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Tumor immune recognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208102/oncogenic-growth-factor-signaling-mediating-tumor-escape-from-cellular-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Fernando Concha-Benavente, Robert L Ferris
Unrestrained growth factor signals can promote carcinogenesis, as well as other hallmarks of cancer such as immune evasion. Our understanding of the function and complex regulation of HER family of receptors has led to the development of targeted therapeutic agents that suppress tumor growth. However, these receptors also mediate escape from recognition by the host immune system. We discuss how HER family of oncogenic receptors downregulate tumor antigen presentation and upregulate suppressive membrane-bound or soluble secreted inhibitory molecules that ultimately lead to impaired cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199990/activation-of-nk-cells-and-disruption-of-pd-l1-pd-1-axis-two-different-ways-for-lenalidomide-to-block-myeloma-progression
#2
REVIEW
Massimo Giuliani, Bassam Janji, Guy Berchem
Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role against tumor cells in hematological malignancies. Their activating receptors are essential in tumor cell killing. In Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients, NK cell differentiation, activation and cytotoxic potential are strongly impaired leading to MM escape from immune surveillance in tissues and bone marrow. Mechanisms used by MM to affect NK cell functions are mediated by the release of soluble factors, the expression of activating and inhibitory NK cell ligands, and the expression of immune check-point inhibitors...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197384/oncolytic-measles-virus-induces-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-trail-mediated-cytotoxicity-by-human-myeloid-and-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#3
Carole Achard, Jean-Baptiste Guillerme, Daniela Bruni, Nicolas Boisgerault, Chantal Combredet, Frédéric Tangy, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Marc Grégoire, Jean-François Fonteneau
Attenuated measles virus (MV) is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic therapeutic agent. Originally used for its lytic activity against tumor cells, it is now admitted that the effectiveness of MV also lies in its ability to initiate antitumor immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we investigated the capacity of oncolytic MV to convert human blood myeloid CD1c(+) DCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) into cytotoxic effectors. We found that MV induces the expression of the cytotoxic protein TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on the surface of DCs...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186087/baculovirus-directly-activates-murine-nk-cells-via-tlr9
#4
T Moriyama, T Suzuki, M O Chang, M Kitajima, H Takaku
The importance of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immune responses against tumors or viral infections enhances the appeal of NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. We have recently reported that baculovirus (BV)-infected dendritic cells (DCs; BV-DCs) induce antitumor immunity against established tumors in mice. These antitumor effects were CD8(+) T-cell and NK cell dependent; however, they were found to be CD4(+) T-cell independent. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the process of BV recognition by NK cells...
February 10, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159550/characterization-of-the-diversity-of-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complementary-determinant-region-3-in-human-peripheral-blood-by-immune-repertoire-sequencing
#5
Hui Chen, Mingjin Zou, Da Teng, Jianmin Zhang, Wei He
γδ T cells function as sentinels in early host response to infections and malignancies. Although γδ T cells are regarded as innate immune cells and recognize antigens in a non-MHC restricted manner, they possess a huge diversity of complementary determinant region 3 (CDR3) of T cell receptor (TCR) generated by the rearrangement of germ-line gene V- (D) -J-C fragments. However, the detailed characteristics of the TCRγδ CDR3 repertoire remain unclear. A comprehensive analysis would answer fundamental questions about the diversity of the TCRγδ CDR3 repertoire and elucidate the mechanism underlying γδ T cell recognition of pathogens and tumor antigens...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157655/phytosterols-as-a-natural-anticancer-agent-current-status-and-future-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Naiyer Shahzad, Wajahatullah Khan, Shadab Md, Asgar Ali, Sundeep Singh Saluja, Sadhana Sharma, Faisal A Al-Allaf, Zainularifeen Abduljaleel, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Ali Fathi Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed Abdelaziz Afify, Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi
Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation...
January 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154569/regulation-of-nk-cell-activation-and-effector-functions-by-the-il-12-family-of-cytokines-the-case-of-il-27
#7
REVIEW
Norberto Walter Zwirner, Andrea Ziblat
Natural killer (NK) cells are characterized by their ability to detect and induce apoptosis of susceptible target cells and by secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. Activation of these effector functions is triggered upon recognition of tumor and pathogen (mostly virus)-infected cells and because of a bidirectional cross talk that NK cells establish with other cells of myeloid origin such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. A common characteristic of these myeloid cells is their ability to secrete different members of the IL-12 family of cytokines such as IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 and cytokines such as IL-15 and IL-18...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134729/lichenoid-dermatologic-toxicity-from-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapy-a-detailed-examination-of-the-clinicopathologic-features
#8
Michael T Tetzlaff, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Susan Chon, Auris Huen, Adi Diab, Pacha Omar, Phyu P Aung, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Steven R Mays, Victor G Prieto, Jonathan L Curry
Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor has demonstrated tremendous promise in the treatment of advanced solid tumors. Dermatologic toxicities, however, are an emerging consequence of this therapy and have been clearly associated with immune checkpoint blockade antibodies. Distinctive clinical and histologic subtypes of dermatologic toxicity secondary to immunotherapy are emerging and include rare autoimmune bullous reactions (eg, bullous pemphigoid) and lichenoid eruptions. We report three patients who developed lichenoid dermatitis while receiving anti-PD-1 antibody therapy...
February 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129120/targeting-of-aberrant-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-expression-in-solid-tumors-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-t-cells
#9
Lynsey M Whilding, Ana C Parente-Pereira, Tomasz Zabinski, David M Davies, Roseanna M G Petrovic, Y Vincent Kao, Shobhit A Saxena, Alex Romain, Jose A Costa-Guerra, Shelia Violette, Hiroaki Itamochi, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Sabari Vallath, John F Marshall, John Maher
Expression of the αvβ6 integrin is upregulated in several solid tumors. In contrast, physiologic expression of this epithelial-specific integrin is restricted to development and epithelial re-modeling. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that couples the recognition of this integrin to the delivery of potent therapeutic activity in a diverse repertoire of solid tumor models. Highly selective targeting αvβ6 was achieved using a foot and mouth disease virus-derived A20 peptide, coupled to a fused CD28(+)CD3 endodomain...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123554/recognition-of-tumor-antigens-in-4t1-cells-by-natural-igm-from-three-strains-of-mice-with-different-susceptibilities-to-spontaneous-breast-cancer
#10
Mariana Díaz-Zaragoza, Ricardo Hernández-Ávila, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma
The issue of antibody responses to tumors is potentially important to cancer immunologists. Early detection of cancer represents one of the most promising approaches to reduce the growing cancer burden. Natural immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies have been associated with the recognition and elimination of cancerous and precancerous cells. Using natural IgM antibodies, the present study identified a set of antigens in healthy mice from three different strains and examined whether the global patterns of antibodies are able to discriminate between a condition of more or less susceptibility to breast cancer...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123516/c-type-lectins-facilitate-tumor-metastasis
#11
Dongbing Ding, Yao Yao, Songbai Zhang, Chunjie Su, Yonglian Zhang
Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116322/genetically-modified-t-cell-based-adoptive-immunotherapy-in-hematological-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Baixin Ye, Creed M Stary, Qingping Gao, Qiongyu Wang, Zhi Zeng, Zhihong Jian, Lijuan Gu, Xiaoxing Xiong
A significant proportion of hematological malignancies remain limited in treatment options. Immune system modulation serves as a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a central role in antitumor immunity; unfortunately, nonspecific approaches for targeted recognition of tumor cells by CTLs to mediate tumor immune evasion in hematological malignancies imply multiple mechanisms, which may or may not be clinically relevant. Recently, genetically modified T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and engineered T-cell receptor (TCR) T-cell therapy, promise to overcome immune evasion by redirecting the specificity of CTLs to tumor cells...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110884/tumor-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-are-negatively-regulated-by-pd-1-and-tim-3-in-human-gastric-cancer
#13
Xu Lu, Lin Yang, Daxing Yao, Xuan Wu, Jingpo Li, Xuesong Liu, Lijuan Deng, Caiting Huang, Yue Wang, Dan Li, Jingwei Liu
Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes that are present in tumors and capable of recognizing tumor epitopes are nevertheless generally important in eliciting tumor rejection. NY-ESO-1 is a major target of CD8(+) T cell recognition in gastric cancer (GC) and is among the most immunogenic tumor antigens defined to date. Thus, identifying the immune escape mechanisms responsible for inducing tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell dysfunction may reveal effective strategies for immunotherapy. In an effort to understand in vivo tolerance mechanisms, we assessed the phenotype and function of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cells derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and tumor-associated lymphocytes (TALs) of GC patients...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110657/maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-n-linked-glycans-in-cancer-tissues
#14
R R Drake, T W Powers, E E Jones, E Bruner, A S Mehta, P M Angel
Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109751/cord-blood-natural-killer-cells-expressing-a-dominant-negative-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-implications-for-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#15
Eric S Yvon, Rachel Burga, Allison Powell, Conrad R Cruz, Rohan Fernandes, Cecilia Barese, Tuongvan Nguyen, Mohamed S Abdel-Baki, Catherine M Bollard
Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) cells are promising effector cells for tumor immunotherapy but are currently limited by immune-suppressive cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β). We observed that TGF-β inhibits expression of activating receptors such as NKG2D and DNAM1 and decreases killing activity against glioblastoma tumor cells through inhibition of perforin secretion. To overcome the detrimental effects of TGF-β, we engrafted a dominant negative TGF-β receptor II (DNRII) on CB-derived NK cells by retroviral transduction and evaluated their ability to kill glioblastoma cells in the presence of TGF-β...
January 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101591/functions-of-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-immunosuppression
#16
REVIEW
Liliana Czernek, Markus Düchler
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, constitute an important element of intercellular communication by carrying a variety of molecules from producer to target cells. The transport of mRNA and miRNA can directly modulate gene expression in the target cells. The miRNA content in exosomes is characteristic for the cell from which the vesicles were derived enabling the usage of exosomes as biomarkers for the diagnosis various diseases, including cancer. Cancer-derived exosomes support the survival and progression of tumors in many ways and also contribute to the neutralization of the anti-cancer immune response...
January 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088707/dna-sensing-and-immune-responses-in-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Jian Qiao, Haidong Tang, Yang-Xin Fu
The identification of critical DNA sensors and their pathways has led to revealing the central role of DNA sensing in immune system. It has been initially demonstrated that DNA sensing and immune responses have high impacts on the development and prevention of infection and inflammatory. In addition to toll-like receptor pathways, there is now also emerging evidence that cytosolic enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for the recognition of not only pathogen-derived DNA but also tumor DNA for innate sensing...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077173/is-cd47-an-innate-immune-checkpoint-for-tumor-evasion
#18
REVIEW
Xiaojuan Liu, Hyunwoo Kwon, Zihai Li, Yang-Xin Fu
Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) (also known as integrin-associated protein) is a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a critical role in self-recognition. Various solid and hematologic cancers exploit CD47 expression in order to evade immunological eradication, and its overexpression is clinically correlated with poor prognoses. One essential mechanism behind CD47-mediated immune evasion is that it can interact with signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) expressed on myeloid cells, causing phosphorylation of the SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to ultimately result in delivering an anti-phagocytic-"don't eat me"-signal...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068458/synthetic-muc1-glycopeptide-bearing-%C3%AE-galnac-thr-as-tn-antigen-isomer-induces-antibodies-production-against-tumor-cells
#19
Vanessa Leiria Campo, Thalita Riul, Leandro Bortot, Maristela Martins-Teixeira, Marcelo Marchiori, Emanuela Iaccarino, Menotti Ruvo, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Ivone Carvalho
This study presents the synthesis of the novel protected O-glycosyl amino acids βGalNAc-SerOBn (1) and βGalNAc-ThrOBn (2) as mimetics of the natural Tn antigen (αGalNAc-Ser/Thr), along with the solid-phase assembly of the glycopeptides NHAcSer-Ala-Pro-Asp-Thr[αGalNAc]-Arg-Pro-Ala-Pro-Gly-BSA (3-BSA) and NHAcSer-Ala-Pro-Asp-Thr[βGalNAc]-Arg-Pro-Ala-Pro-Gly-BSA (4-BSA), bearing αGalNAc-Thr or βGalNAc-Thr, as mimetics of MUC1 tumor mucin glycoproteins. According to ELISA tests, mice immunizations with βGalNAc-glycopeptide 4-BSA induced higher sera titers (1:320000) if compared to immunizations with αGalNAc-glycopeptide 3-BSA (1:40000)...
January 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065604/characterization-of-galectin-1-from-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-and-its-involvements-during-immune-response
#20
Hui Yang, Qingjing Lan, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Fenggang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. In spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. In the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named AdGal1) from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. AdGal1 cDNA possesses an open reading frame of 598 bp, which encodes a putative galectin of 134 amino acids containing one carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)...
January 5, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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