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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150703/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-mechanism-of-fungicidal-of-thymol-against-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-niveum
#1
Meng Zhang, Jing Ge, Xiangyang Yu
Fusarium oxysporum: f. sp. niveum (Fusarium oxysporum) causes watermelon wilt, drastically reducing its yield. Thymol (5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol, PubChem CID: 6989) has been extensively reported to have antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the growth of F. oxysporum was significantly inhibited by thymol in vitro. The dry weight of F. oxysporum was decreased significantly. Thymol-induced cell membrane damage was observed at 24 hpi (hours post-incubation). Therefore, the changes in the gene expression level of F...
November 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148584/metabolic-effects-of-p-p-dde-on-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#2
Pål A Olsvik, Liv Søfteland
Decades after being banned in many countries, DDT and its metabolites are still considered major environmental hazards. The p,p'-DDE isomer, the DDT metabolite found in highest concentration in aquaculture feeds, is an endocrine disruptor with demonstrated ability to induce epigenetic effects. This study aimed at examining the impact of p,p'-DDE on Atlantic salmon. Primary hepatocytes were exposed to four concentrations of p,p'-DDE (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μm) for 48 hours, and endpoints included cytotoxicity, global DNA methylation, targeted transcription and metabolomics profiling (100 μm)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147025/sphingolipid-metabolism-in-cancer-signalling-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Besim Ogretmen
Sphingolipids, including the two central bioactive lipids ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have opposing roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival, respectively, and there have been exciting developments in understanding how sphingolipid metabolism and signalling regulate these processes in response to anticancer therapy. Recent studies have provided mechanistic details of the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumour growth and response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacological tools to target sphingolipid signalling nodes in cancer cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143791/dietary-and-endogenous-sphingolipid-metabolism-in-chronic-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso
Chronic inflammation is a common underlying factor in many major metabolic diseases afflicting Western societies. Sphingolipid metabolism is pivotal in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. The regulation of sphingolipid metabolism is in turn influenced by inflammatory pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of sphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells, including a description of sphingolipid structure, biosynthesis, turnover, and role in inflammatory signaling. Sphingolipid metabolites play distinct and complex roles in inflammatory signaling and will be discussed...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143233/etoposide-upregulates-survival-favoring-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-etoposide-resistant-retinoblastoma-cells
#5
Vinodh Kakkassery, S Skosyrski, A Lüth, B Kleuser, M van der Giet, R Tate, J Reinhard, A Faissner, S C Joachim, N Kociok
Improved knowledge of retinoblastoma chemotherapy resistance is needed to raise treatment efficiency. The objective of this study was to test whether etoposide alters glucosyl-ceramide, ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (sphingosine-1-P) levels in parental retinoblastoma cells (WERI Rb1) or their etoposide-resistant subclones (WERI EtoR). WERI Rb1 and WERI EtoR were incubated with 400 ng/ml etoposide for 24 h. Levels of glucosyl-ceramides, ceramides, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-P were detected by Q-TOF mass spectrometry...
November 15, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142974/profiling-of-plasma-metabolites-suggests-altered-mitochondrial-fuel-usage-and-remodeling-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-in-individuals-with-type%C3%A2-2-diabetes-and-kidney-disease
#6
Jian-Jun Liu, Sujoy Ghosh, Jean-Paul Kovalik, Jianhong Ching, Hyung Won Choi, Subramaniam Tavintharan, Choon Nam Ong, Chee Fang Sum, Scott A Summers, E Shyong Tai, Su Chi Lim
Introduction: Pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is incompletely understood. We aim to elucidate metabolic abnormalities associated with DKD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by targeted plasma metabolomics. Methods: A total of 126 T2DM participants with early DKD (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR] 30-299 mg/g and eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 154 overt DKD (ACR ≥ 300 mg/g or eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and 129 non-DKD T2DM controls (ACR < 30 mg/g and eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141970/natural-forms-of-vitamin-e-as-effective-agents-for-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Qing Jiang
Initial research on vitamin E and cancer has focused on α-tocopherol (αT), but recent clinical studies on cancer-preventive effects of αT supplementation have shown disappointing results, which has led to doubts about the role of vitamin E, including different vitamin E forms, in cancer prevention. However, accumulating mechanistic and preclinical animal studies show that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol (δT), γ-tocotrienol (γTE), and δ-tocotrienol (δTE), have far superior cancer-preventive activities than does αT...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138469/adoptive-transfer-of-ceramide-synthase-6-deficient-splenocytes-reduces-the-development-of-colitis
#8
Matthew J Scheffel, Kristi Helke, Ping Lu, Jacob S Bowers, Besim Ogretmen, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Chrystal M Paulos, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Sphingolipids regulate critical cellular processes including inflammation. Ceramide, which serves a central role in sphingolipid metabolism, is generated by six ceramide synthases (CerS) that differ in substrate specificity. CerS6 preferentially generates C16-ceramide and its mRNA is highly expressed in immune tissues. In this study we analyzed how deficiency of CerS6 impacts on the development of colitis using an adoptive transfer model. Adoptive transfer of CerS6-deficient splenocytes, which have significantly decreased levels of C16-ceramide, showed that CerS6-deficiency protected against the development of colitis...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133526/involvement-of-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-subunits-of-gi-protein-coupled-with-s1p-receptor-on-multivesicular-endosomes-in-f-actin-formation-and-cargo-sorting-into-exosomes
#9
Taketoshi Kajimoto, Nesma Nabil Ibrahim Mohamed, Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed Badawy, Shubi Ambwene Matovelo, Mitsuhiro Hirase, Shunsuke Nakamura, Daisuke Yoshida, Taro Okada, Takeshi Ijuin, Shun-Ichi Nakamura
Exosomes play a critical role in cell-to-cell communication by delivering cargo molecules to recipient cells. However, the mechanism underlying the generation of the exosomal multivesicular endosome (MVE) is one of the mysteries in the field of endosome research. Although sphingolipid metabolites such as ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are known to play important roles in MVE formation and maturation, the detailed molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that Rho family GTPases, including Cdc42 and Rac1, are constitutively activated on exosomal MVEs and are regulated by S1P signaling as measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based conformational changes...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133339/decreased-ceramide-underlies-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-charcot-marie-tooth-2f
#10
Nicholas U Schwartz, Ryan W Linzer, Jean-Philip Truman, Mikhail Gurevich, Yusuf A Hannun, Can E Senkal, Lina M Obeid
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most commonly inherited neurologic disorder, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One variant of CMT, 2F, is characterized by mutations in heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27). As bioactive sphingolipids have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, we sought to determine if their dysregulation is involved in CMT. Here, we show that Hsp27 knockout mice demonstrated decreases in ceramide in peripheral nerve tissue and that the disease-associated Hsp27 S135F mutant demonstrated decreases in mitochondrial ceramide...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130028/sphingosine-kinases-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#11
Eric K Kwong, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou
The ever-increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia and diabetes in the western world continues to be of great public health concern. Biologically active sphingolipids, such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide, are important regulators of lipid metabolism. S1P not only directly functions as an active intracellular mediator, but also activates multiple signaling pathways via five transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), S1PR1-5. S1P is exclusively formed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs)...
August 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127192/lipotoxic-very-long-chain-ceramides-cause-mitochondrial-dysfunction-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-in-cardiomyocytes
#12
Brittany A Law, Xianghai Liao, Kelsey S Moore, Abigail Southard, Patrick Roddy, Ruiping Ji, Zdzislaw Sculz, Ala Bielawska, P Christian Schulze, L Ashley Cowart
Accumulating data support a role for bioactive lipids as mediators of lipotixicity in cardiomyocytes. One class of these, the ceramides, constitutes a family of molecules that differ in structure and are synthesized by distinct enzymes, ceramide synthase (CerS)1-CerS6. Data support that specific ceramides and the enzymes that catalyze their formation play distinct roles in cell function. In a mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, sphingolipid profiling revealed increases in not only the CerS5-derived ceramides but also in very long chain (VLC) ceramides derived from CerS2...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125130/acid-sphingomyelinase-inhibitors-imipramine-and-zoledronic-acid-increase-skeletal-muscle-tissue-sensitivity-to-insulin-action-at-old-age
#13
Loay Kh M Hassouneh, Olga A Timofiychuk, Nataliya A Babenko
Malfunction of skeletal muscles and dysregulated turnover of sphingolipids in the insulin responsive tissues have been determined at old age. Present article investigates the role of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase)-dependent ceramide accumulation in reduction of the skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin action at old age. The 3-, 12- and 24-month-old Wistar male rats were used in the experiments. The progressive increase of ceramide content and ceramide/sphingomyeline (SM) ratio was determined in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle during aging of rats...
November 10, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123078/high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-based-quantitative-lipidomics-study-of-ganglioside-nana-3-plasma-to-establish-its-association-with-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#14
Jinzhi Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Caidi Yang
BACKGROUND It is well known that, pathologically, Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder. In Parkinson's disease, the protein which is abundant in the human brain, alpha-synuclein, accumulates inside the nerve cells. In this situation, dysregulation of lipid metabolism performs a crucial role; however, its association with Parkinson's disease is has not yet been explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-derived quantitative lipidomics study to analyze the profile of lipidomic plasma obtained from 170 PD patients and 120 controls, taken from our hospital...
November 10, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121774/sphingolipids-and-redox-signaling-in-renal-regulation-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#15
Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Guangbi Li, RaMi Lee, Pin Lan Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingolipids play critical roles in the membrane biology and intracellular signaling events that influence cellular behavior and function. Our review focuses on the cellular mechanisms and functional relevance of the cross talk between sphingolipids and redox signaling, which may be critically implicated in the pathogenesis of different renal diseases. Recent Advances: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sphingolipids can regulate cellular redox homeostasis through the regulation of NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and antioxidant enzymes...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111698/assembly-of-lyotropic-liquid-crystals-with-solid-crystal-s-structural-order-translated-from-the-lipid-rafts-in-cell-membranes
#16
Yoon Seob Lee
Self-assembly offers a powerful way to control the complexity and hierarchy of nanoscale materials, and promises to create a diverse range of emergent properties. Successful syntheses that allow a delicate structural design of building units play an important role. However, as can be learned from many cellular processes and functions, co-self-assembly using logically chosen additives should be equally effective in designing self-assembly. Herein I show that, translated from the dynamic nanoscale assemblies in cell membranes known as lipid rafts, co-self-assembly of 1-decanol into cetyltrimethylammonium chloride micelles for the assembly of lyotropic liquid crystals generates new structural complexity and hierarchy, and a surprising property that is emerging from it...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111682/monitoring-membrane-lipidome-turnover-by-metabolic-15-n-labeling-and-shotgun-ultra-high-resolution-orbitrap-ft-ms
#17
Kai Schuhmann, Kristina Srzentić, Konstantin O Nagornov, Henrik Thomas, Theresia Gutmann, Ünal Coskun, Yury O Tsybin, Andrej Shevchenko
Lipidomes undergo permanent extensive re-modelling, but how the turnover rate differs between lipid classes and molecular species is poorly understood. We employed metabolic (15)N-labeling and shotgun ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (sUHR) to quantify the absolute (molar) abundance and determine the turnover rate of glycerophospho- and sphingolipids by the direct analysis of total lipid extracts. sUHR performed on a commercial Orbitrap Elite instrument at the mass resolution of 1.35×10(6) (m/z200) baseline resolved peaks of (13)C isotopes of unlabeled and monoisotopic peaks of (15)N-labeled lipids (Δm = 0...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109103/hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1a-deficiency-causes-hemolytic-anemia-in-mice-by-altering-erythrocyte-sphingolipid-homeostasis
#18
Karin von Wnuck Lipinski, Sarah Weske, Petra Keul, Susann Peters, Hideo A Baba, Gerd Heusch, Markus H Gräler, Bodo Levkau
The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor (HNF) family regulates complex networks of metabolism and organ development. Human mutations in its prototypical member HNF1A cause maturity-onset of diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3. In this study, we identified an important role for HNF1A in the preservation of erythrocyte membrane integrity, calcium homeostasis and osmotic resistance through a yet unrecognized link of HNF1A to sphingolipid homeostasis. HNF1A(-/-) mice displayed microcytic hypochromic anemia with reticulocytosis that was partially compensated by avid extramedullary erythropoiesis at all erythroid stages in the spleen thereby excluding erythroid differentiation defects...
November 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106974/direct-visualization-of-the-lateral-structure-of-giant-vesicles-composed-of-pseudo-binary-mixtures-of-sulfatide-asialo-gm1-and-gm1-with-popc
#19
Pablo M Rodi, Bruno Maggio, Luis A Bagatolli
We compared the lateral structure of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of three pseudo binary mixtures of different glycosphingolipid (GSL), i.e. sulfatide, asialo-GM1 or GM1, with POPC. These sphingolipids possess similar hydrophobic residues but differ in the size and charge of their polar head group. Fluorescence microscopy experiments using LAURDAN and DiIC18 show coexistence of micron sized domains in a molar fraction range that depends on the nature of the GSLs. In all cases, experiments with LAURDAN show that the membrane lateral structure resembles the coexistence of solid ordered and liquid disordered phases...
October 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103713/short-communication-circulating-fatty-acylcarnitines-are-elevated-in-overweight-periparturient-dairy-cows-in-association-with-sphingolipid-biomarkers-of-insulin-resistance
#20
J E Rico, Y Zang, N J Haughey, A G Rius, J W McFadden
Defects in mitochondrial fatty acid processing are associated with the development of fatty liver disease, inflammation, and insulin resistance in overweight nonruminants. Surplus fatty acids (FA) and defects in FA oxidation favor the accumulation of fatty acylcarnitines (FAC) and the sphingolipid ceramide. Moreover, elevated circulating FAC and ceramide concentrations are inversely related to insulin action. Because we have previously demonstrated that plasma ceramide levels increase during the transition from gestation to lactation, our aim was to determine whether changes in plasma medium- and long-chain FAC levels are related to circulating FA and sphingolipids in peripartal dairy cows...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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