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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726737/respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-role-of-biologically-active-polysaccharides-in-their-management-and-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Ingrid Urbancikova, Peter Banovcin
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726037/can-a-collaborative-subspecialty-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-have-lasting-effects
#2
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
July 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725300/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-epithelial-and-non-epithelial-lesions-of-the-oral-cavity
#3
REVIEW
Kentaro Kikuchi, Harumi Inoue, Yuji Miyazaki, Fumio Ide, Masaru Kojima, Kaoru Kusama
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with the development of malignant lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in immunocompromised patients. EBV, a B-lymphotropic gamma-herpesvirus, causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, as well as various pathological types of lymphoid malignancy. Furthermore, EBV is associated with epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), salivary gland tumor, gastric carcinoma and breast carcinoma. In terms of oral disease, there have been several reports of EBV-related oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) worldwide...
August 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725053/cyclic-di-gmp-regulates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-to-ethionamide
#4
Hai-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Wei Xu, He-Wei Jiang, Fan-Lin Wu, Xiang He, Yin Liu, Shu-Juan Guo, Yang Li, Li-Jun Bi, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang, Sheng-Ce Tao
Tuberculosis is still on the top of infectious diseases list on both mobility and mortality, especially due to drug-resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Ethionamide (ETH) is one of effective second line anti-TB drugs, a synthetic compound similar to isoniazid (INH) structurally, with existing severe problem of ETH resistance. ETH is a prodrug, which is activated by Etha inside M.tb, and etha is transcriptionally repressed by Ethr. We found that c-di-GMP could bind Ethr, enhanced the binding of Ethr to the promoter of etha, and then repressed the transcription of etha, thus caused resistance of M...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#5
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722640/the-role-of-risk-proximity-in-the-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-french-guiana
#6
Claude Flamand, Camille Fritzell, Pauline Obale, Philippe Quenel, Jocelyn Raude
Human behaviors are increasingly recognized to play a key role in the spread of infectious diseases. Although a set of social and cognitive determinants has been consistently found to affect the adoption of health protective behaviors aiming to control and prevent a variety of infections, little is currently known about the ecological drivers of these behaviors in epidemic settings. In this article, we took advantage of the outbreak of chikungunya, a reemerging mosquito-borne disease, that occurred in French Guiana in 2014-15 to test empirically the assumption proposed by Zielinski-Gutierrez and Hayden that the proximity of the disease and perceptions of the natural environment may considerably shape public response to an emerging health threat...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722623/the-use-of-xenosurveillance-to-detect-human-bacteria-parasites-and-viruses-in-mosquito-bloodmeals
#7
Joseph R Fauver, Alex Gendernalik, James Weger-Lucarelli, Nathan D Grubaugh, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Gregory D Ebel
Infectious disease surveillance is hindered by several factors, including limited infrastructure and geographic isolation of many resource-poor regions. In addition, the complexities of sample acquisition, processing, and analysis, even in developed regions, can be rate limiting. Therefore, new strategies to survey human populations for emerging pathogens are necessary. Xenosurveillance is a method that utilizes mosquitoes as sampling devices to search for genetic signatures of pathogens in vertebrates. Previously we demonstrated that xenosurveillance can detect viral RNA in both laboratory and field settings...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722592/a-cluster-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-infections-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-caused-by-person-to-person-transmission
#8
Deyu Huang, Yueping Jiang, Xiaoping Liu, Bo Wang, Junming Shi, Zhan Su, Hui Wang, Ting Wang, Shuang Tang, Hanyun Liu, Zhihong Hu, Fei Deng, Shu Shen
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel phlebovirus that was identified to be the etiological pathogen of the emerging infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). SFTSV could be transmitted through tick bite. Transmission of SFTSV among humans has also been reported mainly through direct blood contact. In July 2014, a cluster of six suspected SFTS cases occurred in Shandong Province, China. In this cluster, both symptomatic and asymptomatic persons were included...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722361/-food-dependent-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-a-stepwise-diagnosis
#9
Julien Gaillard, Amélie Borgeat-Kaeser, Guillaume Buss, François Spertini
Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a potentially severe food allergy. Physical exercise, NSAID, alcohol, infectious diseases and estrogens are recognized cofactors, able to reduce the amount of allergen needed to achieve a threshold for the induction of anaphylaxis. Various kinds of causative food but only a few responsible proteins have been identified. The best known is wheat ω5-gliadine. An oral food challenge remains the gold standard to prove the diagnosis. Its clinical application remains difficult and includes an allergen challenge, a cofactor challenge and a third step which integrates both of them in a single test...
April 5, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721965/the-rise-of-global-health-diplomacy-an-interdisciplinary-concept-linking-health-and-international-relations
#10
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721820/epigenetic-regulations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis
#11
Yu Luo, Xian Peng, Dingyu Duan, Chengcheng Liu, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou
Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease that affects a large population worldwide. It involves progressive alveolar bone loss, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Oral microorganisms and susceptible host have been proposed to be the prerequisite for the development of periodontitis. Aberrant host immune response is the key factor that leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Recently, the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the development of periodontitis has attracted increasing attentions...
July 18, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721471/evaluations-of-interventions-using-mathematical-models-with-exponential-and-non-exponential-distributions-for-disease-stages-the-case-of-ebola
#12
Xiaojing Wang, Yangyang Shi, Zhilan Feng, Jingan Cui
Many mathematical models for the disease transmission dynamics of Ebola have been developed and studied, particularly during and after the 2014 outbreak in West Africa. Most of these models are systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). One of the common assumptions made in these ODE models is that the duration of disease stages, such as latent and infectious periods, follows an exponential distribution. Gamma distributions have also been used in some of these models. It has been demonstrated that, when the models are used to evaluate disease control strategies such as quarantine or isolation, the models with exponential and Gamma distribution assumptions may generate contradictory results (Feng et al...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720097/a-versatile-papaya-mosaic-virus-papmv-vaccine-platform-based-on-sortase-mediated-antigen-coupling
#13
Ariane Thérien, Mikaël Bédard, Damien Carignan, Gervais Rioux, Louis Gauthier-Landry, Marie-Ève Laliberté-Gagné, Marilène Bolduc, Pierre Savard, Denis Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Flexuous rod-shaped nanoparticles made of the coat protein (CP) of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) have been shown to trigger innate immunity through engagement of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). PapMV nanoparticles can also serve as a vaccine platform as they can increase the immune response to fused peptide antigens. Although this approach shows great potential, fusion of antigens directly to the CP open reading frame (ORF) is challenging because the fused peptides can alter the structure of the CP and its capacity to self assemble into nanoparticles-a property essential for triggering an efficient immune response to the peptide...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#14
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717729/middle-eastern-conflicts-implications-for-refugee-health-in-the-european-union-and-middle-eastern-host-countries
#15
Michael Silbermann, Michel Daher, Rejin Kebudi, Omar Nimri, Mazin Al-Jadiry, Lea Baider
Until very recently, health care in conflict settings was based on a model developed in the second half of the twentieth century. Things have changed, and present civil wars, such as those that are currently taking place in the Middle East, do not address the complexity of the ongoing armed conflicts in countries such as Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. These conflicts have caused a significant increase in the number of refugees in the region, as well as in Europe. Hundreds of thousands of refugees succeed in settling in mid- and north-European countries, and their health issues are becoming of great importance...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716140/modelling-infectious-diseases-with-relapse-a-case-study-of-hsv-2
#16
Jinliang Wang, Xiaoqing Yu, Heidi L Tessmer, Toshikazu Kuniya, Ryosuke Omori
BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Although there is still no licensed vaccine for HSV-2, a theoretical investigation of the potential effects of a vaccine is considered important and has recently been conducted by several researchers. Although compartmental mathematical models were considered for each special case in the previous studies, as yet there are few global stability results. RESULTS: In this paper, we formulate a multi-group SVIRI epidemic model for HSV-2, which enables us to consider the effects of vaccination, of waning vaccine immunity, and of infection relapse...
July 17, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716015/illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana-a-neglected-population-with-poor-health
#17
Maylis Douine, Emilie Mosnier, Quentin Le Hingrat, Charlotte Charpentier, Florine Corlin, Louise Hureau, Antoine Adenis, Yassamine Lazrek, Florence Niemetsky, Anne-Laure Aucouturier, Magalie Demar, Lise Musset, Mathieu Nacher
BACKGROUND: In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname...
July 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713526/recent-developments-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-epidural-abscesses
#18
REVIEW
Adam E M Eltorai, Syed S Naqvi, Ashok Seetharam, Bielinsky A Brea, Chad Simon
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a serious condition that can be challenging to diagnose due to nonspecific symptomology and delayed presentation. Despite this, it requires prompt recognition and management in order to prevent permanent neurologic sequelae. Several recent studies have improved our understanding of SEA. Herein, we summarize the recent literature from the past 10 years relevant to SEA diagnosis, management and outcome. While surgical care remains the mainstay of treatment, a select subset of SEA patients may be managed without operative intervention...
June 23, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713372/nanoparticle-formulated-curcumin-prevents-posttherapeutic-disease-reactivation-and-reinfection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-following-isoniazid-therapy
#19
Sultan Tousif, Dhiraj Kumar Singh, Sitabja Mukherjee, Shaheer Ahmad, Rakesh Arya, Ranjan Nanda, Anand Ranganathan, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Luc Van Kaer, Santosh K Kar, Gobardhan Das
Curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric also known as "Indian Yellow Gold," exhibits therapeutic efficacy against several chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases. Even though considered as a wonder drug pertaining to a myriad of reported benefits, the translational potential of curcumin is limited by its low systemic bioavailability due to its poor intestinal absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Therefore, the translational potential of this compound is specifically challenged by bioavailability issues, and several laboratories are making efforts to improve its bioavailability...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#20
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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