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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644707/relationship-between-neurocognitive-function-and-clinical-symptoms-with-self-stigma-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#1
Sherry Kit Wa Chan, Shiao Yan Sharon Kao, Shing Lam Leung, Christy Lai Ming Hui, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Wing Chung Chang, Eric Yu Hai Chen
BACKGROUND: Self-stigma is associated with poor outcomes of patients with schizophrenia and development of self-stigma is a complex process. Results of studies on relationship of both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis with self-stigma have been inconsistent. Cognitive deficits are common to patients. However, number of studies exploring the relationship specifically between self-stigma and neurocognition are limited. AIMS: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between neurocognitive functions and clinical symptoms with self-stigma...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644337/committee-opinion-no-705-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#2
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644330/committee-opinion-no-705-summary-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#3
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639495/substance-use-in-adolescents-with-mental-illness-in-durban-south-africa
#6
Bhoodeo Taukoor, Saeeda Paruk, Enver Karim, Jonathan K Burns
Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 adolescents, using a structured data sheet, over a two-year period. Substance use was more significant in older adolescents and those with severe mental illness. Sixty-two (38.3%) adolescents used substances...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#7
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635420/the-most-common-comorbidities-in-dandy-walker-syndrome-patients-a-systematic-review-of-case-reports
#8
Emelina Stambolliu, Myrsini Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Kimonas Kontokostas, Maria Dakoutrou, Antonis A Kousoulis
OBJECTIVE: Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare neurologic multi-entity malformation. This review aimed at reporting its main nonneurologic comorbidities. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, search in Medline was conducted (2000-2014, keyword: dandy-walker). Age, sex, country, DWS type, consanguinity or siblings with DWS, and recorded coexistent conditions (by ICD10 category) were extracted for 187 patients (46.5% male, 43% from Asia) from 168 case reports. RESULTS: Diagnosis was most often set in <1 year old (40...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631967/reasons-for-referral-and-findings-of-clinical-neuropsychological-assessment-in-youth-with-mental-illness-a-clinical-file-audit
#9
Tina-Marie Proffitt, Warrick J Brewer, Emma M Parrish, Patrick D McGorry, Kelly A Allott
Study aims were to 1) determine the characteristics and reasons for referral for Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment (CNA) and 2) characterize the findings and recommendations contained in the CNA reports, of clients attending a youth mental health service. File audit of all CNA reports (N = 140) of youth attending a mental health service. Cognitive performances on neuropsychological tests that were administered to >50% of clients were examined. Referral reasons, findings, and recommendations for future treatment were coded and described from neuropsychological files...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631834/citizenship-community-mental-health-and-the-common-good
#10
Kendall Atterbury, Michael Rowe
In this article, we address the issue of community mental health and the common good via an applied theory of citizenship to support the social inclusion, empowerment, and inclusion of persons diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. We begin by discussing citizenship, and the concept of the common good, in regard to historical conceptions of citizenship, including the historical exclusion of women, people of color, persons with mental illness, and others. We then review the development of our citizenship framework in response to the limitations of even the most innovative community mental health interventions, specifically the practice of mental health outreach to persons who are homeless...
June 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630942/antimalarial-drugs-and-the-prevalence-of-mental-and-neurological-manifestations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Mary A Bitta, Symon M Kariuki, Clifford Mwita, Samson Gwer, Leah Mwai, Charles R J C Newton
Background: Antimalarial drugs affect the central nervous system, but it is difficult to differentiate the effect of these drugs from that of the malaria illness. We conducted a systematic review to determine the association between anti-malarial drugs and mental and neurological impairment in humans.  Methods: We systematically searched online databases, including Medline/PubMed, PsychoInfo, and Embase, for articles published up to 14th July 2016. Pooled prevalence, heterogeneity and factors associated with prevalence of mental and neurological manifestations were determined using meta-analytic techniques...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629277/addressing-tobacco-use-among-consumers-and-staff-at-behavioral-health-treatment-facilities-through-comprehensive-workplace-programming
#12
Hannah L Samaha, Virmarie Correa-Fernández, Cho Lam, William T Wilson, Bryce Kyburz, Tim Stacey, Teresa Williams, Lorraine R Reitzel
Tobacco use is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States; cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use. Smoking has become increasingly concentrated among individuals with behavioral health needs (e.g., persistent mental illness) and has led to increased morbidity and mortality in this group relative to the general population. Comprehensive tobacco-free workplace programs are effective in reducing tobacco use and cigarette smoke exposure among behavioral health consumers and the individuals who serve them...
July 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624753/treatment-of-asymptomatic-uti-in-older-delirious-medical-in-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Monidipa Dasgupta, Chris Brymer, Sameer Elsayed
BACKGROUND: Despite clinical practice guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in older people is frequently treated. A common reason for treating ASB is a change in mental status. OBJECTIVE: To determine how often asymptomatic UTI is treated in older medically ill delirious individuals and its association with functional recovery. METHODS: Consecutive older medical in-patients were screened for delirium, and followed in hospital. Treatment for asymptomatic UTI was defined as documented treatment for a possible urinary tract infection with antibiotics, without concurrent infectious or urinary symptoms...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624376/orthorexia-nervosa-and-eating-disorder-symptoms-in-registered-dietitian-nutritionists-in-the-united-states
#14
Kaylee Tremelling, Lona Sandon, Gloria L Vega, Carrie J McAdams
BACKGROUND: Registered dietitian nutritionists are trained to identify optimal food choices for clients based on medical state and lifestyle. Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a proposed disorder related to obsessions about eating healthfully. Eating disorders (EDs) are serious mental illnesses with symptoms related to eating, body image, and self-esteem. Both ON and EDs are more common among RDNs than the general population. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of ON and EDs in RDNs in the United States and, among this sample, assessed whether the presence of ON symptoms related to symptoms of EDs, including weight, shape, eating, and restraint...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620339/the-stress-acceleration-hypothesis-of-nightmares
#15
Tore Nielsen
Adverse childhood experiences can deleteriously affect future physical and mental health, increasing risk for many illnesses, including psychiatric problems, sleep disorders, and, according to the present hypothesis, idiopathic nightmares. Much like post-traumatic nightmares, which are triggered by trauma and lead to recurrent emotional dreaming about the trauma, idiopathic nightmares are hypothesized to originate in early adverse experiences that lead in later life to the expression of early memories and emotions in dream content...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617207/development-and-validation-of-a-scale-assessing-mental-health-clinicians-experiences-of-associative-stigma
#16
Philip T Yanos, Beth Vayshenker, Joseph S DeLuca, Lauren K O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: Mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses are believed to experience associative stigma. Evidence suggests that associative stigma could play an important role in the erosion of empathy among professionals; however, no validated measure of the construct currently exists. This study examined the convergent and discriminant validity and factor structure of a new scale assessing the associative stigma experiences of clinicians working with people with serious mental illnesses...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615771/comparative-study-of-psychiatric-manifestations-among-type-i-and-type-ii-diabetic-patients
#17
Rupesh Chaudhary, Pankaj Kumar, Akhil Chopra, Sandeep Chabbra, Parminder Singh
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depressive disorders belong to the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. They are generally seen in individuals who suffer from chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of depression among diabetics ranges from 8.5% to 32.5%, while that for anxiety it is up to 30%. In this study, we try to compare the mental health problems faced by those with Type I and Type II DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients diagnosed with Type I diabetes (T1D) and Type II diabetes each presenting to Medicine and Endocrinology Department were assessed with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) for depression and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) for anxiety...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606869/predicting-mental-conditions-based-on-history-of-present-illness-in-psychiatric-notes-with-deep-neural-networks
#18
Tung Tran, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: Applications of natural language processing to mental health notes are not common given the sensitive nature of the associated narratives. The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) changed this scenario by providing the first set of neuropsychiatric notes to participants. This study summarizes our efforts and results in proposing a novel data use case for this dataset as part of the third track in this shared task. OBJECTIVE: We explore the feasibility and effectiveness of predicting a set of common mental conditions a patient has based on the short textual description of patient's history of present illness typically occurring in the beginning of a psychiatric initial evaluation note...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602568/online-self-help-forums-on-cannabis-a-content-assessment
#19
Christian Greiner, Anne Chatton, Yasser Khazaal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate online self-help forums related to cannabis users who were searching for help on the Internet. METHODS: We analyzed the content of 717 postings by 328 users in three online forums in terms of fields of interest and self-help mechanisms. Only English-language forums that were free of charge and without registration were investigated. RESULTS: The main self-help mechanisms were disclosure and symptoms, with relatively few posts concerning legal issues and social perceptions...
June 3, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601143/psychiatric-and-palliative-care-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie M Harman
Palliative care is specialized medical care focused on patients with serious illness and their families. In the intensive care unit (ICU), palliative care encompasses core skills to support patients and their families throughout their ICU course and post-ICU stays. Psychiatric symptoms are common among patients approaching the end of life and require particular attention in the setting of sedating medications, typically used when patients require ventilators and other life-sustaining treatments. For patients with preexisting severe mental illness who have a concurrent serious medical illness, a palliative psychiatric approach can address complex symptom management and support ethical and value-based shared decision making...
July 2017: Critical Care Clinics
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