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Sphingomyelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330937/raft-based-sphingomyelin-interactions-revealed-by-new-fluorescent-sphingomyelin-analogs
#1
Masanao Kinoshita, Kenichi G N Suzuki, Nobuaki Matsumori, Misa Takada, Hikaru Ano, Kenichi Morigaki, Mitsuhiro Abe, Asami Makino, Toshihide Kobayashi, Koichiro M Hirosawa, Takahiro K Fujiwara, Akihiro Kusumi, Michio Murata
Sphingomyelin (SM) has been proposed to form cholesterol-dependent raft domains and sphingolipid domains in the plasma membrane (PM). How SM contributes to the formation and function of these domains remains unknown, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable fluorescent SM analogs. We developed new fluorescent SM analogs by conjugating a hydrophilic fluorophore to the SM choline headgroup without eliminating its positive charge, via a hydrophilic nonaethylene glycol linker. The new analogs behaved similarly to the native SM in terms of their partitioning behaviors in artificial liquid order-disorder phase-separated membranes and detergent-resistant PM preparations...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322795/a-comprehensive-lipid-binding-and-activity-validation-of-a-cancer-specific-peptide-peptoid-hybrid-pps1
#2
Tanvi J Desai, D Gomika Udugamasooriya
We recently identified a peptide-peptoid hybrid, PPS1, which recognizes lipids that have an overall negative charge, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but that does not bind to neutral lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sphingomyelin (SM). The simple dimeric version of PPS1, PPS1D1, displayed strong cytotoxicity to cancer cells over normal cells in vitro and tumor burden in vivo. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the direct binding and activity of PPS1 on PS, PG, and PA using liposome-based assays and lung cancer cell lines that express these negatively charged lipids...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321485/initial-autophagic-protection-switches-to-disruption-of-autophagic-flux-by-lysosomal-instability-during-cadmium-stress-accrual-in-renal-nrk-52e-cells
#3
W-K Lee, S Probst, M P Santoyo-Sánchez, W Al-Hamdani, I Diebels, J-K von Sivers, E Kerek, E J Prenner, F Thévenod
The renal proximal tubule (PT) is the major target of cadmium (Cd(2+)) toxicity where Cd(2+) causes stress and apoptosis. Autophagy is induced by cell stress, e.g., endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and may contribute to cell survival or death. The role of autophagy in Cd(2+)-induced nephrotoxicity remains unsettled due to contradictory results and lack of evidence for autophagic machinery damage by Cd(2+). Cd(2+)-induced autophagy in rat kidney PT cell line NRK-52E and its role in cell death was investigated...
March 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319722/bisphenol-s-exposure-modulate-macrophage-phenotype-as-defined-by-cytokines-profiling-global-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-analysis
#4
Chao Zhao, Zhi Tang, Jiacheng Yan, Jing Fang, Hailin Wang, Zongwei Cai
As an important structural analogue of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS) has been used as alternatives to BPA in industrialized production. However, the immunotoxicity of BPS remains poorly understood. As a critical model in inflammatory responses, macrophages are used to explore the immunotoxic potential and mechanisms of BPS at environmentally relevant concentrations in our study. Here, we are combining molecular toxicology and mass spectrometry (MS)-based global metabolomics and lipidomics study together to estimate the variation of cytokines profiling and metabolism characteristic following BPS exposure...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314284/altered-levels-of-serum-ceramide-sphingosine-and-sphingomyelin-are-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#5
Duska Separovic, Anthony F Shields, Philip A Philip, Jacek Bielawski, Alicja Bielawska, Jason S Pierce, Adi L Tarca
BACKGROUND/AIM: Because patients with cancer of apparently equivalent stage often have different outcomes, it is necessary to gather additional information to complement cancer staging. Dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism contributes to carcinogenesis. In this retrospective pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that changes in serum levels of sphingolipids are associated with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used commercially available serum samples from healthy males and patients with CRC (adenocarcinoma of the large intestine, stage IV with metastases)...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302582/characterization-of-pegylated-and-non-pegylated-liposomal-formulation-for-the-delivery-of-hypoxia-activated-vinblastine-n-oxide-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#6
Vidhi M Shah, Duc X Nguyen, Adel Alfatease, Shay Bracha, Adam Wg Alani
Solid tumors often contain hypoxic regions which are resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We have developed a liposomal delivery system for a prodrug of vinblastine (CPD100) which converts to the parent compound only in the presence of lower oxygen levels. As a part of this work we have developed and optimized two formulations of CPD100: one composed of sphingomyelin/cholesterol (55/45; mol/mol) (CPD100Li) and the other composed of sphingomyelin/cholesterol/PEG (55/40/5; mol/mol) (CPD100 PEGLi)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301839/early-programming-of-obesity-throughout-the-life-course-a-metabolomics-perspective
#7
Sebastian Rauschert, Franca F Kirchberg, Linda Marchioro, Berthold Koletzko, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, research on early life risk factors for obesity and its comorbidities in early life has gained attention within the field of developmental origins of health and diseases. Metabolomics studies that are trying to find early life biomarker and intervention targets for the early development of obesity and associated cardiovascular diseases could help break the inter-generational cycle of obesity. SUMMARY: Metabolomics studies in the field of early programming are scarce and causality is lacking at this stage, as most of the studies are cross-sectional...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300770/transglycosylated-starch-improves-insulin-response-and-alters-lipid-and-amino-acid-metabolome-in-a-growing-pig-model
#8
Monica A Newman, Qendrim Zebeli, Eva Eberspächer, Dietmar Grüll, Timea Molnar, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON) or TGS). A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297799/-a-serum-lipidomic-study-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
R X Yang, C X Hu, Y Q Mi, W L Sun, G Y Chen, Q Pan, F Shen, G W Xu, J G Fan
Objective: To investigate the serum lipidomic profile in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to analyze the lipid metabolism characteristics of NAFLD. Methods: The subjects were divided into control group (23 patients) and pathologically confirmed NAFLD group (42 patients), and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure serum lipidomic metabolites. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was established to analyze the differences in lipid metabolism with reference to the univariate analysis...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292932/crystal-structure-of-the-human-alkaline-sphingomyelinase-provides-insights-into-substrate-recognition
#10
Alexei Gorelik, Fangyu Liu, Katalin Illes, Bhushan Nagar
Absorption of dietary sphingomyelin (SM) requires its initial degradation into ceramide, a process catalyzed by the intestinal enzyme alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase, NPP7, ENPP7). Alk-SMase belongs to the nucleotide pyrophosphatase / phosphodiesterase family, the members of which hydrolyze nucleoside phosphates, phospholipids and other related molecules. NPP7 is the only paralog that can cleave SM, and its activity requires the presence of bile salts, a class of physiological anionic detergents. To elucidate the mechanism of substrate recognition, we determined the crystal structure of human alk-SMase in complex with phosphocholine, a reaction product...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287268/nmr-based-lipid-profiling-of-high-density-lipoprotein-particles-in-healthy-subjects-with-low-normal-and-elevated-hdl-cholesterol
#11
Christina E Kostara, Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Moses S Elisaf, Eleni T Bairaktari
Recent studies suggest that the cholesterol content of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) lipoproteins may provide limited information on their antiatherogenic properties and that the composition and particles' structure provide more information on their functionality. We used NMR-based (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based) lipidomics to study the relationships of serum HDL-C (HDL-Cholesterol) levels with the lipid composition of HDL particles in three groups of subjects selected on the basis of their HDL-C levels...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278231/the-human-plasma-metabolome-reference-values-in-800-french-healthy-volunteers-impact-of-cholesterol-gender-and-age
#12
Séverine Trabado, Abdallah Al-Salameh, Vincent Croixmarie, Perrine Masson, Emmanuelle Corruble, Bruno Fève, Romain Colle, Laurent Ripoll, Bernard Walther, Claire Boursier-Neyret, Erwan Werner, Laurent Becquemont, Philippe Chanson
Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275104/dietary-choline-intake-is-directly-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-the-hordaland-health-study
#13
Jannike Øyen, Clara Gram Gjesdal, Therese Karlsson, Gard Ft Svingen, Grethe S Tell, Elin Strand, Christian A Drevon, Kathrine J Vinknes, Klaus Meyer, Per Magne Ueland, Ottar Nygård
Background: Choline is an important nutrient either obtained from a variety of foods or synthesized endogenously, and it is the precursor of betaine. We previously reported positive associations between plasma free choline and bone mineral density (BMD). Animal studies suggest an impact of dietary choline on bone metabolism, but the role of dietary intake of choline and betaine for human bone health is unknown.Objectives: The main aims were to examine the associations of dietary choline, choline species, and betaine with BMD and to study the relations between dietary and plasma free choline and betaine...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273804/domain-4-d4-of-perfringolysin-o-to-visualize-cholesterol-in-cellular-membranes-the-update
#14
REVIEW
Masashi Maekawa
The cellular membrane of eukaryotes consists of phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and membrane proteins. Among them, cholesterol is crucial for various cellular events (e.g., signaling, viral/bacterial infection, and membrane trafficking) in addition to its essential role as an ingredient of steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids. From a micro-perspective, at the plasma membrane, recent emerging evidence strongly suggests the existence of lipid nanodomains formed with cholesterol and phospholipids (e...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272888/preferential-adsorption-of-l-histidine-onto-dopc-sphingomyelin-3%C3%A3-n-n-n-dimethylaminoethane-carbamoyl-cholesterol-liposomes-in-the-presence-of-chiral-organic-acids
#15
Keishi Suga, Atsushi Tauchi, Takaaki Ishigami, Yukihiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Umakoshi
We investigated the effect of organic acids such as mandelic acid (MA) and tartaric acid (TA) on the adsorption behavior of both histidine (His) and propranolol (PPL) onto liposomes. A cationic and heterogeneous liposome prepared using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/sphingomyelin (SM)/3β-{N-[(N',N'-dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl}cholesterol (DC-Ch) in a ratio of (4/3/3) showed the highest adsorption efficiency of MA and TA independent of chirality, while neutral liposome DOPC/SM/cholesterol = (4/3/3) showed low efficiency...
March 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269764/targeted-metabolomic-analysis-of-soluble-lysates-from-platelets-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-compared-to-healthy-controls-is-pc-aec40-4-a-promising-diagnostic-tool
#16
Herbert Oberacher, Kathrin Arnhard, Caroline Linhart, Angela Diwo, Josef Marksteiner, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The use of biological fluids in AD diagnosis remains limited to the analysis of specific protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. However, metabolomic analysis has recently revealed several metabolites in plasma, especially phosphatidylcholines (PC), as putative biomarkers specific for AD. Following on previous reports of platelet abnormalities in AD, we hypothesized that platelets metabolites released in plasma may offer new biomarkers in AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264934/structure-activity-relationship-of-thapsigargin-inhibition-on-the-purified-golgi-secretory-pathway-ca2-mn2-transport-atpase-spca1a
#17
Jialin Chen, Joren De Raeymaecker, Jannik Brøndsted Hovgaard, Susanne Smaardijk, Ilse Vandecaetsbeek, Frank Wuytack, Jesper Vuust Møller, Jan Eggermont, Marc De Maeyer, Søren Brøgger Christensen, Peter Vangheluwe
The Golgi/secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase (SPCA1a) is implicated in breast cancer and Hailey-Hailey disease. Here, we purified recombinant human SPCA1a from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and measured Ca2+ dependent ATPase activity following reconstitution in proteoliposomes. The purified SPCA1a displays a higher apparent Ca2+ affinity and lower maximal turnover rate than the purified sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA1a). The lipids cholesteryl hemisuccinate, linole-/oleamide and phosphatidyl ethanolamine inhibit, whereas phosphatidic acid and sphingomyelin enhance SPCA1a activity...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261569/development-of-a-proximity-labeling-system-to-map-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-inclusion-membrane
#18
Elizabeth A Rucks, Macy G Olson, Lisa M Jorgenson, Rekha R Srinivasan, Scot P Ouellette
Chlamydia grows within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The cellular processes that support the biogenesis and integrity of this pathogen-specified parasitic organelle are not understood. Chlamydia secretes integral membrane proteins called Incs that insert into the chlamydial inclusion membrane (IM). Incs contain at least two hydrophobic transmembrane domains flanked by termini, which vary in size and are exposed to the host cytosol. In addition, Incs are temporally expressed during the chlamydial developmental cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259515/quantitation-of-plasmatic-lysosphingomyelin-and-lysosphingomyelin-509-for-differential-screening-of-niemann-pick-a-b-and-c-diseases
#19
L Kuchar, J Sikora, M E Gulinello, H Poupetova, A Lugowska, V Malinova, H Jahnova, B Asfaw, J Ledvinova
Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMd, Niemann-Pick disease A/B) and Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) share core clinical symptoms. Initial diagnostic discrimination of these two rare lysosomal storage diseases is thus difficult. As sphingomyelin accumulates in ASMd as well as NPC, lysosphingomyelin (sphingosylphosphorylcholine) and its m/z 509 analog were suggested as biomarkers for both diseases. Herein we present results of simultaneous LC-ESI-MS/MS measurements of lysosphingomyelin and lysosphingomyelin 509 in plasma and dried blood spots (DBS) collected from ASMd and NPC patients and suggest that the plasma but not DBS levels of the two analytes allow differential biochemical screening of ASMd and NPC...
March 1, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258657/intravesical-liposome-therapy-for-interstitial-cystitis
#20
REVIEW
Pradeep Tyagi, Mahendra Kashyap, Tsuyoshi Majima, Naoki Kawamorita, Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Naoki Yoshimura
Over the past two decades, there has been lot of interest in the use of liposomes as lipid-based biocompatible carriers for drugs administered by the intravesical route. The lipidic bilayer structure of liposomes facilitates their adherence to the apical membrane surface of luminal cells in the bladder, and their vesicular shape allows them to co-opt the endocytosis machinery for bladder uptake after instillation. Liposomes have been shown to enhance the penetration of both water-soluble and insoluble drugs, toxins, and oligonucleotides across the bladder epithelium...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
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