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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352484/melatonin-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-42-induced-alteration-of-%C3%AE-app-processing-secretases-via-the-melatonin-receptor-through-the-pin1-gsk3%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#1
Vorapin Chinchalongporn, Mayuri Shukla, Piyarat Govitrapong
Melatonin is involved in the physiological regulation of the β- amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) cleaving secretases which are responsible for generation of the neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms of this regulation under pathological conditions. We establish that melatonin prevents Aβ42 -induced down-regulation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) as well as up-regulation of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and presenilin 1 (PS1) in SH-SY5Y cell cultures...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351444/activated-human-t-lymphocytes-inhibit-tgf%C3%AE-induced-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation-via-prostaglandins-d2-and-e2
#2
Shannon H Lacy, Amali P Epa, Stephen J Pollock, Collynn F Woeller, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
In pulmonary fibrosis (PF), fibroblasts and myofibroblasts proliferate and deposit excessive extracellular matrix in the interstitium, impairing normal lung function. As most forms of PF have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options, PF represents an urgent unmet need for novel, effective therapeutics. While the role of immune cells in lung fibrosis is unclear, recent studies suggest that T lymphocyte (T cell) activation may be impaired in PF patients. Further, we have previously shown that activated T cells can produce prostaglandins with anti-scarring potential...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351434/cub-domain-containing-protein-1-cdcp1-negatively-regulates-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-myofibroblast-differentiation
#3
Nina Noskovičová, Katharina Heinzelmann, Gerald Burgstaller, Jürgen Behr, Oliver Eickelberg
Fibroblasts are thought to be the prime cell type for producing and secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the connective tissue. The profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) activates and transdifferentiates fibroblasts into αSMA-expressing myofibroblasts, which exhibit increased ECM secretion, in particular collagens. Little information, however, exists about cell-surface molecules on fibroblasts that mediate this transdifferentiation process. We recently identified, using unbiased cell-surface proteome analysis, Cub domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) to be strongly downregulated by TGFβ1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349661/pkm2-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-erk-and-stat3-activation-in-rat-spinal-cord
#4
Binbin Wang, Siyuan Liu, Bingbing Fan, Xingguo Xu, Yonglin Chen, Rongxiang Lu, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2), as a member of pyruvate kinase family, plays a role of glycolytic enzyme in glucose metabolism. It also functions as protein kinase in cell proliferation, signaling, immunity, and gene transcription. In this study, the role of PKM2 in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) was investigated. METHODS: Rats were randomly grouped to establish CCI models. PKM2, extracellular regulated protein kinases (EKR), p-ERK, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3), p-STAT3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and p-PI3K/AKT proteins expression in spinal cord was examined by Western blot analysis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346427/soluble-factors-from-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-canine-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion
#5
Takahiro Teshima, Hirotaka Matsumoto, Hidekazu Koyama
The potential effects of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on the growth and invasion of canine tumours including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not yet understood. Moreover in humans, the functional contribution of AT-MSCs to malignancies remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AT-MSCs on the proliferation and invasion of canine HCC cells in vitro. The effect of AT-MSCs on mRNA levels of factors related to HCC progression were also evaluated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343695/altered-pattern-of-monocyte-differentiation-and-monocyte-derived-tgf-%C3%AE-1-in-severe-asthma
#6
Chih-Hsing Hung, Chin-Chou Wang, Jau-Ling Suen, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Chang-Hung Kuo, Wei-Ting Liao, Yi-Hsin Yang, Chao-Chien Wu, Sum-Yee Leung, Ruay-Sheng Lai, Chi-Cheng Lin, Yu-Feng Wei, Chong-Yeh Lee, Ming-Shyan Huang, Shau-Ku Huang
CD14+ monocytes contain precursors for macrophages and fibrocytes, known to be involved in regulating airway remodeling in human asthma and distinguishable by the PM-2K marker. We sought to identify circulating subsets of PM-2K+ macrophage-like cells and evaluate their relationships to lung function, severity and control status. Circulating PM-2K+ macrophage-like cells and fibrocytes could be identified and distinguished between normal individuals (N = 152) and asthmatic subjects (N = 133) using multi-parametric flow cytometry...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342295/empagliflozin-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-beta-cell-function-in-t2dm
#7
Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
Objective: To examine whether lowering the plasma glucose concentration with empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) improves beta cell function in T2DM. Research Design and Methods: 15 T2DM patients received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and beta cell function was measured with 9-step hyperglycemic clamp (each step = +40 mg/dl) before and 48 hours and 14 days after empagliflozin. Results: Empagliflozin caused 101±10 and 117±11 grams glucosuria on days 1 and 14 and produced 25±6 and 38±8 mg/dl reduction (p<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342200/inhibiting-tgf-beta-signaling-preserves-the-function-of-highly-activated-in-vitro-expanded-natural-killer-cells-in-aml-and-colon-cancer-models
#8
Folashade Otegbeye, Evelyn Ojo, Stephen Moreton, Nathan Mackowski, Dean A Lee, Marcos de Lima, David N Wald
Natural killer cells harnessed from healthy individuals can be expanded ex vivo using various platforms to produce large doses for adoptive transfer into cancer patients. During such expansion, NK cells are increasingly activated and more efficient at killing cancer cells. Adoptive transfer however introduces these activated cells into a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated in part by excessive transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) from both cancer cells and their surrounding stroma...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341292/amniotic-fluid-stem-cell-exosomes-therapeutic-perspective
#9
Francesca Beretti, Manuela Zavatti, Francesca Casciaro, Giuseppina Comitini, Fabrizia Franchi, Veronica Barbieri, Giovanni B La Sala, Tullia Maraldi
It is widely accepted that the therapeutic potential of stem cells can be largely mediated by paracrine factors, also included into exosomes. Thus, stem cell-derived exosomes represent a major therapeutic option in regenerative medicine avoiding, if compared to stem cells graft, abnormal differentiation and tumor formation. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) induce damaged tissue repair, and can also exert immunomodulatory effects on the differentiation, activation and function of different lymphocytes...
January 16, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340122/a-cross-sectional-study-of-glycemic-status-and-zinc-level-in-patients-with-beta-thalassemia-major
#10
Mohammad Ali Mashhadi, Zahra Sepehri, Zahra Heidari, Mahmoud Ali Kaykhaei, Aliyeh Sargazi, Farhad Kohan, Hanieh Heidari
Background: Endocrinopathies and diabetes mellitus are prevalent in patients with beta-thalassemia major Recently some studies demonstrate a link between low levels of serum zinc level and higher prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucose tolerance in patients suffered from beta-thalassemia major and determine the association of Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) parameters with zinc status among these patients. Materials andMethods: In this cross sectional study, clinical data of patients who were suffered from thalassemia major, aged≥10 years were collected...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339522/effect-of-beta-agonists-on-lam-progression-and-treatment
#11
Kang Le, Wendy K Steagall, Mario Stylianou, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Thomas N Darling, Martha Vaughan, Joel Moss
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337428/ap4-positively-regulates-laptm4b-to-promote-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-and-metastasis-whilst-reducing-chemotherapy-sensitivity
#12
Yue Meng, Lu Wang, Jianjun Xu, Qingyun Zhang
Polymorphisms of the Lysosomal-Associated Protein Transmembrane-4 beta (LAPTM4B) gene are related to various forms of tumour susceptibility, which led us to hypothesize that some unique transcription factors targeting this polymorphism region may affect the biological function of LAPTM4B in tumour progression. In this study, we found that the transcription factor AP4 directly binds to the polymorphism region of the LAPTM4B gene promoter and induces its transcription. In addition, we demonstrated that AP4 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and metastasis, and depresses chemotherapy sensitivity via LAPTM4B by activating the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway and caspase-dependent pathway...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337055/a-novel-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0046701-promotes-carcinogenesis-by-increasing-the-expression-of-mir-142-3p-target-itgb8-in-glioma
#13
Guobin Li, Haiying Yang, Kun Han, Dezhang Zhu, Peng Lun, Yan Zhao
In the present study, we identified a novel circular RNA (circRNA), hsa_circ_0046701, in glioma cells. We measured the expression of hsa_circ_0046701 using qRT-PCR in glioma tissues and cell lines, and explored its functions using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, colony formation, and Transwell assays. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to validate the correlation between microRNA miR-142-3p and hsa_circ_0046701 or integrin subunit beta 8 (ITGB8). The results showed that hsa_circ_0046701 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and knockdown of hsa_circ_0046701 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332336/downregulation-of-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-beta-1-gnb1-is-associated-with-worsened-prognosis-of-clearcell-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-is-related-to-vegf-signaling-pathway
#14
C Chen, H Chi, L Min, Z Junhua
PURPOSE: Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by genetic abnormalities, while the role of Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein Beta 1 (GNB1) in ccRCC has not been studied. We thus aimed to evaluate the expression and prognostic value of GNB1 in ccRCC. METHODS: A two-stage study (exploration and validation) was conducted using in silico and immunohistochemical (IHC) scoring of ccRCC samples from our institute, to evaluate the association between GNB1 expression and clinicopathological parameters of ccRCC patients...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331305/tigar-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response-of-astrocytes
#15
Jieyu Chen, Ding-Mei Zhang, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Tian Zhang, Qiao Huang, Rui Sheng, Zhong Chen, Mei Li, Zheng-Hong Qin
The inflammatory response of glial cells contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion insult. We previously demonstrated a protective role of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in ischemic neuronal injury through increasing the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The present study investigated the possible role of TIGAR in ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. Male ICR mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion and cultured primary astrocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation for 9 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330687/evaluation-of-the-mitochondria-related-redox-and-bioenergetics-effects-of-gastrodin-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#16
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Mitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in several cell types...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330559/a-post-translational-balancing-act-the-good-and-the-bad-of-sumoylation-in-pancreatic-islets
#17
EDITORIAL
Patrick E MacDonald
Post-translational modification of proteins contributes to the control of cell function and survival. The balance of these in insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells is important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Protection from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species is required for beta cell survival, but if this happens at the expense of insulin secretory function then the ability of islets to respond to changing metabolic conditions may be compromised. In this issue of Diabetologia, He et al ( https://doi...
January 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330296/tumor-progression-is-mediated-by-thymosin-%C3%A3-4-through-a-tgf%C3%A3-mrtf-signaling-axis
#18
Tsuyoshi Morita, Kenichiro Hayashi
Although enhanced thymosin beta-ß4 (TMSBX4/Tß4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here it is demonstrated that transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) facilitates Tß4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329447/congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-hypopituitarism-attributable-to-a-novel-mutation-in-foxa2
#19
Mary Ellen Vajravelu, Jinghua Chai, Bryan Krock, Samuel Baker, David Langdon, Craig Alter, Diva D De León
Context: Persistent hypoglycemia in the newborn period most commonly occurs due to hyperinsulinism. The phenotype of hypoketotic hypoglycemia can also result from pituitary hormone deficiencies, including growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) is a transcription factor shown in mouse models to influence insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, Foxa2 is involved in regulation of pituitary development, and deletions of FOXA2 have been linked to panhypopituitarism...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329189/beta-cell-death-by-cell-free-dna-and-outcome-after-clinical-islet-transplantation
#20
Boris L Gala-Lopez, Daniel Neiman, Tatsuya Kin, Doug O'Gorman, Andrew R Pepper, Andrew J Malcolm, Sheina Pianzin, Peter A Senior, Patricia Campbell, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor, Ruth Shemer, A M James Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Optimizing engraftment and early survival after clinical islet transplantation is critical to long-term function, but there are no reliable, quantifiable measures to assess beta cell death. Circulating cell free DNA (cfDNA) derived from beta cells has been identified as a novel biomarker to detect cell loss, and was recently validated in new-onset type 1 diabetes and in islet transplant patients. METHODS: Herein we report beta cell cfDNA measurements after allotransplantation in 37 subjects and the correlation with clinical outcomes...
January 11, 2018: Transplantation
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