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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154458/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-major-depression-targeting-neuronal-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Shusaku Uchida, Hirotaka Yamagata, Tomoe Seki, Yoshifumi Watanabe
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses as it affects more than 350 million people globally. Major depressive disorder is etiologically complex and disabling. Genetic factors play a role in the etiology of major depression. However, identical twin studies have shown high rates of discordance, indicating non-genetic mechanisms as well. For instance, stressful life events increase the risk of depression. Environmental stressors also induce stable changes in gene expression within the brain that may lead to maladaptive neuronal plasticity in regions implicated in disease pathogenesis...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151788/attitudes-toward-mentally-ill-patients-a-comparison-between-romanian-and-international-medical-students
#2
Codruta Alina Popescu, Anca Dana Buzoianu, Soimita Mihaela Suciu, Sebastian Mihai Armean
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness, and especially schizophrenia, are not limited to the general population but are also common among health professionals. Health professionals are in a position to model health related attitudes both in the general public and patients. Medical students are an interesting group to focus upon, since they are future health professionals and correcting stigmatizing attitudes is still possible during their educational curriculum. Methods: This study investigated the attitude toward mental illness in medical students at the Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150900/genetic-overlap-between-epilepsy-and-schizophrenia-evidence-from-cross-phenotype-analysis-in-hong-kong-chinese-population
#3
Hongsheng Gui, Miaoxin Li, Pak C Sham, Larry Baum, Patrick Kwan, Stacey S Cherny
Epilepsy and schizophrenia are common and typical neurological or mental illness respectively, and sometimes they comorbid in the same patients, however the underlying genetic relationship between the two brain diseases is still not fully understood. To investigate the possible genetic contribution to their comorbidity, we performed polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses and genetic correlation estimation so as to identify the overall genetic overlap between the two diseases. The global schizophrenia PRS is strongly associated with schizophrenia phenotype in Hong Kong population (odds ratio = 1...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146122/health-and-wellbeing-of-indigenous-adolescents-in-australia-a-systematic-synthesis-of-population-data
#4
Peter S Azzopardi, Susan M Sawyer, John B Carlin, Louisa Degenhardt, Ngiare Brown, Alex D Brown, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145902/-the-20-year-longitudinal-trajectories-of-social-functioning-in-individuals-with-psychotic-disorders
#5
M Oorschot, A K J Fett, E Velthorst
OBJECTIVE: Social impairment is a long-recognized core feature of schizophrenia and is common in other psychotic disorders. Still, to date the long-term trajectories of social impairment in psychotic disorders have rarely been studied systematically. METHODS: Data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, a 20-year prospective study of first-admission patients with psychotic disorders. A never-psychotic comparison group was also assessed. Latent class growth analysis was applied to longitudinal data on social functioning from 485 respondents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and psychotic mood disorders, and associations of the empirically derived trajectories with premorbid social adjustment, diagnosis, and 20-year outcomes were examined...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145792/evaluating-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-local-psycho-educational-intervention-for-pregnant-women-with-common-mental-problems-affected-by-armed-conflict-in-swat-pakistan-a-parallel-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#6
Muhammad Naseem Khan, Mukesh Dherani, Anna Chiumento, Najia Atif, Katie Bristow, Siham Sikander, Atif Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current research was conducted in the Swat valley, where widespread conflict and militancy had been experienced prior to the field activities. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a locally developed psycho-educational intervention. METHODS: This mixed-methods study incorporated a quantitative and qualitative component. For the quantitative component, trial participants were identified from a cross-sectional study conducted in the earlier phase of the research, with Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score of ≥9...
December 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141661/preventing-enduring-behavioural-problems-in-young-children-through-early-psychological-intervention-healthy-start-happy-start-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Paul G Ramchandani, Christine O'Farrelly, Daphne Babalis, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sarah Byford, Ellen S R Grimas, Jane E Iles, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Julia McGinley, Charlotte M Phillips, Alan Stein, Jane Warwick, Hillary C Watt, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in early childhood, and can result in enduring costs to the individual and society, including an increased risk of mental and physical illness, criminality, educational failure and drug and alcohol misuse. Most previous research has examined the impact of interventions targeting older children when difficulties are more established and harder to change, and have rarely included fathers. We are conducting a trial of a psychological intervention delivered to families with very young children, engaging both parents where possible...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#8
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137556/all-cause-30-day-readmissions-among-persons-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-and-mental-illness
#9
Robert Balogh, Elizabeth Lin, Kristin Dobranowski, Avra Selick, Andrew S Wilton, Yona Lunsky
OBJECTIVE: Early hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge are common and costly. This research describes predictors of all-cause, 30-day hospital readmissions among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), a group known to experience high rates of hospitalization. METHODS: A cohort of 66,484 adults with IDD from Ontario, Canada, was used to create two subgroups: individuals with IDD only and those with IDD and mental illness. The rates of hospital readmission were determined and contrasted with a comparison subgroup of people without IDD who have mental illness...
November 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#10
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131841/determining-the-effectiveness-of-a-video-based-contact-intervention-in-improving-attitudes-of-penang-primary-care-nurses-towards-people-with-mental-illness
#11
Yin Ping Ng, Abdul Rashid, Finian O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Mental illness-related stigma is common, and is associated with poorer outcomes in people with mental illness. This study evaluated the attitudes of primary care nurses towards people with mental illness and its associated factors; and the effectiveness of a short video-based contact intervention (VBCI) in improving these attitudes using a Malay version of the 15-item Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Healthcare Providers (OMS-HC-15-M). METHODS: A 5-minute VBCI was developed comprising elements of psychoeducation and interviews of people with mental illness and the people they interact with, relating to experience of mental illness and recovery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#12
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120839/mental-health-follow-up-after-deliberate-self-harm-and-risk-for-repeat-self-harm-and-death
#13
Jon Hunter, Robert Maunder, Paul Kurdyak, Andrew S Wilton, Andrea Gruneir, Simone Vigod
Morbidity and mortality after deliberate self-harm (DSH) are high, so mental health care shortly after DSH is recommended. Using population-level health data we determined the association between a mental health visit and risk for repeat DSH with or without intensive care unit (ICU) admission or all-cause death. Over two years, 23,140 individuals had emergency department treatment for DSH. Within 30 days, 10.7% had a family physician mental health visit, 17.1% visited a psychiatrist, 3.6% visited both and 68...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110803/sexual-dysfunction-in-primary-care-an-exploratory-descriptive-analysis-of-medical-record-diagnoses
#14
Katie M Heiden-Rootes, Joanne Salas, Sarah Gebauer, Matthew Witthaus, Jeffrey Scherrer, Kristin McDaniel, Dasha Carver
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SDx) diagnoses in primary care settings is not well known, which is a concern because of the high prevalence of comorbid chronic health conditions in patients diagnosed with SDx. AIM: To explore the relation of SDx diagnosis, chronic health conditions, and prescription medications commonly associated with SDx for men and women in primary care using medical records diagnoses. METHODS: Exploratory descriptive analyses were used to interpret secondary data from a primary care patient database...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105535/empowerment-self-and-engagement-in-day-center-occupations-a-longitudinal-study-among-people-with-long-term-mental-illness
#15
Daniel Sutton, Ulrika Bejerholm, Mona Eklund
BACKGROUND: Day centers are a common form of mental health service internationally. They are aimed at enhancing occupational engagement and social relations, but there is a need to clarify the outcomes of day center programs, including the impact on important aspects of recovery such as empowerment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore whether perceived empowerment changed over time among Swedish day center users and whether self-esteem, quality of life, socio-demographic data and self-reported diagnosis, type of program and level of engagement in day center occupations could predict future empowerment...
November 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099742/the-role-of-medication-in-supporting-emotional-wellbeing-in-young-people-with-long-term-needs
#16
Nicola J Gray, Damian M Wood
Young people frequently use and access prescribed medications for a range of health problems. Medications aimed at treating both common health problems and long-term physical and mental health needs in adolescence can have a significant effect on a young person's emotional well-being. We use a series of case studies to illustrate the challenges for healthcare professionals supporting young people with medication use. The studies illustrate the efficacy and limitations of medication on improving emotional well-being by alleviating illness and distress, and how this efficacy must be balanced against both the adverse effects and the burden of treatment...
November 3, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095057/high-inpatient-utilization-among-veterans-health-administration-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-and-co-occurring-mental-health-conditions
#17
Janelle M Painter, Carol A Malte, Anna D Rubinsky, Timothy R Campellone, Amanda K Gilmore, John S Baer, Eric J Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Substance-use disorders (SUDs) are common and costly conditions. Understanding high inpatient utilization (HIU) among patients with SUD can inform the development of treatment approaches designed to reduce healthcare expenditures and improve service quality. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence, type, and predictors of HIU among patients with SUD and co-occurring mental health conditions. METHODS: Service utilization and demographic and clinical variables were extracted from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients with SUD-only [n = 148,960 (98...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090381/diabetes-screening-among-antipsychotic-treated-adults-with-severe-mental-illness-in-an-integrated-delivery-system-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Christina Mangurian, Dean Schillinger, John W Newcomer, Eric Vittinghoff, Susan Essock, Zheng Zhu, Wendy Dyer, Julie Schmittdiel
BACKGROUND: Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, partly due to adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic medications. In public health care settings, annual screening rates are 30%. We measured adherence to national diabetes screening guidelines for patients taking antipsychotic medications. OBJECTIVE: To estimate diabetes screening prevalence among patients with SMI within an integrated health care system, and to assess characteristics associated with lack of screening...
October 31, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089771/a-multicenter-open-label-pilot-study-evaluating-the-functionality-of-an-integrated-call-center-for-a-digital-medicine-system-to-optimize-monitoring-of-adherence-to-oral-aripiprazole-in-adult-patients-with-serious-mental-illness
#19
Alex Kopelowicz, Ross A Baker, Cathy Zhao, Claudette Brewer, Erica Lawson, Timothy Peters-Strickland
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is common in the treatment of serious mental illness (SMI) and leads to poor outcomes. The digital medicine system (DMS) objectively measures adherence with oral aripiprazole in near-real time, allowing recognition of adherence issues. This pilot study evaluated the functionality of an integrated call center in optimizing the use of the DMS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 8-week, open-label, single-arm trial at four US sites enrolled adults with bipolar I disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia on stable oral aripiprazole doses and willing to use the DMS (oral aripiprazole + ingestible event marker [IEM], IEM-detecting skin patch, and software application)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088916/managing-pain-in-patients-with-chronic-medical-illnesses-and-serious-mental-illnesses
#20
Sean O'Mahony, Steven Bines, James Gerhart, Erin Bagwell, McHugh Marlene, Ariel Card
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the use of opioid treatment plans that included the implementation of opioid dependence risk with a validated screening tool and opioid dependence risk tool (UDT) in a noncancer palliative pain clinic. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for diagnostic information, information on analgesic medications, daily morphine equivalent dose, presence of pain management agreements and opioid dependence risk tools (ORT), and UDT...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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