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Critical care infectious diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211187/the-epimed-monitor-icu-database%C3%A2-a-cloud-based-national-registry-for-adult-intensive-care-unit-patients-in-brazil
#1
Fernando Godinho Zampieri, Márcio Soares, Lunna Perdigão Borges, Jorge Ibrain Figueira Salluh, Otávio Tavares Ranzani
OBJECTIVE: To describe the Epimed Monitor Database®, a Brazilian intensive care unit quality improvement database. METHODS: We described the Epimed Monitor® Database, including its structure and core data. We presented aggregated informative data from intensive care unit admissions from 2010 to 2016 using descriptive statistics. We also described the expansion and growth of the database along with the geographical distribution of participating units in Brazil...
November 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204328/the-role-of-affordable-point-of-care-technologies-for-cancer-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-review-and-commentary
#2
Karen Haney, Pushpa Tandon, Rao Divi, Miguel R Ossandon, Houston Baker, Paul C Pearlman
As the burden of non-communicable diseases such as cancer continues to rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is essential to identify and invest in promising solutions for cancer control and treatment. Point-of-care technologies (POCTs) have played critical roles in curbing infectious disease epidemics in both high- and low-income settings, and their successes can serve as a model for transforming cancer care in LMICs, where access to traditional clinical resources is often limited. The versatility, cost-effectiveness, and simplicity of POCTs warrant attention for their potential to revolutionize cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199253/-effects-of-pharmacist-intervention-on-the-treatment-of-infectious-diseases-in-critically-ill-patients
#3
Masaharu Imaura
 The pathological conditions of patients who require intensive care are usually complex and extremely severe; their health and life are in a critical state. Therefore, correct, rapid treatment of these conditions is indispensable. Furthermore, the selection of drugs and adjustment of their dosage for an immediate effect are important. Moreover, most patients are immunocompromised and present an extremely high level of risk for complications involving infectious diseases. Since such complications may lead to life-threatening outcomes, a rational dosage regimen to achieve sufficient antimicrobial activity from the initial stage of treatment is essential...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157660/encephalitis-and-myelitis-in-tropical-countries-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Gisele Sampaio Silva, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin R Amin
Tropical diseases are those that occur primarily or solely in the tropics, and as such include infectious diseases that are particularly prevalent in hot, humid conditions. The incidence of encephalitis in tropical countries is reported to be as high as 6.34/100,000/year. The term encephalitis implies inflammation of the brain and includes the presence of encephalopathy with two and more of the following features: fever, seizures and/or focal neurological findings; a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis; electroencephalographic findings or abnormal neuroimaging suggestive of encephalitis...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123869/drug-induced-anaphylaxis-in-the-emergency-room
#5
REVIEW
Tomonori Takazawa, Kiyohiro Oshima, Shigeru Saito
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that presents unique challenges for emergency care practitioners. Anaphylaxis occurs more frequently than previously believed. Therefore, proper knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of anaphylaxis is essential. In particular, the initial treatment strategy, followed by correct diagnosis, in the emergency room is critical for preventing fatal anaphylaxis, although making a diagnosis is not easy because of the broad and often atypical presentation of anaphylaxis...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104430/pitfalls-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-invasive-pneumococcal-meningoencephalitis-what-we-can-learn-from-a-case
#6
Pascale S Grzonka, Raoul Sutter
Invasive pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease affecting the central nervous system. It continues to be the most common type of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitides. Despite advances in neuro-critical care, the case fatality rate remains high. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of antibiotic therapy precludes mortality and long-term neurological sequelae in survivors. However, not all cases are easily recognised, and unanticipated complications may impede optimal course and outcome...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077390/lab-on-chip-devices-gaining-ground-losing-size
#7
Veronica C Romao, Sofia A M Martins, Jose Germano, Filipe A Cardoso, Susana Cardoso, Paulo P Freitas
Portable analytical devices are notably gaining relevance in the panorama of urgent testing. Such devices have the potential to play an important role as easy-to-handle tools in critical situations. Epidemic infectious disease agents (e.g., Ebola virus, Coronavirus, Zika virus) could be controlled more easily by testing travelers on-site at the country borders to prevent outbreaks from spreading. The increasing incidence of hospital-acquired infections caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens could be minimized by point-of-care microbial analysis as well as rapid screening tests of bacteria resistance...
October 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061072/perinatally-hiv-infected-youths-after-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-a-single-center-experience-from-northern-italy
#8
Ilaria Izzo, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Barbara Saccani, Erika Chiari, Salvatore Casari, Emanuele Focà, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Maria Antonia Forleo, Andrea Bonito, Raffaele Badolato, Laura Dotta, Francesco Castelli
With the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected children has reached young adulthood. A retrospective study was conducted on perinatally HIV-infected young adults after transition to adult care in Brescia (Northern Italy). Twenty-four patients were transferred to Infectious Disease outpatient Clinic from Pediatric Clinic between 2004 and 2016. Median age at transition was 18 years. 37.5% were male, and 75% were Italian. Median CD4(+) T-cell count was 534 cell/μL, and 9/24 presented detectable HIV-RNA at the time of transition...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050810/how-to-not-detonate-the-bomb-the-case-of-the-italian-national-health-service
#9
G La Torre, A Federici
Why is Italy one of the world's highest ranked for ability and quality of healthcare in relationship to the resources invested? The last decade has been characterized by many Italian Regions with Recovery Plans, whose main focus was on short-term issues with a high impact on healthcare costs. Italy is now leaving this phase and at the regional level there will be an increase of new hirings in the healthcare sectors, as stated by the Ministry of Health. There is a large amount of scientific literature that supports the role of factors such as lifestyles, diet and genetics as the base of population health...
October 16, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029170/use-of-a-structured-panel-process-to-define-antimicrobial-prescribing-appropriateness-in-critical-care
#10
Linda D Dresser, Chaim M Bell, Marilyn Steinberg, Niall D Ferguson, Stephen Lapinsky, Neil Lazar, Patricia Murphy, Jeffrey M Singh, Andrew M Morris
Background: Antimicrobial prescribing is frequently reported as appropriate or inappropriate, particularly in the ICU. However, the definitions used are non-standardized and lack validity and reliability. Objectives: To develop standardized definitions of appropriateness for antimicrobial prescribing in the critical care setting. Methods: We used consensus-based modified Delphi and RAND appropriateness methodology to develop criteria to define appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960624/talking-to-the-people-that-really-matter-about-their-participation-in-pandemic-clinical-research-a-qualitative-study-in-four-european-countries
#11
Nina H Gobat, Micaela Gal, Christopher C Butler, Steve A R Webb, Nicholas A Francis, Helen Stanton, Sibyl Anthierens, Hilde Bastiaens, Maciek Godycki-Ćwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Anna Berenguera, Angela Watkins, Prasanth Sukumar, Ronald G Moore, Kerenza Hood, Alistair Nichol
BACKGROUND: Pandemics of new and emerging infectious diseases are unpredictable, recurrent events that rapidly threaten global health and security. We aimed to identify public views regarding provision of information and consent to participate in primary and critical care clinical research during a future influenza-like illness pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive-interpretive qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 10) and semi-structured interviews (n = 16), with 80 members of the public (>18 years) in Belgium, Spain, Poland and the UK...
September 27, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945064/-candidemia-and-invasive-candidiasis-approach-in-critically-ill-patients-role-of-the-echinocandins
#12
B Almirante, J Garnacho-Montero, E Maseda, F J Candel, S Grau, J Guinea, I Moreno, P Muñoz, S Ruiz-Santana
OBJECTIVE: Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. in critically ill patients may significantly worsen their prognosis, so it is of great importance to establish an early detection and a suitable therapeutic strategy. The objective of this study was to define the differential role of echinocandins in treating certain critical patient profiles. METHODS: A scientific committee of 9 experts in infectious diseases, critical care, microbiology, and hospital pharmacy reviewed the existing evidence on the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients...
September 25, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934370/the-risk-of-sustained-sexual-transmission-of-zika-is-underestimated
#13
Antoine Allard, Benjamin M Althouse, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Samuel V Scarpino
Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933204/healthcare-utilization-and-direct-costs-of-non-infectious-comorbidities-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-usa
#14
Joel Gallant, Priscilla Hsue, David Budd, Nicole Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental healthcare utilization and costs associated with common non-infectious comorbid conditions among commercially and Medicaid-insured HIV-infected patients in the US. METHODS: US administrative claims were used to select adult HIV patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, or fracture/osteoporosis, three common comorbidities that have been associated with HIV and HIV treatment, between 01/012004 and 06/30/2013...
September 21, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914100/acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-the-infectious-diseases-consultant
#15
Victor Mulanovich, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Infectious complications following treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and complexity of these infections is reflected by the severe net state of immunosuppression of AML patients, that is dynamic and continuously changing, the polypharmacy, including the widespread use of anti-infectives and the complex epidemiology of severe and frequently resistant pathogens afflicting these patients. Infectious diseases (ID) consultants having a critical mass of expertise and intimate knowledge of the intricacies of leukemia care, add considerable value in improving outcomes of patients with AML who develop infections...
September 15, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902596/evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-drug-susceptibility-test-for-tuberculosis
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yingda L Xie, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Derek T Armstrong, Sandra L Hall, Laura E Via, Taeksun Song, Xing Yuan, Xiaoying Mo, Hong Zhu, Peng Xu, Qian Gao, Myungsun Lee, Jongseok Lee, Laura E Smith, Ray Y Chen, Joon Sung Joh, YoungSoo Cho, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Nila Dharan, Sang-Nae Cho, Clifton E Barry, Jerrold J Ellner, Susan E Dorman, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs are the backbone of treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and resistance to these drugs defines extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We assessed the accuracy of an automated, cartridge-based molecular assay for the detection, directly from sputum specimens, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and isoniazid. METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study to compare the investigational assay against phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing among adults in China and South Korea who had symptoms of tuberculosis...
September 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890524/diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-following-acute-brain-injuries-using-a-consensus-based-diagnostic-tool-a-single-institutional-case-series
#17
Shigeo Godo, Shigemi Irino, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Yu Kawazoe, Motoo Fujita, Daisuke Kudo, Ryosuke Nomura, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Shigeki Kushimoto
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a distinct syndrome of episodic sympathetic hyperactivities following severe acquired brain injury, characterized by paroxysmal transient fever, tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, excessive diaphoresis and specific posturing. PSH remains to be an under-recognized condition with a diagnostic pitfall especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings due to the high prevalence of concomitant diseases that mimic PSH. A consensus set of diagnostic criteria named PSH-Assessment Measure (PSH-AM) has been developed recently, which is consisted of two components: a diagnosis likelihood tool derived from clinical characteristics of PSH, and a clinical feature scale assigned to the severity of each sympathetic hyperactivity...
September 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841872/from-habits-of-attrition-to-modes-of-inclusion-enhancing-the-role-of-private-practitioners-in-routine-disease-surveillance
#18
Revati K Phalkey, Carsten Butsch, Kristine Belesova, Marieke Kroll, Frauke Kraas
BACKGROUND: Private practitioners are the preferred first point of care in a majority of low and middle-income countries and in this position, best placed for the surveillance of diseases. However their contribution to routine surveillance data is marginal. This systematic review aims to explore evidence with regards to the role, contribution, and involvement of private practitioners in routine disease data notification. We examined the factors that determine the inclusion of, and the participation thereof of private practitioners in disease surveillance activities...
August 25, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820454/personal-hygiene-practices-among-urban-homeless-persons-in-boston-ma
#19
Jessica H Leibler, Daniel D Nguyen, Casey León, Jessie M Gaeta, Debora Perez
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA (n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794121/changes-in-primary-noncardiac-diagnoses-over-time-among-elderly-cardiac-intensive-care-unit-patients-in-the-united-states
#20
Shashank S Sinha, Michael W Sjoding, Devraj Sukul, Hallie C Prescott, Theodore J Iwashyna, Hitinder S Gurm, Colin R Cooke, Brahmajee K Nallamothu
BACKGROUND: Early reports suggest the number of cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) patients with primary noncardiac diagnoses is rising in the United States, but no national data currently exist. We examined changes in primary noncardiac diagnoses among elderly patients admitted to a CICU during the past decade. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using 2003 to 2013 Medicare data, we grouped elderly patients admitted to CICUs into 2 categories based on principal diagnosis at discharge: (1) primary noncardiac diagnoses and (2) primary cardiac diagnoses...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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