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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936316/bioprospecting-of-turbinaria-macroalgae-as-a-potential-source-of-health-protective-compounds
#1
Milena Stranska-Zachariasova, Isma Kurniatanty, Helena Gbelcova, Monika Jiru, Josep Rubert, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, Cosimo Walter D'Acunto, Sony Heru Sumarsono, Marselina Irasonia Tan, Jana Hajslova, Tomas Ruml
The present study aims to focus on the bioprospecting of marine macroalgae of Turbinaria species, plenteous biomass of the world ocean. Three types of solvents, i.e. water, methanol:water (80:20, v/v) and hexane:isopropanol (50:50, v/v), were used for extraction. Both the biological activity, as well as the pattern of present chemicals were characterized. For the cell proliferation assay, the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, cervix / breast / pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma cells were used. For the antioxidant activity determination, both intracellular assay with human embryonic kidney and cervix adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the biochemical DPPH test, were employed...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933793/differential-effect-of-membrane-composition-on-the-pore-forming-ability-of-four-different-sea-anemone-actinoporins
#2
Sara García-Linares, Esperanza Rivera-de-Torre, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jose M M Caaveiro, José G Gavilanes, J Peter Slotte, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo
Sea anemone actinoporins constitute a protein family of multigene pore-forming toxins (PFT). Equinatoxin II (EqtII), fragaceatoxin C (FraC), and sticholysins I and II (StnI and StnII, respectively), produced by three different sea anemone species, are the only actinoporins whose molecular structures have been studied in depth. These four proteins show high sequence identities and practically coincident three-dimensional structures. However, their pore-forming activity can be quite different depending on the model lipid system employed, a feature that has not been systematically studied before...
December 6, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933775/role-of-the-tryptophan-residues-in-the-specific-interaction-of-the-sea-anemone-stichodactyla-helianthus-s-actinoporin-sticholysin-ii-with-biological-membranes
#3
Sara García-Linares, Terhi Maula, Esperanza Rivera-de-Torre, José G Gavilanes, J Peter Slotte, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo
Actinoporins are pore-forming toxins from sea anemones. Upon interaction with sphingomyelin-containing bilayers, they become integral oligomeric membrane structures that form a pore. Sticholysin II from Stichodactyla helianthus contains five tryptophans located at strategic positions; its role has now been studied using different mutants. Results show that W43 and W115 play a determinant role in maintaining the high thermostability of the protein, while W146 provides specific interactions for protomer-protomer assembly...
November 22, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927984/carboxyl-terminal-tail-mediated-homodimerizations-of-sphingomyelin-synthases-are-responsible-for-efficient-export-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#4
Yasuhiro Hayashi, Yoko Nemoto-Sasaki, Naoki Matsumoto, Takashi Tanikawa, Saori Oka, Yusuke Tanaka, Seisuke Arai, Ikuo Wada, Takayuki Sugiura, Atsushi Yamashita
Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is the key enzyme for cross-talk between bioactive sphingolipids and glycerolipids. In mammals, SMS consists of two isoforms: SMS1 is localized in the Golgi apparatus, whereas SMS2 is localized in both the Golgi and plasma membranes. SMS2 seems to exert cellular functions through protein-protein interactions; however, the existence and functions of quaternary structures of SMS1 and SMS2 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that both SMS1 and SMS2 form homodimers. The SMSs have six membrane-spanning domains, and the N- and C-termini of both proteins face the cytosolic side of the Golgi apparatus...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913102/membrane-permeabilization-induced-by-triton-x-100-the-role-of-membrane-phase-state-and-edge-tension
#5
Bruno Mattei, Rafael B Lira, Katia R Perez, Karin A Riske
Detergents are widely used to solubilize and separate biomembrane components. It is therefore relevant to study and understand the mechanistic details underlying detergent-lipid interactions using biomimetic systems. Here, we have investigated in detail the process of membrane permeabilization and the nature of pores induced by sub-solubilizing concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) in bilayers composed of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and binary mixtures of these phospholipids with 30 mol% cholesterol (chol)...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908498/hydrophilic-interaction-and-reversed-phase-mixed-mode-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-polar-lipids-analysis
#6
Sara Granafei, Pietro Azzone, Vito Alessandro Spinelli, Ilario Losito, Francesco Palmisano, Tommaso R I Cataldi
A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) fused-core column (150×2.1mm ID, 2.7μm particle size) and a short reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) column (20mm×2.1mm ID, 1.9μm) were serially coupled to perform mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) on complex mixtures of phospholipids (PL). Mobile phase composition and gradient elution program were, preliminarily, optimized using a mixture of phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), their corresponding lyso-forms (LPC and LPE), and sphingomyelins (SM)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905603/pathological-levels-of-glucosylceramide-change-the-biophysical-properties-of-artificial-and-cell-membranes
#7
Ana R P Varela, Ana E Ventura, Ana C Carreira, Aleksander Fedorov, Anthony H Futerman, Manuel Prieto, Liana C Silva
Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) plays an active role in the regulation of various cellular events. Moreover, GlcCer is also a key modulator of membrane biophysical properties, which might be linked to the mechanism of its biological action. In order to understand the biophysical implications of GlcCer on membranes of living cells, we first studied the effect of GlcCer on artificial membranes containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). Using an array of biophysical methods, we demonstrate that at lower GlcCer/Chol ratios, GlcCer stabilizes SM/Chol-enriched liquid-ordered domains...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892528/sphingomyelin-generated-by-sphingomyelin-synthase-1-is-involved-in-attachment-and-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#8
Makoto Taniguchi, Takafumi Tasaki, Hideaki Ninomiya, Yoshibumi Ueda, Koh-Ichi Kuremoto, Susumu Mitsutake, Yasuyuki Igarashi, Toshiro Okazaki, Tsutomu Takegami
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus which infects target cells via the envelope protein JEV-E. However, its cellular targets are largely unknown. To investigate the role of sphingomyelin (SM) in JEV infection, we utilized SM-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (tMEF) established from SM synthase 1 (SMS1)/SMS2 double knockout mice. SMS deficiency significantly reduced both intracellular and extracellular JEV levels at 48 h after infection. Furthermore, after 15 min treatment with JEV, the early steps of JEV infection such as attachment and cell entry were also diminished in SMS-deficient tMEFs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886403/rapid-test-for-lung-maturity-based-on-spectroscopy-of-gastric-aspirate-predicted-respiratory-distress-syndrome-with-high-sensitivity
#9
Henrik Verder, Christian Heiring, Howard Clark, David Sweet, Torben E Jessen, Finn Ebbesen, Lars J Björklund, Bengt Andreasson, Lars Bender, Aksel Bertelsen, Marianne Dahl, Christian Eschen, Jesper Fenger-Grøn, Stine F Hoffmann, Agnar Höskuldsson, Maria Bruusgaard-Mouritsen, Fredrik Lundberg, Anthony D Postle, Peter Schousboe, Peter Schmidt, Hristo Stanchev, Lars Sørensen
AIM: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. By the time symptoms appear it may already be too late to prevent a severe course, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality. We aimed to develop a rapid test of lung maturity for targeting surfactant supplementation. METHODS: Concentrations of the most surface-active lung phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in gastric aspirates from premature infants were measured by mass spectrometry and expressed as the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S)...
November 25, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883027/disturbed-phospholipid-homeostasis-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-initiates-tri-o-cresyl-phosphate-induced-delayed-neurotoxicity
#10
Li Zhu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Ming-Yuan Xu, Yi-Jun Wu
Tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is a widely used organophosphorus compound, which can cause a neurodegenerative disorder, i.e., organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). The biochemical events in the initiation of OPIDN were not fully understood except for the essential inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). NTE, located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to glycerophosphocholine (GPC). The present study aims to study the changes of ER phospholipids profile as well as levels of important intermediates of phospholipid synthesis such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) at the initiation stage of OPIDN...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882938/neutral-sphingomyelinase-smpd3-deficiency-disrupts-the-golgi-secretory-pathway-and-causes-growth-inhibition
#11
Wilhelm Stoffel, Ina Hammels, Bitta Jenke, Erika Binczek, Inga Schmidt-Soltau, Susanne Brodesser, Astrid Schauss, Julia Etich, Juliane Heilig, Frank Zaucke
Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus-pituitary-somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3-/- mouse mutant and derived smpd3-/- primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881557/plasma-metabolomics-implicate-modified-transfer-rnas-and-altered-bioenergetics-in-the-outcome-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Christopher J Rhodes, Pavandeep Ghataorhe, John Wharton, Kevin C Rue-Albrecht, Charaka Hadinnapola, Geoffrey Watson, Marta Bleda, Matthias Haimel, Gerry Coghlan, Paul A Corris, Luke S Howard, David G Kiely, Andrew J Peacock, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Mark Toshner, Stephen J Wort, J Simon R Gibbs, Allan Lawrie, Stefan Gräf, Nicholas W Morrell, Martin R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: -Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disorder with high mortality. METHODS: -We conducted a comprehensive study of plasma metabolites using ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry to (1) identify patients at high risk of early death, (2) identify patients who respond well to treatment and (3) provide novel molecular insights into disease pathogenesis. RESULTS: -53 circulating metabolites distinguished well-phenotyped patients with idiopathic or heritable PAH (n=365) from healthy controls (n=121) following correction for multiple testing (p<7...
November 21, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877238/sphingomyelin-liposomes-containing-porphyrin-phospholipid-for-irinotecan-chemophototherapy
#13
Kevin A Carter, Dandan Luo, Aida Razi, Jumin Geng, Shuai Shao, Joaquin Ortega, Jonathan F Lovell
Porphyrin-phospholipid (PoP) liposomes can entrap anti-cancer agents and release them in response to near infrared (NIR) light. Doxorubicin, when remotely loaded via an ammonium sulfate gradient at a high drug-to-lipid ratio, formed elongated crystals that altered liposome morphology and could not be loaded into liposomes with higher PoP content. On the other hand, irinotecan could also be remotely loaded but did not form large crystals and did not induce liposome elongation. The loading, stability, and NIR light-triggered release of irinotecan in PoP liposomes was altered by the types of lipids used and the presence of PEGylation...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872310/efficient-replacement-of-plasma-membrane-outer-leaflet-phospholipids-and-sphingolipids-in-cells-with-exogenous-lipids
#14
Guangtao Li, JiHyun Kim, Zhen Huang, Johnna R St Clair, Deborah A Brown, Erwin London
Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871881/targeting-brain-and-peripheral-plasticity-of-the-lipidome-in-acute-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-mice-via-quantitative-mass-spectrometry
#15
Raissa Lerner, Julia Post, Sebastian Loch, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Epilepsy is a highly common chronic neurological disorder, manifested in many different types, affecting ~1% of the worldwide human population. The molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis have not yet been clarified, and pharmacoresistance exhibited by 30-40% of epilepsy patients remains a major obstacle in medical care. Growing evidence indicates a role of lipid signalling pathways in epileptogenesis, thus lipid signals emerge as potential biomarkers for the onset and evolving course of the epileptic disorder, as well as potential therapeutic agents and targets...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870891/oxldl-and-eldl-induced-membrane-microdomains-in-human-macrophages
#16
Stefan Wallner, Margot Grandl, Gerhard Liebisch, Markus Peer, Evelyn Orsó, Alexander Sigrüner, Andrzej Sobota, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Extravasation of macrophages and formation of lipid-laden foam cells are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The degradation of atherogenic lipoproteins subsequently leads to alterations in cellular lipid metabolism that influence inflammatory signaling. Especially sphingolipids and ceramides are known to be involved in these processes. We therefore analyzed monocyte derived macrophages during differentiation and after loading with enzymatically (eLDL) and oxidatively (oxLDL) modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865842/decreasing-smpd1-activity-in-beas-2b-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cells-results-in-increased-nrf2-activity-cytokine-synthesis-and-neutrophil-recruitment
#17
Elyse MacFadden-Murphy, Lucie Roussel, Guy Martel, Julie Bérubé, Simon Rousseau
Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by variable levels of impairment in sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) activity. Lung involvement is the most important prognostic factor in NPD-B, with recurrent respiratory infections starting in infancy being the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that decreased SMPD1 activity impaired airway epithelium host defense response. SMPD1 activity was reduced using inducible shRNA. Surprisingly, decreasing SMPD1 activity by 50%, resulted in increased neutrophil recruitment, both at baseline and in response to bacterial stimulation...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865129/laurdan-emission-study-of-the-cholesterol-like-effect-of-long-chain-alkylresorcinols-on-the-structure-of-dipalmitoylphosphocholine-and-sphingomyelin-membranes
#18
Patrycja Zawilska, Katarzyna Cieślik-Boczula
Long-chain alkylresorcinols (ARs) are commonly found in plant and bacteria cells, and they exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antifungal, antitumor, and antiphrastic activities. The cholesterol (Chol)-like effect of ARs with hydrocarbon side-chain lengths ranging from C15 to C25 on the structure of pure and Chol-doped dipalmitoylphosphocholine (DPPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) membranes was investigated by Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy. The Laurdan emission generalized polarization parameter was analyzed as a function of the temperature and excitation wavelength in DPPC (or SM)/Chol, DPPC (or SM)/AR, and DPPC/Chol/AR systems...
November 12, 2016: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863537/high-resolution-proteomic-and-lipidomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-microvesicles-from-different-cell-sources
#19
Reka A Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John Leszyk, Scott A Shaffer, Hannah E Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Marian DiFiglia, Michael A Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855911/lipid-domains-in-the-milk-fat-globule-membrane-dynamics-investigated-in-situ-in-milk-in-relation-to-temperature-and-time
#20
Oumaima Et-Thakafy, Fanny Guyomarc'h, Christelle Lopez
The microstructure of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the MFGM at the surface of milk fat globules in relation to temperature and time, and in relation to the respective lipid compositions of the MFGM from bovine, goat and sheep milks. In-situ structural investigations were performed using confocal microscopy. Lipid domains were observed over a wide range of temperatures (4-60°C). We demonstrated that rapid cooling of milk enhances the mechanisms of nucleation and that extended storage induces lipid reorganization within the MFGM with growth, leading to circular lipid domains...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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