypic and functional boundaries distinguishing the main cell subsets of the immune system have become increasingly blurred. In this respect, CD56 (also known as neural cell adhesion molecule) is a very good example. CD56 is the archetypal phenotypic marker of natural killer cells but can actually be expressed by many more immune cells, including alpha beta T cells, gamma delta T cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Common to all these CD56-expressing cell types are strong immunostimulatory effector functions, including T helper 1 cytokine production and an efficient cytotoxic capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790184/adiponectin-protects-against-development-of-metabolic-disturbances-in-a-pcos-mouse-model
#15
Anna Benrick, Belén Chanclón, Peter Micallef, Yanling Wu, Laila Hadi, John M Shelton, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm
Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790139/islet-amyloid-deposits-preferentially-in-the-highly-functional-and-most-blood-perfused-islets
#16
Sara Ullsten, Sara Bohman, Marie E Oskarsson, K Peter R Nilsson, Gunilla Westermark, Per-Ola Carlsson
Islet amyloid and beta cell death in type 2 diabetes are heterogeneous events, where some islets are affected early in the disease process whereas others remain visibly unaffected. This study investigated the possibility that inter-islet functional and vascular differences may explain the propensity for amyloid accumulation in certain islets. Highly blood perfused islets were identified by microspheres in human islet amyloid polypeptide expressing mice fed a high-fat diet for three or 10 months. These highly blood perfused islets had better glucose-stimulated insulin secretion capacity than other islets, and developed more amyloid deposits after 10 months of high-fat diet...
August 8, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783171/the-pdgfr%C3%AE-laminin-b1-keratin-19-cascade-drives-tumor-progression-at-the-invasive-front-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
O Govaere, M Petz, J Wouters, Y-P Vandewynckel, E J Scott, B Topal, F Nevens, C Verslype, Q M Anstee, H Van Vlierberghe, W Mikulits, T Roskams
Human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) expressing the biliary/hepatic progenitor cell marker keratin 19 (K19) have been linked with a poor prognosis and exhibit an increase in platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and laminin beta 1 (LAMB1) expression. PDGFRα has been reported to induce de novo synthesis of LAMB1 protein in a Sjogren syndrome antigen B (La/SSB)-dependent manner in a murine metastasis model. However, the role of this cascade in human HCC remains unclear. This study focused on the functional role of the PDGFRα-La/SSB-LAMB1 pathway and its molecular link to K19 expression in human HCC...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774740/cadmium-inhibits-placental-trophoblast-cell-migration-via-mirna-regulation-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway
#18
Samira A Brooks, Rebecca C Fry
Preeclampsia (PE), a condition during pregnancy that involves high blood pressure and proteinuria, is potentially fatal to both mother and child. PE currently has no etiology or cure but has been tied to poor placental trophoblast migration. Increased levels of the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) have been associated with increased risk of developing PE, as well as miRNA-associated regulation of the transforming growth factorbeta (TGF-β) pathway. Signal reprogramming of the TGF-β pathway via epigenetic mechanisms is hypothesized to modify placental trophoblast function...
July 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774322/tau-accumulation-in-the-retina-promotes-early-neuronal-dysfunction-and-precedes-brain-pathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Marius Chiasseu, Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Nicolas Belforte, Heberto Quintero, Florence Dotigny, Laurie Destroismaisons, Christine Vande Velde, Fany Panayi, Caroline Louis, Adriana Di Polo
BACKGROUND: Tau is an axon-enriched protein that binds to and stabilizes microtubules, and hence plays a crucial role in neuronal function. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological tau accumulation correlates with cognitive decline. Substantial visual deficits are found in individuals affected by AD including a preferential loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain. At present, however, the mechanisms that underlie vision changes in these patients are poorly understood...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770500/loss-of-pericytes-in-radiation-necrosis-after-glioblastoma-treatments
#20
Soon-Tae Lee, Youngbeom Seo, Ji-Yeon Bae, Kon Chu, Jin Wook Kim, Seung Hong Choi, Tae Min Kim, Il Han Kim, Sung-Hye Park, Chul-Kee Park
Radiation necrosis (RN) in brain tumor patients is often symptomatic, persistent without immediate resolution, and confused with tumor recurrence. Cerebral vascular pericytes are essential for endothelial function, vascular integrity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we showed that the loss of pericytes is involved in the pathogenesis of RN. From a brain tumor tissue repository, we identified three patients since 2011 with pathologically confirmed RN after the standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). The RN and their preradiation GBM tissues were serially processed for Western blotting using cell-type-specific antibodies against endothelial (CD31, active RhoA), pericyte [platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β)], alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), astrocyte (GFAP), myelin sheath protein (MBP), and microglial markers (Iba1)...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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