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Sphingomyelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733574/metabolomic-characteristics-of-cholesterol-induced-non-obese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#1
Lan N Tu, Megan R Showalter, Tomas Cajka, Sili Fan, Viju V Pillai, Oliver Fiehn, Vimal Selvaraj
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non-obese patients remains a clinical condition with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Using a metabolomics approach in a mouse model that recapitulates almost all the characteristic features of non-obese NAFLD, we aimed to advance mechanistic understanding of this disorder. Mice fed high fat, high cholesterol, cholate (HFHCC) diet for three weeks consistently developed hepatic pathology similar to NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without changes to body weight or fat pad weights...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726959/association-of-cultured-myotubes-and-fasting-plasma-metabolite-profiles-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#2
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi
Accumulating evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle as the root cause for the greatest hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of specific metabolite-based markers linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, we sought to identify the markers-based metabolomics for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with T2D. First, a cellular disease model was established using human myotubes treated with antimycin A, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor...
July 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718792/recombinant-lipase-from-gibberella-zeae-exhibits-broad-substrate-specificity-a-comparative-study-on-emulsified-and-monomolecular-substrate
#3
Fanghua Wang, Hui Zhang, Zexin Zhao, Ruixia Wei, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Using the classical emulsified system and the monomolecular film technique, the substrate specificity of recombinant Gibberella zeae lipase (rGZEL) that originates from Gibberella zeae was characterized in detail. Under the emulsified reaction system, both phospholipase and glycolipid hydrolytic activities were observed, except for the predominant lipase activity. The optimum conditions for different activity exhibition were also determined. Compared with its lipase activity, a little higher ratio of glycolipid hydrolytic activity (0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710349/lipid-driven-nanodomains-in-giant-lipid-vesicles-are-fluid-and-disordered
#4
Alena Koukalová, Mariana Amaro, Gokcan Aydogan, Gerhard Gröbner, Philip T F Williamson, Ilya Mikhalyov, Martin Hof, Radek Šachl
It is a fundamental question in cell biology and biophysics whether sphingomyelin (SM)- and cholesterol (Chol)- driven nanodomains exist in living cells and in model membranes. Biophysical studies on model membranes revealed SM and Chol driven micrometer-sized liquid-ordered domains. Although the existence of such microdomains has not been proven for the plasma membrane, such lipid mixtures have been often used as a model system for 'rafts'. On the other hand, recent super resolution and single molecule results indicate that the plasma membrane might organize into nanocompartments...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709768/plasma-sphingosine-1-phosphate-concentrations-are-associated-with-systolic-heart-failure-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease
#5
Amin Polzin, Kerstin Piayda, Petra Keul, Lisa Dannenberg, Annemarie Mohring, Markus Gräler, Tobias Zeus, Malte Kelm, Bodo Levkau
OBJECTIVE: Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid with important functions in immunity, inflammation and cardiovascular biology. S1P is associated with prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. However, its relevance in ischemic cardiomyopathy is unknown. We aimed to investigate associations of plasma S1P and other sphingolipids with the extent of heart failure in patients with ischemic heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: 74 patients with ischemic heart disease were investigated in this observational study...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706468/retinal-metabolic-events-in-preconditioning-light-stress-as-revealed-by-wide-spectrum-targeted-metabolomics
#6
Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Nuan-Ting Huang, Haihan Jiao, Lydie Tessier, Cédric Gadras, Gilles Simard, Riccardo Natoli, Guillaume Tcherkez, Pascal Reynier, Krisztina Valter
INTRODUCTION: Light is the primary stimulus for vision, but may also cause damage to the retina. Pre-exposing the retina to sub-lethal amount of light (or preconditioning) improves chances for retinal cells to survive acute damaging light stress. OBJECTIVES: This study aims at exploring the changes in retinal metabolome after mild light stress and identifying mechanisms that may be involved in preconditioning. METHODS: Retinas from 12 rats exposed to mild light stress (1000 lux × for 12 h) and 12 controls were collected one and seven days after light stress (LS)...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687494/sphingolipid-abnormalities-in-cancer-multidrug-resistance-chicken-or-egg
#7
REVIEW
Wing-Kee Lee, Richard N Kolesnick
The cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype encompasses a myriad of molecular, genetic and cellular alterations resulting from progressive oncogenic transformation and selection. Drug efflux transporters, in particular the MDR P-glycoprotein ABCB1, play an important role in MDR but cannot confer the complete phenotype alone indicating parallel alterations are prerequisite. Sphingolipids are essential constituents of lipid raft domains and directly participate in functionalization of transmembrane proteins, including providing an optimal lipid microenvironment for multidrug transporters, and are also perturbed in cancer...
July 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672041/comprehensive-identification-of-age-related-lipidome-changes-in-rat-amygdala-during-normal-aging
#8
Roman Šmidák, Harald C Köfeler, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec
Brain lipids are integral components of brain structure and function. However, only recent advancements of chromatographic techniques together with mass spectrometry allow comprehensive identification of lipid species in complex brain tissue. Lipid composition varies between the individual areas and the majority of previous reports was focusing on individual lipids rather than a lipidome. Herein, a mass spectrometry-based approach was used to evaluate age-related changes in the lipidome of the rat amygdala obtained from young (3 months) and old (20 months) males of the Sprague-Dawley rat strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668842/diagnostic-value-of-systemic-cholesteryl-ester-free-cholesterol-ratio-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Sabrina Krautbauer, Thomas S Weiss, Reiner Wiest, Doris Schacherer, Gerhard Liebisch, Christa Buechler
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most commonly occurs in the setting of liver cirrhosis which is characterized by low serum lipids. We hypothesized that composition of lipoproteins and consequently lipid species ratios are mostly unchanged in patients with cirrhosis compared to controls. This approach may be appropriate to identify lipid ratios altered in HCC irrespective of liver dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Lipids were measured in serum of 21 patients with HCC, 41 patients with liver cirrhosis and 22 controls...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666023/reduction-in-serum-sphingosine-1-phosphate-concentration-in-malaria
#10
Chuchard Punsawad, Parnpen Viriyavejakul
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin which is involved in the endothelial permeability and inflammation. Although the plasma S1P concentration is reportedly decreased in patients with cerebral malaria, the role of S1P in malaria is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malaria on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with clinical data in malaria patients. Serum S1P levels were measured in 29 patients with P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665932/surfactant-phospholipid-composition-of-gastric-aspirate-samples-differs-between-male-and-female-very-preterm-infants
#11
Foula Sozo, Noreen Ishak, Risha Bhatia, Peter G Davis, Richard Harding
BACKGROUND: Among preterm infants, males have a greater incidence of respiratory distress and death than females born at the same gestational age, likely due to sex-related differences in lung maturation. Our aim was to determine whether surfactant phospholipid composition differs between male and female preterm infants. METHODS: Gastric aspirate samples from male and female infants born between 25 and 30 weeks of gestation at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, were collected within 1 h after birth...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665212/icam-1-targeting-intracellular-trafficking-and-functional-activity-of-polymer-nanocarriers-coated-with-a-fibrinogen-derived-peptide-for-lysosomal-enzyme-replacement
#12
Carmen Garnacho, Silvia Muro
Enzyme replacement is a viable treatment for diseases caused by genetic deficiency of lysosomal enzymes. However, suboptimal access of enzymes to target sites limits this strategy. Polymer nanocarriers (NCs) coated with antibody against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a protein overexpressed on most cells under disease states, enhanced biosdistribution and lysosomal delivery of these therapeutics. Whether this can be achieved using more biocompatible ICAM-1-targeting moieties is unknown, since intracellular uptake via this route is sensitive to the receptor epitope being targeted...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660589/on-electrochemical-methods-for-determination-of-protein-lipid-interaction
#13
Zhiping Hu, Yanli Mao
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are important and reliable molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease. Aggregation and fibrillization of Aβ peptides on ganglioside GM1 (GM1)-containing lipid membranes is considered a cause of neurodegenerative disease. Because GM1 is abundant in the central nervous system and plays a key role in the aggregation of Aβ, the interaction of Aβ with supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) containing GM1 is of great significance. We have prepared SPBs containing GM1 in order to study the electrochemical characteristics of GM1/sphingomyelin/cholesterol SPBs and their interaction with Aβ(1-40) by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which proves that electrochemical is a promising method for analyzing the interaction between peptides and lipid membranes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655935/contribution-of-plasma-membrane-lipid-domains-to-red-blood-cell-re-shaping
#14
C Leonard, L Conrard, M Guthmann, H Pollet, M Carquin, C Vermylen, P Gailly, P Van Der Smissen, M P Mingeot-Leclercq, D Tyteca
Although lipid domains have been evidenced in several living cell plasma membranes, their roles remain largely unclear. We here investigated whether they could contribute to function-associated cell (re)shaping. To address this question, we used erythrocytes as cellular model since they (i) exhibit a specific biconcave shape, allowing for reversible deformation in blood circulation, which is lost by membrane vesiculation upon aging; and (ii) display at their outer plasma membrane leaflet two types of submicrometric domains differently enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652409/interaction-between-the-ph-and-start-domains-of-ceramide-transfer-protein-competes-with-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-binding-by-the-ph-domain
#15
Jennifer Prashek, Samuel Bouyain, Mingui Fu, Yong Li, Dusan Berkes, Xiaolan Yao
De novo synthesis of the sphingolipid sphingomyelin requires non-vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi by the multidomain protein ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT's N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain targets it to the Golgi by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) in the Golgi membrane, while its C-terminal StAR-related lipid transfer domain (START) carries out ceramide transfer. Hyper-phosphorylation of a serine rich (SR) motif immediately following the PH domain decreases both PtdIns(4)P binding and ceramide transfer by CERT...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647317/associations-of-systemic-sphingolipids-with-measures-of-hepatic-function-in-liver-cirrhosis-are-related-to-cholesterol
#16
Sabrina Krautbauer, Reiner Wiest, Gerhard Liebisch, Christa Buechler
Lipoprotein particles are composed of various lipid classes including cholesterol and sphingolipids, and are low in serum of patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic decompensation is associated with a further decline of lipoproteins. Aim of the present work was to evaluate whether ceramide and sphingomyelin species are similarly changed in patients with liver cirrhosis and whether these variations are related to systemic cholesterol levels. In a cohort of 45 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, cholesteryl ester species and subsequently total cholesterol were identified to be negatively associated with model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score...
June 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645851/nanotubes-connecting-b-lymphocytes-high-impact-of-differentiation-dependent-lipid-composition-on-their-growth-and-mechanics
#17
Eszter A Tóth, Ádám Oszvald, Mária Péter, Gábor Balogh, Anikó Osteikoetxea-Molnár, Tamás Bozó, Edina Szabó-Meleg, Miklós Nyitrai, Imre Derényi, Miklós Kellermayer, Toshiyuki Yamaji, Kentaro Hanada, László Vígh, János Matkó
Nanotubes (NTs) are thin, long membranous structures forming novel, yet poorly known communication pathways between various cell types. Key mechanisms controlling their growth still remained poorly understood. Since NT-forming capacity of immature and mature B cells was found largely different, we investigated how lipid composition and molecular order of the membrane affect NT-formation. Screening B cell lines with various differentiation stages revealed that NT-growth linearly correlates with membrane ganglioside levels, while it shows maximum as a function of cholesterol level...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638093/fatty-acid-composition-and-phospholipid-types-used-in-infant-formulas-modifies-the-establishment-of-human-gut-bacteria-in-germ-free-mice
#18
Rikke Guldhammer Nejrup, Tine Rask Licht, Lars Ingvar Hellgren
Human milk fat contains high concentrations of medium-chained fatty acids (MCFA) and triacylglycerols emulsified by a sphingomyelin-rich phospholipid membrane (milk phospholipids, MPL). Infant formula comprises mainly long-chained fatty acids (LCFA) emulsified with dairy proteins and soy lecithin (SL) lacking sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin content and saturation level of phospholipids affect the gut lipase activity, which alters the concentrations of lipid hydrolysis products in ileum and colon, and hereby putatively affects the competitive advantage of specific gut bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638081/development-of-lysosome-mimicking-vesicles-to-study-the-effect-of-abnormal-accumulation-of-sphingosine-on-membrane-properties
#19
Ana C Carreira, Rodrigo F M de Almeida, Liana C Silva
Synthetic systems are widely used to unveil the molecular mechanisms of complex cellular events. Artificial membranes are key examples of models employed to address lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions. In this work, we developed a new synthetic system that more closely resembles the lysosome - the lysosome-mimicking vesicles (LMVs) - displaying stable acid-to-neutral pH gradient across the membrane. To evaluate the advantages of this synthetic system, we assessed the distinct effects of sphingosine (Sph) accumulation in membrane structure and biophysical properties of standard liposomes (no pH gradient) and in LMVs with lipid composition tuned to mimic physiological- or NPC1-like lysosomes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637901/caveolin-1-influences-lfa-1-redistribution-upon-tcr-stimulation-in-cd8-t-cells
#20
Jessica G Borger, Vicky L Morrison, Andrew Filby, Celine Garcia, Liisa M Uotila, Fabio Simbari, Susanna C Fagerholm, Rose Zamoyska
TCR stimulation by peptide-MHC complexes on APCs requires precise reorganization of molecules into the area of cellular contact to form an immunological synapse from where T cell signaling is initiated. Caveolin (Cav)1, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is involved in the regulation of membrane composition, cellular polarity and trafficking, and the organization of signal transduction pathways. The presence of Cav1 protein in T cells was identified only recently, and its function in this context is not well understood...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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