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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915435/an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-on-the-public-health-consequences-of-social-isolation-and-loneliness
#1
REVIEW
N Leigh-Hunt, D Bagguley, K Bash, V Turner, S Turnbull, N Valtorta, W Caan
OBJECTIVES: Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality...
September 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901279/role-of-physical-exercise-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-depressive-illness-in-the-elderly
#2
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano Sacchetti, Vittoria Nicolis di Robilant, Debora Cutuli
BACKGROUND: In adulthood, depression is the most common type of mental illness and will be the second leading cause of disease by 2020. Major depression dramatically affects the function of the central nervous system and degrades life quality, especially during aging. Several mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of depressive illness, given it has a multifactorial etiology. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that depression is mainly associated with imbalances in neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations, brain volume changes, neurogenesis dysfunction, and dysregulation of inflammatory pathways...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900785/training-to-provide-psychiatric-genetic-counseling-how-does-it-impact-recent-graduates-and-current-students-readiness-to-provide-genetic-counseling-for-individuals-with-psychiatric-illness-and-attitudes-towards-this-population
#3
Ashley Low, Shannan Dixon, Amanda Higgs, Jessica Joines, Catriona Hippman
Mental illness is extremely common and genetic counselors frequently see patients with mental illness. Genetic counselors report discomfort in providing psychiatric genetic counseling (GC), suggesting the need to look critically at training for psychiatric GC. This study aimed to investigate psychiatric GC training and its impact on perceived preparedness to provide psychiatric GC (preparedness). Current students and recent graduates were invited to complete an anonymous survey evaluating psychiatric GC training and outcomes...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895092/neural-response-to-evaluating-depression-predicts-perceivers-mental-health-treatment-recommendations
#4
Anne C Krendl, Brittany S Cassidy
Nonstigmatized perceivers' initial evaluations of stigmatized individuals have profound consequences for the well-being of those stigmatized individuals. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains underexplored. Specifically, what beliefs about the stigmatized condition (stigma-related beliefs) shape how nonstigmatized perceivers evaluate and behave toward stigmatized individuals? We examined these questions with respect to depression-related stigmatization because depression is highly stigmatized and nondepressed individuals' behavior (e...
September 11, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893142/a-simulation-and-video-based-training-program-to-address-adverse-childhood-experiences
#5
Frances K Wen, Julie E Miller-Cribbs, Kim A Coon, Martina J Jelley, Kristin A Foulks-Rodriguez
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are 10 categories of childhood abuse and maltreatment, which have a dose-response relationship with common adult health concerns seen in primary care including health risk behaviors, chronic disease, and mental illness. Many of the ACEs-associated biopsychosocial risk factors are modifiable. However, physicians may not address these issues for fear of opening "Pandora's Box", that is, a source of extensive problems for which they are not sufficiently prepared with training, resources, or time...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892069/reduction-of-plasma-glutathione-in-psychosis-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-in-translational-psychiatry
#6
L G Nucifora, T Tanaka, L N Hayes, M Kim, B J Lee, T Matsuda, F C Nucifora, T Sedlak, R Mojtabai, W Eaton, A Sawa
The establishment of mechanism-driven peripheral markers is important for translational psychiatry. Many groups, including ours, have addressed molecular alterations in peripheral tissues in association with symptomatic changes in major illnesses. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) through studies of patient peripheral tissues and animal models. Although the relationship between peripheral changes and brain pathology remain elusive, oxidative stress may bridge such translational efforts...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887747/reliability-and-validity-of-the-work-and-well-being-inventory-wbi-for-employees
#7
A A Vendrig, F G Schaafsma
Purpose The purpose of this study is to measure the psychometric properties of the Work and Wellbeing Inventory (WBI) (in Dutch: VAR-2), a screening tool that is used within occupational health care and rehabilitation. Our research question focused on the reliability and validity of this inventory. Methods Over the years seven different samples of workers, patients and sick listed workers varying in size between 89 and 912 participants (total: 2514), were used to measure the test-retest reliability, the internal consistency, the construct and concurrent validity, and the criterion and predictive validity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886465/the-interaction-of-pregnancy-substance-use-and-mental-illness-on-birthing-outcomes-in-australia
#8
Lin Zhao, Kay McCauley, Leanne Sheeran
BACKGROUND: this study aimed to (1) assess the prevalence, and demographic features of women with a history of mental illness during pregnancy and childbirth, (2) investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes in relation to mental illness and substance use, and (3) determine the effects of maternal characteristics, history of mental illness and substance use on birth outcomes. METHODS: the records of 22,193 pregnant women who gave birth at one tertiary level health service comprising three maternity settings in Victoria, Australia from 2009 to 2011 were reviewed...
November 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885065/recovery-and-serious-mental-illness-a-review-of-current-clinical-and-research-paradigms-and-future-directions
#9
Bethany L Leonhardt, Kelsey Huling, Jay A Hamm, David Roe, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Hamish J McLeod, Paul H Lysaker
Recovery from serious mental illness has historically not been considered a likely or even possible outcome. However, a range of evidence suggests the courses of SMI are heterogeneous with recovery being the most likely outcome. One barrier to studying recovery in SMI is that recovery has been operationalized in divergent and seemingly incompatible ways, as an objective outcome, versus a subjective process. Areas Covered: This paper offers a review of recovery as a subjective process and recovery as an objective outcome; contrasts methodologies utilized by each approach to assess recovery; reports rates and correlates of recovery; and explores the relationship between objective and subjective forms of recovery...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884614/characteristics-of-inmates-who-misuse-prescription-medication
#10
Anthony C Tamburello, Archana Kathpal, Rusty Reeves
Substance use disorders are common among incarcerated individuals, and prescribed medications have been reported as abused, diverted, or otherwise misused in correctional settings. We conducted a retrospective chart review of electronic medical records and reports on institutional charges for misuse of authorized medication by inmates in the New Jersey Department of Corrections between 2003 and 2013. The most frequently cited medications for misuse were gabapentin, diphenhydramine, clonidine, and ibuprofen...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880494/clinical-psychopathology-in-youth-at-familial-high-risk-for-psychosis
#11
Jai L Shah, Neeraj Tandon, Debra M Montrose, Diana Mermon, Shaun M Eack, Jean Miewald, Matcheri S Keshavan
AIM: While the course of psychopathology has been explored from an index mental health diagnosis onwards, there are few detailed, prospective studies of the occurrence of clinical psychopathology in youth with familial risk for severe mental illnesses such as psychosis. We sought to describe the appearance of Axis I psychopathology in a unique sample of adolescents with a family history of schizophrenia (FHR). METHODS: One hundred and sixty two first- and second-degree relatives (mean age 15...
September 7, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878150/multimorbidity-in-chronic-conditions-public-primary-care-patients-in-four-greater-mekong-countries
#12
Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer
The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, pattern, and social determinants of chronic conditions multimorbidity among chronic disease primary care patients in four Greater Mekong countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam). In a cross-sectional survey, chronic disease patients accessing primary care were recruited if they had been diagnosed with any of 21 chronic conditions in the past 12 months, and were interviewed with a structured questionnaire on anxiety, depression, alcohol use, tobacco use, dietary behaviour, physical activity, and quality of life...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875484/women-s-auto-biography-and-dissociative-identity-disorder-implications-for-mental-health-practice
#13
Kendal Tomlinson, Charley Baker
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is an uncommon disorder that has long been associated with exposure to traumatic stressors exceeding manageable levels commonly encompassing physical, psychological and sexual abuse in childhood that is prolonged and severe in nature. In DID, dissociation continues after the traumatic experience and produces a disruption in identity where distinct personality states develop. These personalities are accompanied by variations in behaviour, emotions, memory, perception and cognition...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870645/role-of-stressful-life-events-and-kindling-in-bipolar-disorder-converging-evidence-from-a-mania-predominant-illness-course
#14
Karthick Subramanian, Siddharth Sarkar, Shivanand Kattimani, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Venkatalakshmi Penchilaiya
Stressful life events can precipitate relapses and recurrences in bipolar disorder. Kindling in bipolar disorder has been linked to maladaptive psychological reactivity to minor stressful life events. Systematic studies on life events and kindling are rare in bipolar disorder with a manic predominant polarity. One hundred and forty-nine remitted patients with bipolar I disorder were recruited. The National Institute of Mental Health-Life Chart Methodology was used to depict the illness course retrospectively, and the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale-Lifetime version was used to record the stressful life events...
August 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869391/expanding-collaborative-care-integrating-the-role-of-dietitians-and-nutrition-interventions-in-services-for-people-with-mental-illness
#15
Scott B Teasdale, Geogina Latimer, Annette Byron, Vanessa Schuldt, Josephine Pizzinga, Janice Plain, Kerryn Buttenshaw, Adrienne Forsyth, Elizabeth Parker, Nerissa Soh
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to draw mental health clinicians' attention to the connections between nutrition and mental health, and the roles that Accredited Practising Dietitians play in improving mental and physical health through dietary change. METHODS: Selective narrative review. RESULTS: Unhealthy dietary practices are common in high prevalence and severe mental illness. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that nutrients and dietary patterns impact on mental health...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867421/dsm-5-illness-anxiety-disorder-and-somatic-symptom-disorder-comorbidity-correlates-and-overlap-with-dsm-iv-hypochondriasis
#16
Jill M Newby, Megan J Hobbs, Alison E J Mahoney, Shiu Kelvin Wong, Gavin Andrews
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability, validity and utility of DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder (IAD) and somatic symptom disorder (SSD), and explore their overlap with DSM-IV Hypochondriasis in a health anxious sample. METHODS: Treatment-seeking patients with health anxiety (N=118) completed structured diagnostic interviews to assess DSM-IV Hypochondriasis, DSM-5 IAD, SSD, and comorbid mental disorders, and completed self-report measures of health anxiety, comorbid symptoms, cognitions and behaviours, and service utilization...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867407/childhood-adversities-and-clinical-symptomatology-in-first-episode-psychosis
#17
Maija Lindgren, Teemu Mäntylä, Eva Rikandi, Minna Torniainen-Holm, Isabel Morales-Muñoz, Tuula Kieseppä, Outi Mantere, Jaana Suvisaari
In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls...
August 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865661/methods-to-assess-adverse-childhood-experiences-of-children-and-families-toward-approaches-to-promote-child-well-being-in-policy-and-practice
#18
Christina D Bethell, Adam Carle, James Hudziak, Narangerel Gombojav, Kathleen Powers, Roy Wade, Paula Braveman
BACKGROUND: Advances in human development sciences point to tremendous possibilities to promote healthy child development and well-being across life by proactively supporting safe, stable and nurturing family relationships (SSNRs), teaching resilience, and intervening early to promote healing the trauma and stress associated with disruptions in SSNRs. Assessing potential disruptions in SSNRs, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), can contribute to assessing risk for trauma and chronic and toxic stress by asking about ACEs can help with efforts to prevent and attenuate negative impacts on child development and both child and family well-being...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865419/effect-of-unaffordable-medical-need-on-distress-level-of-family-member-analyses-of-1997-2013-united-states-national-health-interview-surveys
#19
Hui Jun Chih, Wenbin Liang
BACKGROUND: Reduced funding to public health care systems during economic downturns is a common phenomenon around the world. The effect of health care cost on family members of the patients has not been established. This paper aims to explore the relationship between affordability of health care and vulnerability of family members to distress levels. METHODS: Data of a total of 262,843 participants were obtained from 17 waves (1997-2013) of the United States National Health Interview Survey...
September 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865253/why-did-life-expectancy-decline-in-the-united-states-in-2015-a-gender-specific-analysis
#20
Francesco Acciai, Glenn Firebaugh
In 2015, age-adjusted mortality rates increased for 8 of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States. As a result, life expectancy declined by 0.17 years for both women and men. The decline could be just an anomaly, or it could represent the start of a new trend of stagnation or decline in life expectancy, as some scholars have warned. The first step is to determine the sources of the decline. In this study we analyze the contribution of specific causes of death to the decline in men's versus women's life expectancy, as well as the mechanisms that generated the decline...
August 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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