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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670404/evaluation-of-vancomycin-therapy-in-the-adult-icus-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-iran
#1
Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake
Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs) accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females) who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669670/utilization-and-timeliness-of-an-inpatient-penicillin-allergy-evaluation
#2
Keith A Sacco, Razvan Chirila, Claudia Libertin, Brett Hiroto, Arveen Bhasin, Margaret M Johnson, Thanai Pongdee, M Caroline Burton
BACKGROUND: A history of penicillin allergy is associated with an increased risk of nosocomial infections because patients are exposed to non-beta lactam antibiotics. Ruling out inaccurate penicillin allergy during hospitalization decreases prescription of beta lactam antibiotics. However, the utilization of penicillin allergy testing and timeliness in relation to initiation of antibiotics is not known. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the proportion and characteristics of patients who underwent inpatient penicillin allergy testing in a hospital without a guideline or infrastructure for inpatient penicillin allergy testing...
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664874/traumatic-brain-injury-and-infectious-encephalopathy-in-children-from-four-resource-limited-settings-in-africa
#3
Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659359/-pneumonia-associated-with-mechanical-ventilation-update-and-recommendations-inter-societies-sadi-sati
#4
Wanda Cornistein, Ángel M Colque, María Inés Staneloni, María Monserrat Lloria, Mónica Lares, Ana Laura González, Alejandro Fernández Garcés, Edith Carbone
Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) worked together on the development of specific recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The methodology used was the analysis of the literature published in the last 15 years, complemented with the opinion of experts and local data. This document aims to offer basic tools to optimize diagnosis based on clinical and microbiological criteria, orientation in empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, news on posology and administration of antibiotics in critical patients and to promote effective measures to reduce the risk of VAP...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600241/a-standardized-needs-assessment-tool-to-inform-the-curriculum-development-process-for-pediatric-resuscitation-simulation-based-education-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
Nicole Shilkofski, Amanda Crichlow, Julie Rice, Leslie Cope, Ye Myint Kyaw, Thazin Mon, Sarah Kiguli, Julianna Jung
Introduction: Under five mortality rates (UFMR) remain high for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the developing world. Education for practitioners in these environments is a key factor to improve outcomes that will address United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 10 (good health and well being and reduced inequalities). In order to appropriately contextualize a curriculum using simulation, it is necessary to first conduct a needs assessment of the target learner population...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598889/severe-malaria-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-a-collaborative-approach-utilizing-exchange-transfusion-and-artesunate
#6
David Zodda, Gabrielle Procopio, Kevin Hewitt, Andrew Parrish, Bindu Balani, Joseph Feldman
We describe the case of a previously healthy 33year-old male pilot recently arrived to the United States from Africa. The patient presented to our ED febrile and disoriented, with projectile coffee-ground emesis. He was later found to have severe malaria and cerebral parasitemia. Due to the severity of his illness, the patient received the anti-malarial medication Artesunate as well as several exchange transfusions. Within 48h his parasitic load was reduced from 42% to 0.4%. The following is an account of a collaborative effort that spans the specialties of emergency medicine, infectious disease, and critical care medicine...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544449/development-and-validation-of-a-diagnostic-model-for-early-differentiation-of-sepsis-and-non-infectious-sirs-in-critically-ill-children-a-data-driven-approach-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#7
Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne, André Karch
BACKGROUND: Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We aimed to develop a diagnostic model for differentiation of sepsis and non-infectious SIRS in critically ill children based on routinely available parameters (baseline characteristics, clinical/laboratory parameters, technical/medical support). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted at a German tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515942/implementation-of-a-comprehensive-curriculum-in-personal-finance-for-medical-fellows
#8
Yuval D Bar-Or, Henry E Fessler, Dipan A Desai, Sammy Zakaria
INTRODUCTION: Many residents and fellows complete graduate medical education having received minimal unbiased financial planning guidance. This places them at risk of making ill-informed financial decisions, which may lead to significant harm to them and their families. Therefore, we sought to provide fellows with comprehensive unbiased financial education and empower them to make timely, constructive financial decisions. METHODS: A self-selected cohort of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary and critical care, and infectious disease fellows (n = 18) at a single institution attended a live, eight-hour interactive course on personal finance...
January 1, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510453/addressing-social-influences-reduces-antibiotic-duration-in-complicated-abdominal-infection-a-mixed-methods-study
#9
Jennifer Broom, Chin Li Tee, Alex Broom, Mark D Kelly, Tahira Scott, David A Grieve
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial therapy for intra-abdominal infections is often inappropriately prolonged. An intervention addressing factors influencing the duration of intravenous antibiotic use was undertaken. This study reports the antibiotic prescribing patterns before and after the intervention and a qualitative analysis of the experience of the intervention. METHODS: Quantitative: A retrospective audit of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection before and after a multifaceted persuasive intervention was performed...
March 6, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503436/prognostic-risk-factors-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#10
Ziyaattin Karakuzu, Remzi Iscimen, Halis Akalin, Nermin Kelebek Girgin, Ferda Kahveci, Melda Sinirtas
BACKGROUND Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection commonly seen in patients in intensive care units (ICU). This study aimed to analyze factors affecting prognosis of patients diagnosed with VAP. MATERIAL AND METHODS Critically ill patients with VAP were retrospectively evaluated between June 2002 and June 2011 in the ICU. VAP diagnosis was made according to 2005 ATS/IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society) criteria. First pneumonia attacks of patients were analyzed...
March 5, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498340/likelihood-of-infectious-outcomes-following-infectious-risk-moments-during-patient-care-an-international-expert-consensus-study-and-quantitative-risk-index
#11
Lauren Clack, Simone Passerini, Tanja Manser, Hugo Sax
OBJECTIVE To elicit expert consensus on the likelihood of infectious outcomes (patient colonization or infection) following a broad range of infectious risk moments (IRMs) from observations in acute care. DESIGN Expert consensus study using modified Delphi technique. PARTICIPANTS Panel of 40 international experts including nurses, physicians and microbiologists specialized in infectious diseases and infection prevention and control (IPC). METHODS The modified Delphi process consisted of 3 online survey rounds, with feedback of mean ratings and expert comments between rounds...
March 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487778/fundamentals-and-commercial-aspects-of-nanobiosensors-in-point-of-care-clinical-diagnostics
#12
REVIEW
Kuldeep Mahato, Pawan Kumar Maurya, Pranjal Chandra
Among various problems faced by mankind, health-related concerns are prevailing since long which are commonly found in the form of infectious diseases and different metabolic disorders. The clinical cure and management of such abnormalities are greatly dependent on the availability of their diagnoses. The conventional diagnostics used for such purposes are extremely powerful; however, most of these are limited by time-consuming protocols and require higher volume of test sample, etc. A new evolving technology called "biosensor" in this context shows an enormous potential for an alternative diagnostic device, which constantly compliments the conventional diagnoses...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481673/macrophage-activation-syndrome-in-adults-recent-advances-in-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
Stuart J Carter, Rachel S Tattersall, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome, which if not promptly treated, can lead rapidly to critical illness and death. HLH is termed macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) when associated with rheumatic disease (where it is best characterized in systemic JIA) and secondary HLH (sHLH) when associated with other triggers including malignancy and infection. MAS/sHLH is rare and coupled with its mimicry of other conditions, is underrecognized. These inherent challenges can lead to diagnostic and management challenges in multiple medical specialties including haematology, infectious diseases, critical care and rheumatology...
February 21, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457151/the-impact-of-igg-transplacental-transfer-on-early-life-immunity
#14
Genevieve G Fouda, David R Martinez, Geeta K Swamy, Sallie R Permar
Pediatric vaccines have significantly reduced infectious disease-related infant mortality, but as protective immunity often require several infant vaccine doses; maternally-acquired antibodies are critical to protect infants during the first months of life. Consequently, immunization of pregnant women is an important strategy not only to protect mothers from infection, but also to provide immunity to young infants. Nevertheless, maternal immunization can also negatively impact early life immunity. In fact, maternal antibodies can interfere with the development of infant immune responses, though it is unclear if such interference is clinically significant...
January 1, 2018: ImmunoHorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437046/zika-and-public-health-understanding-the-epidemiology-and-information-environment
#15
Pia D M MacDonald, E Wayne Holden
Because Zika is a newly emerging infectious disease with little previous information known about it, there are many epidemiologic and clinical questions. The complexity of providing care to those who are at risk for infection or are already infected with Zika in this evidence-scarce environment cannot be understated. In this article, we provide an overview of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the context of public health and pediatric health care. A broad public health focus is used to provide relevant information for addressing important questions about the epidemic and to facilitate communication with patients, parents, and caregivers within the current information environment...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428589/infectious-pathogens-meet-point-of-care-diagnostics
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Zarei
The field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics provides the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases which is essential and critical for improving the general public health in resource-limited settings. POC platforms offer many advantages for detection of various pathogens including portability, automation, speed, cost, and efficiency. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent trends for POC diagnostics of infectious diseases with focus on portable platforms. We review here the present status of POC platforms, emphasizing in period of the past three years, then extrapolate their advance into the future applications for diagnosis of infectious pathogens...
February 3, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406956/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-clinical-guidelines-of-the-spanish-society-of-infectious-diseases-and-clinical-microbiology-and-seimc-and-the-spanish-society-of-spanish-society-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine-and-coronary
#17
F Chaves, J Garnacho-Montero, J L Del Pozo, E Bouza, J A Capdevila, M de Cueto, M Á Domínguez, J Esteban, N Fernández-Hidalgo, M Fernández Sampedro, J Fortún, M Guembe, L Lorente, J R Paño, P Ramírez, M Salavert, M Sánchez, J Vallés
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) constitute an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. The aim of these guidelines is to provide updated recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CRBSI in adults. Prevention of CRBSI is excluded. Experts in the field were designated by the two participating Societies (the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and [SEIMC] and the Spanish Society of Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units [SEMICYUC])...
January 2018: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393841/the-infectious-disease-network-idn-development-and-use-for-evaluation-of-potential-ebola-cases-in-georgia
#18
Alezandria K Turner, Robert K Wages, Kelly Nadeau, Laura Edison, Peki F Prince, Earnest R Doss, Cherie Drenzek, Patrick O'Neal
In response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, the Georgia Department of Public Health developed the Infectious Disease Network (IDN) based on an EVD preparedness needs assessment of hospitals and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. The network consists of 12 hospitals and 16 EMS providers with staff specially trained to provide a coordinated response and utilize appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the transport or treatment of a suspected or confirmed serious communicable disease patient...
February 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378581/patient-and-provider-perspectives-inform-an-intervention-to-improve-linkage-to-care-for-hiv-patients-in-ukraine
#19
Tetiana Kiriazova, Oleksandr Postnov, Trista Bingham, Janet Myers, Timothy Flanigan, Charles Vitek, Oleksandr Neduzhko
BACKGROUND: Engagement with HIV medical care is critical to successful HIV treatment and prevention efforts. However, in Ukraine, delays in the timely initiation of HIV treatment hamper viral suppression. By January 01, 2016, only 126,604 (57.5%) of the estimated 220,000 people living with HIV (PLWH) had registered for HIV care, and most (55.1%) of those who registered for HIV care in 2015 did that at a late stage of infection. In the US, Anti-Retroviral Treatment and Access to Services (ARTAS) intervention successfully linked newly diagnosed PLWH to HIV services using strengths-based case management with a linkage coordinator...
January 30, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352835/a-gap-analysis-survey-of-us-aircraft-rescue-and-fire-fighting-arff-members-to-determine-highly-infectious-disease-training-and-education-needs
#20
Aurora B Le, Rene Herron, Jocelyn J Herstein, Katelyn C Jelden, Elizabeth L Beam, Shawn G Gibbs, John J Lowe, Todd D Smith
OBJECTIVE: Despite lessons learned from the recent Ebola epidemic, attempts to survey and determine non-health care worker, industry-specific needs to address highly infectious diseases have been minimal. The aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) industry is often overlooked in highly infectious disease training and education, even though it is critical to their field due to elevated occupational exposure risk during their operations. METHODS: A 44-question gap analysis survey was distributed to the ARFF Working Group to determine where highly infectious education and training can be improved...
January 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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