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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#1
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#2
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087230/the-impact-of-obesity-on-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-and-renal-scarring-in-children-with-vesicoureteral-reflux
#3
H J Byun, J Y Ha, W Jung, B H Kim, C H Park, C I Kim
INTRODUCTION: It has become clear that obesity is associated with a variety of infectious diseases, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity and the degree of febrile UTI (fUTI) and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to stratify the results into obesity subcategories. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 186 patients were diagnosed with VUR between January 2002 and December 2008...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#4
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080980/climate-forcing-of-an-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-across-a-montane-multi-host-community
#5
Frances C Clare, Julia B Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S Schmeller, Andrew A Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch, Matthew C Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079652/long-term-survival-and-causes-of-late-death-in-children-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#6
Viktor von Bahr, Jan Hultman, Staffan Eksborg, Roxana Gerleman, Øyvind Enstad, Björn Frenckner, Håkan Kalzén
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in patients with severe circulatory or respiratory failure since the 1970s, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 10-year survival rates and causes of late death in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal life support...
January 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079630/18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-and-infectious-diseases-current-applications-and-future-perspectives
#7
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Daniele Muser, Elda Righi, Nicola Petrosillo, Fernando Di Gregorio, Thomas J Werner, Abass Alavi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is a well-established technique for diagnosis and management of a number of neoplastic conditions. However, in recent years the body of literature regarding its potential role in infectious diseases has progressively increased, with promising results. RECENT FINDINGS: So far 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography has a well-established role and is recommended by guidelines only in a few settings, such as prosthetic valve endocarditis, vascular device infections, and chronic osteomyelitis...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#8
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076879/igm-antibodies-to-proteinase-3-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis
#9
J M Clain, A M Hummel, J H Stone, F C Fervenza, G S Hoffman, C G M Kallenberg, C A Langford, W J McCune, P A Merkel, P A Monach, P Seo, R F Spiera, E W St Clair, S R Ytterberg, And U Specks
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Yet, ANCA alone are not sufficient to generate disease, and some evidence suggests that infectious triggers may serve as inciting events for AAV disease activity. Antibodies of the IgM isotype often serve as markers of recent infection, and IgM ANCA have previously been identified in patients with AAV, though the frequency and clinical relevance of IgM ANCA is not well established...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076019/viral-and-prion-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-radiologic-pathologic-correlation-from-the-radiologic-pathology-archives
#10
Kelly K Koeller, Robert Y Shih
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) range in clinical severity, with the most severe proving fatal within a matter of days. Some of the more than 100 different viruses known to affect the brain and spinal cord are neurotropic with a predilection for producing CNS infection. The host response to viral infection of the CNS is responsible for the pathophysiology and imaging findings seen in affected patients. Viral CNS infections can take the form of meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, or, when involving the spinal cord and nerve roots, encephalomyeloradiculitis...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#11
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072887/dengue-fever-in-travellers-and-risk-of-local-spreading-case-reports-from-southern-italy-and-literature-update
#12
Claudia Fabrizio, Luciana Lepore, Maria Chironna, Gioacchino Angarano, Annalisa Saracino
Dengue fever (DF), an arbovirosis caused by Dengue viruses (DV, serotypes 1-4), is responsible for an increasing number of travel-related acute febrile illnesses due to population growth, climate changes, spreading by viremic travellers, and improved laboratory diagnosis. The presence of efficient vectors (mosquito Aedes albopictus) has also been described in temperate regions including Italy which is considered the most heavily infected European country. Normally characterized by non-specific signs and symptoms, DF incidence is probably underestimated, especially in non-endemic countries, but the risk of severe forms is substantial...
January 5, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072526/type-i-dna-topoisomerases
#13
Giovanni Capranico, Jessica Marinello, Giovanni Chillemi
DNA topoisomerases constitute a large family of essential enzymes in all domains of life. Even though they share the general reaction chemistry and the ability to govern DNA topology and resolve strand entanglements during fundamental molecular processes, they are characterized by differences in structural organization, modes of enzymatic catalysis and biological functions. Moreover, hundreds of compounds are known to interfere with bacterial and/or eukaryotic enzymes, and some of them are effective drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancers...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#14
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070670/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-children-with-comorbidity
#15
Ellinor Sterky, Rutger Bennet, Ann Lindstrand, Margareta Eriksson, Anna Nilsson
: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in high-income countries is still significant. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has reduced the overall need for hospitalization for CAP. However, it is not clear whether children with underlying disease also have benefitted from the PCV immunization programme. Children 0 to <5 years of age hospitalized with CAP and discharged with an ICD-10 code of J13-J18.9 between November 1, 2005, and April 30, 2007 (pre-vaccination period), and November 1, 2010, and April 30, 2012 (post-vaccination period), were eligible for this study...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069866/trim-proteins-and-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Masashi Watanabe, Shigetsugu Hatakeyama
Ubiquitination is one of the posttranslational modifications that regulates a number of intracellular events including signal transduction, protein quality control, transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis and development. The ubiquitin system functions as a garbage machine to degrade target proteins and as a regulator for several signalling pathways. Biochemical reaction of ubiquitination requires several enzymes including E1, E2 and E3, and E3 ubiquitin ligases play roles as receptors for recognizing target proteins...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069057/bacterial-serine-protease-htra-as-a-promising-new-target-for-antimicrobial-therapy
#17
EDITORIAL
Silja Wessler, Gisbert Schneider, Steffen Backert
Recent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) is closely associated with the establishment and progression of several infectious diseases. HtrA activity enhances bacterial survival under stress conditions, but also has direct effects on functions of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin and proteoglycans. Although HtrA cannot be considered as a pathogenic factor per se, it exhibits favorable characteristics making HtrA a potentially attractive drug target to combat various bacterial infections...
January 10, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068928/newly-recognized-cerebral-infarctions-on-postmortem-imaging-a-report-of-three-cases-with-systemic-infectious-disease
#18
Sakon Noriki, Kazuyuki Kinoshita, Kunihiro Inai, Toyohiko Sakai, Hirohiko Kimura, Takahiro Yamauchi, Masayuki Iwano, Hironobu Naiki
BACKGROUND: Postmortem imaging (PMI) refers to the imaging of cadavers by computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three cases of cerebral infarctions that were not found during life but were newly recognized on PMI and were associated with severe systemic infections are presented. CASE PRESENTATIONS: An 81-year-old woman with a pacemaker and slightly impaired liver function presented with fever. Imaging suggested interstitial pneumonia and an iliopsoas abscess, and blood tests showed liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068904/long-term-kinetics-of-zika-virus-rna-and-antibodies-in-body-fluids-of-a-vasectomized-traveller-returning-from-martinique-a-case-report
#19
Guenter Froeschl, Kristina Huber, Frank von Sonnenburg, Hans-Dieter Nothdurft, Gisela Bretzel, Michael Hoelscher, Lothar Zoeller, Matthias Trottmann, Francisco Pan-Montojo, Gerhard Dobler, Silke Woelfel
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has led to a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO. Findings of viable viral particles in semen for several weeks are corroborating reports of sexual transmission of ZIKV. Serious consequences of a positive diagnostic result particularly in the pregnant patient are calling for precise diagnostic tools also at later time points after infection. Currently, recommendations suggest a diagnostic period of direct viral detection of 5 to 7 days after onset of symptoms in serum or plasma, and up to 3 weeks in urine samples...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067938/health-status-of-homeless-persons-a-pilot-study-in-the-padua-municipal-dorm
#20
S Levorato, G Bocci, G Troiano, G Messina, N Nante
OBJECTIVES: Homeless persons can be considered a vulnerable group and several studies showed in this group an higher prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases, a lower mental health status, and a higher abuse of alcohol. The aim of our study was to investigate the health status of homeless in Padua, Italy, administering a questionnaire composed by SF-36 and EQ-5D. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study from 15 December 2015 to 15 February 2016. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled in our study 73 homeless persons welcomed in the municipal dorm of Padua...
January 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
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