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Sphingomyelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337691/the-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-in-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-polarity
#1
Lena Collenburg, Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies, Elita Avota
Hydrolyzing its substrate sphingomyelin at the cytosolic leaflet of cellular membranes, the neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (NSM2) generates microdomains which serve as docking sites for signaling proteins and thereby, functions to regulate signal relay. This has been particularly studied in cellular stress responses while the regulatory role of this enzyme in the immune cell compartment has only recently emerged. In T cells, phenotypic polarization by co-ordinated cytoskeletal remodeling is central to motility and interaction with endothelial or antigenpresenting cells during tissue recruitment or immune synapse formation, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332565/beyond-the-lock-and-key-paradigm-targeting-lipid-rafts-to-induce-the-selective-apoptosis-of-cancer-cells
#2
Anna Carolina Schneider Alves, Reinaldo Antonio Dias, Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Fernando Cidade Torres, Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima, Ivone Carvalho, Carolina de Miranda Silva, Daniel Fabio Kawano
For more than 40 years, the fluid mosaic model of cellular membranes have supported our vision of an inert lipid bilayer containing membrane protein receptors that are randomly hit by extracellular molecules to trigger intracellular signaling events. However, the notion that compartmentalized cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich membrane microdomains (known as lipid rafts) spatially arrange receptors and effectors to promote kinetically favorable interactions necessary for the signal transduction sounds much more realistic...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329781/dopamine-transporter-trafficking-is-regulated-by-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-ceramide-kinase
#3
Jong Hoon Won, Seok Kyun Kim, In Chul Shin, Hae Chan Ha, Ji Min Jang, Moon Jung Back, Dae Kyong Kim
Dopamine (DA) reuptake is the primary mechanism to terminate dopaminergic transmission in the synaptic cleft. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has an important role in the regulation of DA reuptake. This study provides anatomical and physiological evidence that DAT recycling is regulated by ceramide kinase via the sphingomyelin pathway. First, the results show that DAT and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were successfully co-precipitated from striatal samples and were colocalized in the mouse striatum or PC12 cells...
January 9, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329503/chemical-imaging-of-aggressive-basal-cell-carcinoma-using-time-of-flight-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#4
Marwa Munem, Oscar Zaar, Kelly Dimovska Nilsson, Noora Neittaanmäki, John Paoli, John S Fletcher
A set of basal cell carcinoma samples, removed by Mohs micrographic surgery and pathologically identified as having an aggressive subtype, have been analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The SIMS analysis employed a gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) to increase the sensitivity of the technique for the detection of intact lipid species. The GCIB also allowed these intact molecular signals to be maintained while surface contamination and delocalized chemicals were removed from the upper tissue surface...
January 12, 2018: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323157/microwave-measurement-of-giant-unilamellar-vesicles-in-aqueous-solution
#5
Yan Cui, William F Delaney, Taghi Darroudi, Pingshan Wang
A microwave technique is demonstrated to measure floating giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) membranes in a 25 μm wide and 18.8 μm high microfluidic channel. The measurement is conducted at 2.7 and 7.9 GHz, at which a split-ring resonator (SRR) operates at odd modes. A 500 nm wide and 100 μm long SRR split gap is used to scan GUVs that are slightly larger than 25 μm in diameter. The smaller fluidic channel induces flattened GUV membrane sections, which make close contact with the SRR gap surface. The used GUVs are synthesized with POPC (16:0-18:1 PC 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), SM (16:0 Egg Sphingomyelin) and cholesterol at different molecular compositions...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317027/identification-of-potential-sphingomyelin-markers-for-the-estimation-of-hematocrit-in-dried-blood-spots-via-a-lipidomic-strategy
#7
Hsiao-Wei Liao, Shu-Wen Lin, Ya-Ting Lin, Ching-Hua Lee, Ching-Hua Kuo
The dried blood spot (DBS) strategy is a convenient and minimally invasive approach to blood sampling. Due to its various advantages, this sampling technique has drawn significant attention in recent years. Hematocrit (HCT)-associated bias is one of the main obstacles that hinder wider DBS application in clinical practice. An accurate HCT estimation method could help calibrate HCT-associated bias and improve the quantification accuracy. This study used a lipidomics profiling strategy to identify HCT estimation markers using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), which provided advantages including the potential for the simultaneous measurements of target drug and HCT values...
March 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315663/circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-nasopharyngeal-airway-metabolome-and-bronchiolitis-severity
#8
Kohei Hasegawa, Christopher J Stewart, Juan C Celedón, Jonathan M Mansbach, Courtney Tierney, Carlos A Camargo
Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are a risk factor for acute respiratory infection (e.g., bronchiolitis) in children. However, little is known about the relation of circulating 25OHD with the many downstream functional molecules in target organs - such as the airway - and with clinical outcomes. In this prospective multicenter study of infants (age <1 year) hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we measured serum 25OHD levels and profiled the metabolome of 144 nasopharyngeal airway samples. Among 254 metabolites identified, we defined a set of 20 metabolites that are related to lower serum 25OHD and higher vitamin D-binding protein levels...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311523/effect-of-dialkyl-ammonium-cationic-surfactants-on-the-microfluidity-of-membranes-containing-raft-domains
#9
Makoto Uyama, Kaori Inoue, Koichi Kinoshita, Reiji Miyahara, Hirokazu Yokoyama, Minoru Nakano
It has been reported that a lot of receptors localize in lipid raft domains and that the microfluidity of these domains regulates the activation of these receptors. In this study, we focused on the lipid raft and in order to evaluate the physicochemical effects of surfactants on microfluidity of lipid membranes, we used liposomes comprising of egg-yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine, egg-yolk sphingomyelin, and cholesterol as a model of cell membranes containing raft domains. The microfluidity of the domains was characterized by fluorescence spectrometry using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene...
2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311487/acyl-chain-preference-in-foam-cell-formation-from-mouse-peritoneal-macrophages
#10
Yuko Fujiwara, Kotaro Hama, Makoto Tsukahara, Ryosuke Izumi-Tsuzuki, Toru Nagai, Mihoko Ohe-Yamada, Keizo Inoue, Kazuaki Yokoyama
Macrophage foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis by synthesizing and accumulating cholesteryl ester (CE) in lipid droplets. However, in analyzing lipid metabolism in foam cell formation, studies have focused on the sterol group, and little research has been done on the acyl chains. Therefore, we adapted a model system using liposomes containing particular acyl chains and examined the effect of various acyl chains on foam cell formation. Of the phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes tested containing PS, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol, we found that unsaturated (C18:1), but not saturated (C16:0 and C18:0), PS liposomes induced lipid droplet formation, indicating that foam cell formation depends on the nature of the acyl chain of the PS liposomes...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305734/olipudase-alfa-for-treatment-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-deficiency-asmd-safety-and-efficacy-in-adults-treated-for-30-months
#11
Melissa P Wasserstein, George A Diaz, Robin H Lachmann, Marie-Hélène Jouvin, Indrani Nandy, Allena J Ji, Ana Cristina Puga
Olipudase alfa, a recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), is an enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of nonneurologic manifestations of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD). This ongoing, open-label, long-term study (NCT02004704) assessed safety and efficacy of olipudase alfa following 30 months of treatment in five adult patients with ASMD. There were no deaths, serious or severe events, or discontinuations during 30 months of treatment. The majority of adverse events were mild and included headache, nausea, and abdominal pain...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301511/a-quantitative-multimodal-metabolomic-assay-for-colorectal-cancer
#12
Farshad Farshidfar, Karen A Kopciuk, Robert Hilsden, S Elizabeth McGregor, Vera C Mazurak, W Donald Buie, Anthony MacLean, Hans J Vogel, Oliver F Bathe
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) simplifies treatment and improves treatment outcomes. We previously described a diagnostic metabolomic biomarker derived from semi-quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our objective was to determine whether a quantitative assay of additional metabolomic features, including parts of the lipidome could enhance diagnostic power; and whether there was an advantage to deriving a combined diagnostic signature with a broader metabolomic representation...
January 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288365/methylphenidate-disrupts-cytoskeletal-homeostasis-and-reduces-membrane-associated-lipid-content-in-juvenile-rat-hippocampus
#13
Felipe Schmitz, Paula Pierozan, Helena Biasibetti-Brendler, Fernanda Silva Ferreira, Fernanda Dos Santos Petry, Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Angela T S Wyse
Although methylphenidate (MPH) is ubiquitously prescribed to children and adolescents, the consequences of chronic utilization of this psychostimulant are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of MPH on cytoskeletal homeostasis and lipid content in rat hippocampus. Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of MPH (2.0 mg/kg) or saline solution (controls), once a day, from the 15th to the 44th day of age. Results showed that MPH provoked hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and reduced its immunocontent...
December 29, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288159/sphingolipid-metabolic-pathway-impacts-thiazide-diuretics-blood-pressure-response-insights-from-genomics-metabolomics-and-lipidomics
#14
Mohamed H Shahin, Yan Gong, Reginald F Frye, Daniel M Rotroff, Amber L Beitelshees, Rebecca A Baillie, Arlene B Chapman, John G Gums, Stephen T Turner, Eric Boerwinkle, Alison Motsinger-Reif, Oliver Fiehn, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Xianlin Han, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Although hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a well-established first-line antihypertensive in the United States, <50% of HCTZ treated patients achieve blood pressure (BP) control. Thus, identifying biomarkers that could predict the BP response to HCTZ is critically important. In this study, we utilized metabolomics, genomics, and lipidomics to identify novel pathways and biomarkers associated with HCTZ BP response. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we conducted a pathway analysis for 13 metabolites we recently identified to be significantly associated with HCTZ BP response...
December 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287445/phospholipids-composition-and-molecular-species-of-large-yellow-croaker-pseudosciaena-crocea-roe
#15
Peng Liang, Ruifen Li, He Sun, Min Zhang, Wenjian Cheng, Lijiao Chen, Xinwei Cheng, Casimir C Akoh
The research aims to study phospholipids (PL) classes and molecular species of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe. Both gas chromatographymass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were utilized to analyze and identify the PLs fatty acids compositions and classes in the P. crocea roe, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) account for 35.0% and 6.9% of the PLs. Phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylinositols (PI) account for 76...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287434/yak-milk-fat-globules-from-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-membrane-lipid-composition-and-morphological-properties
#16
Jie Luo, Ziyu Huang, Hongna Liu, Yan Zhang, Fazheng Ren
Yak milk fat products constitute the base of Qinghai-Tibetan pastoralists' daily food intake. Despite the great importance of fat in processing and pastoralists' health, studies about yak milk fat are scarce. In this study, the lipid composition and the morphological properties of milk fat globule membranes (MFGMs) of yak milk were investigated. The results demonstrated that the yak milk had a higher cholesterol and sphingomyelin content compared to cow milk. In situ structural investigations performed at 25 °C by confocal microscopy showed the presence of lipid domains in yak MFGM, with a larger number and wider size range compared to cow milk...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285103/effects-of-sepsis-on-the-metabolism-of-sphingomyelin-and-cholesterol-in-mice-with-liver-dysfunction
#17
Jiaqi Li, Kun Xia, Mingdi Xiong, Xi Wang, Nianlong Yan
Sepsis is characterized by a severe inflammatory response to infection. With the spread of sepsis, various tissues, including the lungs, liver and kidney, may be damaged. This may finally develop into multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Sphingomyelin and cholesterol are two main lipids involved in sepsis. The metabolism of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in the livers of mice with sepsis needs to be clarified. To achieve this, the present study intraperitoneally injected mice with PBS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg) and LPS + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 30 mg/kg)...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277402/early-nutrition-influences-developmental-myelination-and-cognition-in-infants-and-young-children
#18
Sean Deoni, Douglas Dean, Sarah Joelson, Jonathan O'Regan, Nora Schneider
Throughout early neurodevelopment, myelination helps provide the foundation for brain connectivity and supports the emergence of cognitive and behavioural functioning. Early life nutrition is an important and modifiable factor that can shape myelination and, consequently, cognitive outcomes. Differences in the nutritional composition between human breast and formula milk may help explain the functional and cognitive disparity often observed between exclusively breast versus formula-fed children. However, past cognitive and brain imaging studies comparing breast and formula feeding are often: cross-sectional; performed in older children and adolescents relying on parental recall of infant feeding; and generally treat formula-fed children as a single group despite the variability between formula compositions...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248477/temperature-induced-lipid-membrane-restructuring-and-changes-in-nanomechanics
#19
Urvi Bhojoo, Maohui Chen, Shan Zou
The naturally occurring milk sphingomyelin is of particular interest owing to its complex composition and involvement in the formation of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Knowledge of membrane organization and nanomechanical stability has proved to be crucial in understanding their properties and functions. In this work, two model membrane systems composed of 1, 2 dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyelin (egg-SM) and cholesterol, and DOPC, milk sphingomyelin (milk-SM) and cholesterol were exposed to both RT and 10°C...
December 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247199/lipidomics-reveals-cerebrospinal-fluid-signatures-of-als
#20
H Blasco, C Veyrat-Durebex, C Bocca, F Patin, P Vourc'h, J Kouassi Nzoughet, G Lenaers, C R Andres, G Simard, P Corcia, P Reynier
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the commonest adult-onset motor neuron disorder, is characterized by a survival span of only 2-5 years after onset. Relevant biomarkers or specific metabolic signatures would provide powerful tools for the management of ALS. The main objective of this study was to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lipidomic signature of ALS patients by mass spectrometry to evaluate the diagnostic and predictive values of the profile. We showed that ALS patients (n = 40) displayed a highly significant specific CSF lipidomic signature compared to controls (n = 45)...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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