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Critical care infectious diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520859/the-role-of-patient-care-items-as-a-fomite-in-healthcare-associated-outbreaks-and-infection-prevention
#1
Hajime Kanamori, William A Rutala, David J Weber
Patient-care items can serve as a source or reservoir for healthcare associated pathogens in hospitals. We reviewed healthcare-associated outbreaks from medical equipment and provided infection prevention recommendations. Multiple healthcare-associated outbreaks via a contaminated patient-care item were identified, including infections with multidrug-resistant organisms. The type of patient-care items implicated as a fomite causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI) has changed over time. Patient populations at risk were most commonly critically ill patients in adult and neonatal ICUs...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520621/outbreaks-in-the-adult-icus
#2
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Yaseen M Arabi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious disease outbreaks in the critical care setting are common and serious consequence. This article reviews and summarizes recent outbreaks in the adult ICUs. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and emerging viruses in ICUs from different countries are common. Outbreak investigation relies on epidemiologic methods, microbiologic studies, and molecular typing methods. Overuse of antibiotics, gaps in implementing infection prevention measures, and contaminated environment are common causes of ICU outbreaks...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#3
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438918/does-the-impact-of-biodiversity-differ-between-emerging-and-endemic-pathogens-the-need-to-separate-the-concepts-of-hazard-and-risk
#4
REVIEW
Parviez R Hosseini, James N Mills, Anne-Hélène Prieur-Richard, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Xavier Bailly, Annapaola Rizzoli, Gerardo Suzán, Marion Vittecoq, Gabriel E García-Peña, Peter Daszak, Jean-François Guégan, Benjamin Roche
Biodiversity is of critical value to human societies, but recent evidence that biodiversity may mitigate infectious-disease risk has sparked controversy among researchers. The majority of work on this topic has focused on direct assessments of the relationship between biodiversity and endemic-pathogen prevalence, without disentangling intervening mechanisms; thus study outcomes often differ, fuelling more debate. Here, we suggest two critical changes to the approach researchers take to understanding relationships between infectious disease, both endemic and emerging, and biodiversity that may help clarify sources of controversy...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438909/interacting-effects-of-land-use-and-climate-on-rodent-borne-pathogens-in-central-kenya
#5
Hillary S Young, Douglas J McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Charles L Nunn, Michael G Campana, Bernard Agwanda, Erik R Otarola-Castillo, Eric R Castillo, Robert M Pringle, Kari E Veblen, Daniel J Salkeld, Kristin Stewardson, Robert Fleischer, Eric F Lambin, Todd M Palmer, Kristofer M Helgen
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on zoonotic disease risk is both a critical conservation objective and a public health priority. Here, we evaluate the effects of multiple forms of anthropogenic disturbance across a precipitation gradient on the abundance of pathogen-infected small mammal hosts in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system in central Kenya. Our results suggest that conversion to cropland and wildlife loss alone drive systematic increases in rodent-borne pathogen prevalence, but that pastoral conversion has no such systematic effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409203/the-role-of-infection-models-and-pk-pd-modelling-for-optimising-care-of-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-infections
#6
REVIEW
T Tängdén, V Ramos Martín, T W Felton, E I Nielsen, S Marchand, R J Brüggemann, J B Bulitta, M Bassetti, U Theuretzbacher, B T Tsuji, D W Wareham, L E Friberg, J J De Waele, V H Tam, Jason A Roberts
Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed. Use of such regimens often results in inadequate antimicrobial concentrations at the site of infection and is associated with poor patient outcomes. In this article, we describe the potential of in vitro and in vivo infection models, clinical pharmacokinetic data and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to guide the design of more effective antimicrobial dosing regimens...
April 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400686/convergence-of-minds-for-better-patient-outcome-in-intensive-care-unit-infections
#7
Chand Wattal, Yash Javeri, Neeraj Goel, Debashish Dhar, Sonal Saxena, Sarman Singh, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, B K Rao, Purva Mathur, Vikas Manchanda, Vivek Nangia, Arti Kapil, Ashok Rattan, Supradip Ghosh, Omender Singh, Vinod Singh, Iqbal Kaur, Sanghamitra Datta, Sharmila Sen Gupta
BACKGROUND: There is emergence of resistance to the last-line antibiotics such as carbapenems in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), leaving little effective therapeutic options. Since there are no more newer antibiotics in the armamentarium in the near future, it has become imperative that we harness the interdisciplinary knowledge for the best clinical outcome of the patient. AIMS: The aim of the conference was to utilize the synergies between the clinical microbiologists and critical care specialists for better patient care and clinical outcome...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353449/influence-of-socio-economic-inequality-measured-by-the-gini-coefficient-on-meningitis-incidence-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-colombia-2008-2011
#8
Wilmer F Acevedo-Mendoza, Diana Paola Buitrago Gómez, Miguel Ángel Atehortua-Otero, Miguel Ángel Páez, Manuela Jiménez-Rincón, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of infectious neurological morbidity and mortality. Its incidence has decreased with the introduction of vaccination programmes against preventable agents. However, low-income and middle-income countries with poor access to health care still have a significant burden of the disease. Thus, the relationship between the Gini coefficient and H. influenzae and M. tuberculosis meningitis incidence in Colombia, during 2008-2011, was assessed. In this ecological study, the Gini coefficient was obtained from the Colombian Department of Statistics, incidence rates were calculated (cases/1,000,000 pop) and linear regressions were performed using the Gini coefficient, to assess the relationship between the latter and the incidence of meningitis...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#9
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343420/portable-devices-and-mobile-instruments-for-infectious-diseases-point-of-care-testing
#10
REVIEW
Luc Bissonnette, Michel G Bergeron
Rapidity, simplicity, and portability are highly desirable characteristics of tests and devices designed for performing diagnostics at the point of care (POC), either near patients managed in healthcare facilities or to offer bioanalytical alternatives in external settings. By reducing the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle, POC diagnostics can reduce the dissemination, morbidity, and mortality of infectious diseases and provide tools to control the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Areas covered: A literature search of PubMed and Google Scholar, and extensive mining of specialized publications, Internet resources, and manufacturers' websites have been used to organize and write this overview of the challenges and requirements associated with the development of portable sample-to-answer diagnostics, and showcase relevant examples of handheld devices, portable instruments, and less mobile systems which may or could be operated at POC...
May 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#11
Anders G Olsson, Bo Angelin, Gerd Assmann, Christoph J Binder, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Jonathan Cohen, Arnold von Eckardstein, Eduardo Farinaro, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Klaus G Parhofer, Paolo Parini, Robert S Rosenson, Jakob Starup-Linde, Matti J Tikkanen, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side-effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290130/the-choosing-wisely-initiative-in-infectious-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Clara Lehmann, Reinhard Berner, Johannes R Bogner, Oliver A Cornely, Katja de With, Susanne Herold, Winfried V Kern, Sebastian Lemmen, Mathias W Pletz, Bernhard Ruf, Bernd Salzberger, Hans Jürgen Stellbrink, Norbert Suttorp, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
OBJECTIVE: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. METHODS: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine...
March 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288355/time-required-to-initiate-outbreak-and-pandemic-observational-research
#13
Asgar H Rishu, Nicole Marinoff, Lisa Julien, Mariana Dumitrascu, Nicole Marten, Shauna Eggertson, Su Willems, Stacy Ruddell, Dan Lane, Bruce Light, Henry T Stelfox, Philippe Jouvet, Richard Hall, Steven Reynolds, Nick Daneman, Robert A Fowler
PURPOSE: Observational research focused upon emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and Zika virus has been challenging to quickly initiate. We aimed to determine the duration of start-up procedures and barriers encountered for an observational study focused upon such infectious outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 1 pediatric and 5 adult intensive care units, we measured durations from protocol receipt to a variety of outbreak research milestones, including research ethics board (REB) approval, data sharing agreement (DSA) execution, and patient study screening initiation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288231/-primary-immunodeficiencies-in-seriously-ill-children-report-of-3-clinical-cases
#14
Leticia Yáñez, Pamela Lama, Carolina Rivacoba, Juanita Zamorano, María Angélica Marinovic
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are congenital disorders secondary to an impaired immune response. Infections, autoimmune disorders, atopy, and lymphoproliferative syndromes are commonly associated with this disorder. OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss 3 infants diagnosed with PID. CLINICAL CASES: The cases are presented of three patients with PID diagnosed during their first admission to a Paediatric Intensive Critical Care Unit. The first patient, a 4-month-old infant affected by a severe pneumonia, and was diagnosed as a Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274985/role-of-postgraduate-year-2-pharmacy-residents-in-providing-weekend-antimicrobial-stewardship-coverage-in-an-academic-medical-center
#15
Justin Siegfried, Cristian Merchan, Marco R Scipione, John Papadopoulos, Arash Dabestani, Yanina Dubrovskaya
PURPOSE: The integration of pharmacy residents into an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is described, and data on the residents' ASP interventions and outcomes are reported. SUMMARY: ASP coverage of nighttime, holiday, and weekend shifts is often provided by infectious diseases (ID) medical fellows and staff pharmacists, potentially leading to inconsistent stewardship practices. As part of an initiative by a large urban hospital to provide around-the-clock, comprehensive ASP services 7 days a week, postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residents in ID or critical care were assigned to provide ASP coverage on weekends...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267670/selective-digestive-decontamination-in-critically-ill-children-a-survey-of-canadian-providers
#16
Srinivas Murthy, Nazima Pathan, Brian H Cuthbertson
BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination of the digestive tract involves the routine administration of oral, gastric, and intravenous antibiotics to mechanically ventilated children to prevent hospital-acquired infections. It has a strong evidence base in adults, with limited pediatric evidence. Current utilization of this intervention among pediatric physicians in North America is unknown. METHODS: An electronic survey administered to pediatric critical care and pediatric infectious disease providers in Canada...
June 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262433/evaluation-of-hand-hygiene-compliance-and-associated-factors-with-a-radio-frequency-identification-based-real-time-continuous-automated-monitoring-system
#17
J-C Dufour, P Reynier, S Boudjema, A Soto Aladro, R Giorgi, P Brouqui
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is a major means for preventing healthcare-associated infections. One critical point in understanding poor compliance is the lack of relevant markers used to monitor practices systematically. METHODS: This study analysed hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system in an infectious disease ward with 17 single bedrooms. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were tracked while performing routine care over 171 days...
April 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#18
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224349/mapping-the-health-information-landscape-in-a-rural-culturally-diverse-region-implications-for-interventions-to-reduce-information-inequality
#19
A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Ariana Ruiz
The media is an important source of health information, especially critical in rural communities with geographically-dispersed populations that are harder to reach through other channels. Yet health information is unequally distributed; these information disparities are compounded in rural areas, which may contribute to health disparities. We identify and describe health-related news in a culturally-diverse rural California county characterized by high levels of poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and over half of Mexican-origin...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187026/an-algorithmic-approach-to-the-suspected-septic-wrist
#20
Jeffrey R Claiborne, Leslie G Branch, Michael Reynolds, Anthony J Defranzo
An acutely painful, erythematous wrist can be due to a variety of pathologic processes, including crystalline arthropathy, infection, trauma, osteoarthritis, and systemic disease. The broad differential diagnosis of the inflamed wrist and nonspecific clinical findings make accurate diagnosis challenging. There is no published clinical or laboratory criterion that reliably differentiates septic wrist arthritis from a sterile inflammatory arthropathy. For septic joint patients, long-term results are notably poorer in patients with a delay in treatment, therefore establishing evidenced-based guidelines deserves attention...
June 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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