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Beige adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543963/ageing-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-remodelling-and-loss-of-white-fat-browning-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Leidyanne Ferreira Gonçalves, Thaissa Queiroz Machado, Camila Castro-Pinheiro, Nathalia Guimaraes de Souza, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Caroline Fernandes-Santos
Fat storage changes throughout life and affects body metabolism. Ageing impact on brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) deserves attention, especially in females, because they are less prone to age-induced weight gain. While in male mice the impact of ageing on adipose tissue remodelling is well characterized, the effects in female mice remain largely unclear. Thus, we investigated BAT and WAT remodelling during ageing in female C57BL/6 mice. At 3 months, body weight was 24 ± 0.3 g (mean±SD), and it increased from 6 to 9 months of age (+20%, P < 0...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536316/-adipose-stem-cell-system
#2
Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe
Adipose tissues are the major organ that controls systemic energy metabolism and maintain homeostasis by storing lipids, dissipating them as heat, and producing various adipokines. There are two major classes of adipocytes: white and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes store and release lipids, while brown adipocytes burn substrates to produce heat. In addition to classical brown adipose tissues consisting of brown adipocytes, cold exposure and β3 stimulation induce development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530121/glucocorticoids-retain-bi-potent-fibroblast-progenitors-during-alveolar-septation-in-mice
#3
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Glucocorticoids have been widely used and exert pleiotropic effects on alveolar structure and function, but do not improve the long-term clinical outcomes for patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, or interstitial lung diseases. Treatments which foster alveolar regeneration could substantially improve the long-term outcomes for such patients. One approach to alveolar regeneration is to stimulate and guide intrinsic alveolar progenitors along developmental pathways used during secondary septation...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507012/dietary-factors-promoting-brown-and-beige-fat-development-and-thermogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Meshail Okla, Jiyoung Kim, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that has a high capacity to dissociate cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. Adult humans possess a substantial amount of BAT in the form of constitutively active brown fat or inducible beige fat. BAT activity in humans is inversely correlated with adiposity, blood glucose concentrations, and insulin sensitivity; this suggests that strategies aimed at BAT-mediated bioenergetics are an attractive therapeutic target in combating the continuing epidemic of obesity and diabetes...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505257/micrornas-in-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-cardiovascular-implications
#5
Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and signaling pathways, in dysfunctional adipose tissue. We highlight current paradigms of microRNAs involved in adipose differentiation and function in depots such as white, brown, and beige adipose tissues and potential implications of microRNA dysregulation in human disease such as obesity, inflammation, microvasculature dysfunction, and related cardiovascular diseases. We highlight accumulating studies indicating that adipocyte-derived microRNAs may not only serve as biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease, but also may directly regulate gene expression of other tissues...
May 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486585/cold-adaptation-in-pigs-depends-on-ucp3-in-beige-adipocytes
#6
Jun Lin, Chunwei Cao, Cong Tao, Rongcai Ye, Meng Dong, Qiantao Zheng, Chao Wang, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Guosong Qin, Changguo Yan, Kui Li, John R Speakman, Yanfang Wang, Wanzhu Jin, Jianguo Zhao
Pigs lack functional UCP1 making them susceptible to cold. Nevertheless, several pig breeds are known to be cold resistant. The molecular mechanism(s) enabling such adaptation are currently unknown. Here, we show that this resistance is not dependent on shivering, but rather depends on UCP3 and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. In two cold-resistant breeds (Tibetan and Min), but not a cold-sensitive breed (Bama), WAT browning was induced after cold exposure. Beige adipocytes from Tibetan pigs exhibited greater oxidative capacity than those from Bama pigs...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467890/brown-and-brite-adipocytes-same-function-but-different-origin-and-response
#7
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Barbara Gawronska-Kozak
Inducing brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues is a promising target to combat obesity and its related disorders in human beings. This goal has been especially encouraged by new important discoveries of human brown adipose tissues. The accumulating evidence confirms the presence of active brown adipocytes, not only in newborns, but also in adult humans. In rodents, there are two populations of the Ucp1-expressing adipocytes with well characterized-thermogenic functions, classical interscapular brown adipocytes and brite/beige adipocytes (brown adipocytes that are induced in white adipose tissues)...
April 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465400/the-significance-of-beige-and-brown-fat-in-humans
#8
Florian W Kiefer
Promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity or browning of white adipose tissue has shown great potential as anti-obesity strategy in numerous preclinical models. The discovery of active BAT in humans and the recent advances in the understanding of human BAT biology and function have significantly propelled this field of research. Pharmacological stimulation of energy expenditure to counteract obesity has always been an intriguing therapeutic concept; with the identification of the specific molecular pathways of brown fat function this idea has now become as realistic as ever...
May 2, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464448/gene-expression-changes-of-thermo-sensitive-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-obese-mice
#9
Wuping Sun, Chen Lib, Yonghong Zhang, Changyu Jiang, Mingzhu Zhai, Qian Zhou, Lizu Xiao, Qiwen Deng
Adipose tissues play key roles in energy homeostasis. Brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) sharethe similar characters of thermogenesis, both of them could be potential targets for obesity management. Several thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential channels (thermoTRPs) are shown to be involved in adipocyte biology. However, the expression pattern of thermoTRPs in adipose tissues from obese mice is still unknown. The mRNA expression of thermoTRPs in subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) from lean and obese mice were measured using Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCR)...
May 2, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461471/lsd1-prevents-age-programed-loss-of-beige-adipocytes
#10
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Dominica Willmann, Anastasia Georgiadi, Toufike Kanouni, Roland Schüle
Aging is accompanied by major changes in adipose tissue distribution and function. In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. However, the mechanisms controlling the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes remain unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser enzyme positively regulating differentiation and function of adipocytes. Here we show that Lsd1 levels decrease in aging inguinal white adipose tissue concomitantly with beige fat cell decline...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448947/traveling-from-the-hypothalamus-to-the-adipose-tissue-the-thermogenic-pathway
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Kamal Rahmouni, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue critical for non-shivering thermogenesis producing heat through mitochondrial uncoupling; whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) is responsible of energy storage in the form of triglycerides. Another type of fat has been described, the beige adipose tissue; this tissue emerges in existing WAT depots but with thermogenic ability, a phenomenon known as browning. Several peripheral signals relaying information about energy status act in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to regulate thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT...
April 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439667/myricetin-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-prevents-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-db-db-mice
#12
Tao Hu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Haoshu Luo, Hyuek Jong Lee, Wanzhu Jin
PURPOSE: Myricetin, a dietary flavonoid, is effective in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance by increasing glucose transport and lipogenesis in adipocyte and diminishing systemic inflammation in obesity. However, it has not been revealed yet whether myricetin is associated with brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation that tightly mediates systemic energy metabolism. Therefore, this study assessed whether myricetin activated brown adipose tissue in db/db mouse. METHODS: Myricetin (400 mg/kg) in distilled water was fed daily by oral gavage to leptin receptor-deficient db/db male mice at 4 weeks of age for 14 weeks...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427098/opa1-in-lipid-metabolism-function-of-opa1-in-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-of-adipocytes
#13
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Kjetil Taskén
OPA1 (Optic Atrophy 1) is a mitochondrial GTPase known to regulate fission of mitochondria. It was recently also shown to locate on lipid droplets in adipocytes where it functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that mediates adrenergic control of lipolysis by facilitating PKA phosphorylation of perilipin (Plin1). In brown adipocytes indirect evidence support the notion that OPA1 regulation of fission serves to increase thermogenesis, which thereby contributes to dissipation of energy. In white adipocytes, OPA1 located on lipid droplets serves as a gatekeeper to control lipolysis induced by adrenergic agonists...
April 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422089/thermogenic-adipocytes-promote-hdl-turnover-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#14
Alexander Bartelt, Clara John, Nicola Schaltenberg, Jimmy F P Berbée, Anna Worthmann, M Lisa Cherradi, Christian Schlein, Julia Piepenburg, Mariëtte R Boon, Franz Rinninger, Markus Heine, Klaus Toedter, Andreas Niemeier, Stefan K Nilsson, Markus Fischer, Sander L Wijers, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Ludger Scheja, Patrick C N Rensen, Joerg Heeren
Brown and beige adipocytes combust nutrients for thermogenesis and through their metabolic activity decrease pro-atherogenic remnant lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic mice. However, whether the activation of thermogenic adipocytes affects the metabolism and anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is unknown. Here, we report a reduction in atherosclerosis in response to pharmacological stimulation of thermogenesis linked to increased HDL levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Both cold-induced and pharmacological thermogenic activation enhances HDL remodelling, which is associated with specific lipidomic changes in mouse and human HDL...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414311/a-self-sustained-loop-of-inflammation-driven-inhibition-of-beige-adipogenesis-in-obesity
#15
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Matina Economopoulou, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Vasileia I Alexaki, Ioannis Mitroulis, Marina Nati, Janine Gebler, Tjalf Ziemssen, Susan E Goelz, Julia Phieler, Jong-Hyung Lim, Katia P Karalis, Thalia Papayannopoulou, Matthias Blüher, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
In obesity, inflammation of white adipose tissue (AT) is associated with diminished generation of beige adipocytes ('beige adipogenesis'), a thermogenic and energy-dissipating function mediated by beige adipocytes that express the uncoupling protein UCP1. Here we delineated an inflammation-driven inhibitory mechanism of beige adipogenesis in obesity that required direct adhesive interactions between macrophages and adipocytes mediated by the integrin α4 and its counter-receptor VCAM-1, respectively; expression of the latter was upregulated in obesity...
June 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380374/mitochondrial-patch-clamp-of-beige-adipocytes-reveals-ucp1-positive-and-ucp1-negative-cells-both-exhibiting-futile-creatine-cycling
#16
Ambre M Bertholet, Lawrence Kazak, Edward T Chouchani, Marta G Bogaczyńska, Ishan Paranjpe, Gabrielle L Wainwright, Alexandre Bétourné, Shingo Kajimura, Bruce M Spiegelman, Yuriy Kirichok
Cold and other environmental factors induce "browning" of white fat depots-development of beige adipocytes with morphological and functional resemblance to brown fat. Similar to brown fat, beige adipocytes are assumed to express mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are thermogenic due to the UCP1-mediated H(+) leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, this assumption has never been tested directly. Herein we patch clamped the inner mitochondrial membrane of beige and brown fat to provide a direct comparison of their thermogenic H(+) leak (IH)...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380369/now-ucp-rotein-now-you-don-t-ucp1-is-not-mandatory-for-thermogenesis
#17
Ildiko Szabo, Mario Zoratti
Adipocyte-targeted therapies could potentially combat obesity and metabolic disorders; however, our understanding of adipogenesis and the characterization of the various adipose tissues are incomplete. In this issue, Bertholet et al. (2017) report the existence of two types of heat-producing beige-like adipocytes, those with and those without the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346411/the-cold-induced-lipokine-12-13-dihome-promotes-fatty-acid-transport-into-brown-adipose-tissue
#18
Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Morten Lundh, Alexander Bartelt, Farnaz Shamsi, Tian Lian Huang, Hirokazu Takahashi, Michael F Hirshman, Christian Schlein, Alexandra Lee, Lisa A Baer, Francis J May, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Emily Y Chen, Michael A Kiebish, Aaron M Cypess, Matthias Blüher, Laurie J Goodyear, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kristin I Stanford, Yu-Hua Tseng
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT, and it has been shown to improve nutrient metabolism. These therapies, however, are time consuming and uncomfortable, demonstrating the need for pharmacological interventions. Recently, lipids have been identified that are released from tissues and act locally or systemically to promote insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; as a class, these lipids are referred to as 'lipokines'...
May 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#19
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338661/adipose-tissue-new-route-to-functional-human-beige-adipocytes
#20
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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