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Tumor immune recognition

Yi Jiang, Denong Wang
Liquid biopsy uses noninvasive blood test to assess tumor heterogeneity and evolution in real time. It looks for tumor components in the blood circulation, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), to provide tumor-specific information. By detecting multiplex tumor biomarkers, including nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and other tumor-derived substances, liquid biopsy helps with early tumor diagnosis, tumor evolution monitoring, and prognosis prediction. With the development of high-throughput OMICS tools like carbohydrate microarray and high-speed fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST scan), it is now practical to identify glycan markers of CTCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs), especially those that are cell-surface exposed and readily accessible for immune recognition and targeting...
2018: Open Access J Biomed Eng Appl
Thitinee Vanichapol, Somchai Chutipongtanate, Usanarat Anurathapan, Suradej Hongeng
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood with 5-year survival rate of 40% in high-risk patients despite intensive therapies. Recently, adoptive cell therapy, particularly chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, represents a revolutionary treatment for hematological malignancies. However, there are challenges for this therapeutic strategy with solid tumors, as a result of the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to escape immune recognition or to modulate immune cell function...
2018: BioMed Research International
Erik Soule, Mark Bandyk, Jerry Matteo
Recent studies have shown efficacy of nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody specific for an immunoregulatory protein termed programmed death 1 (PD-1), against metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PD-1 is a transmembrane protein expressed on T cells that suppresses activation upon binding to its ligands, which may be secreted paraneoplastically by various cancers. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling via nivolumab may sensitize tumor-specific T lymphocytes in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Systemic elimination of micrometastases requires robust activation and proliferation of tumor antigen stimulated T cells...
April 19, 2018: Cryobiology
Stephanie M Schindler, Matthew G Frank, Jessica L Annis, Steven F Maier, Andis Klegeris
Neuroinflammation is a common pathogenic mechanism for a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, contribute to the onset and progression of the neuroinflammation observed in these diseases. Microglia become activated and initiate an inflammatory response by interacting with a diverse set of molecules, including the group of endogenous proteins released upon cell damage, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
April 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Rui Kuai, Wenmin Yuan, Sejin Son, Jutaek Nam, Yao Xu, Yuchen Fan, Anna Schwendeman, James J Moon
Although immune checkpoint blockade has shown initial success for various cancers, only a small subset of patients benefits from this therapy. Some chemotherapeutic drugs have been reported to induce antitumor T cell responses, prompting a number of clinical trials on combination chemoimmunotherapy. However, how to achieve potent immune activation with traditional chemotherapeutics in a manner that is safe, effective, and compatible with immunotherapy remains unclear. We show that high-density lipoprotein-mimicking nanodiscs loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, can potentiate immune checkpoint blockade in murine tumor models...
April 2018: Science Advances
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
Francesco Marangoni, Ruan Zhang, Vinidhra Mani, Martin Thelen, Noor J Ali Akbar, Ross D Warner, Tarmo Äijö, Valentina Zappulli, Gustavo J Martinez, Laurence A Turka, Thorsten R Mempel
Regulatory T cells (Treg) restrain immune responses against malignant tumors, but their global depletion in cancer patients will likely be limited by systemic autoimmune toxicity. Instead, approaches to "tune" their activities may allow for preferential targeting of tumor-reactive Treg. Although Ag recognition regulates Treg function, the roles of individual TCR-dependent signaling pathways in enabling Treg to promote tumor tolerance are not well characterized. In this study, we examined in mouse tumor models the role of calcineurin, a key mediator of TCR signaling, and the role of the costimulatory receptor CD28 in the differentiation of resting central Treg into effector Treg endowed with tumor tropism...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Joanna Bandola-Simon, Paul A Roche
The ability to mount an effective anti-tumor immune response requires coordinate control of CD4 T cell and CD8 T cell function by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Unfortunately, tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that helps protect tumor cells from immune recognition. In many cases this defect can be traced back to a failure of APCs (most importantly dendritic cells (DCs)) to recognize, process, and present tumor antigens to T cells. In this review, we will summarize work addressing the role of different DC subsets in anti-tumor immunity and the various mechanisms used by tumor cells to suppress the ability of APCs to stimulate potent anti-tumor T cell responses...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Koen A Marijt, Elien M Doorduijn, Thorbald van Hall
T-cell based immunotherapies through checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer are effective treatments for a wide range of cancers like melanomas and lung carcinomas that harbor a high mutational load. The HLA class I and class II (HLA-I and HLA-II) presented neoantigens arise from genetic mutations in the cancerous cells and are ideal non-self targets for the T cell-based treatments. Although some cancer patients responded with complete regression, many others are irresponsive to checkpoint blockade treatments, or relapse after initial success...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Marina Baretti, Nilofer Saba Azad
Although developments in the diagnosis and therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been made in the last decade, much work remains to be done as it remains the second leading cause of cancer death. It is now well established that epigenetic events, together with genetic alterations, are key events in initiation and progression of CRC. Epigenetics refers to heritable alterations in gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These alterations include DNA methylation, histone alterations, chromatin remodelers, and noncoding RNAs...
March 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Jillian Rosenberg, Jun Huang
CD8+ T cells and NK cells are both cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system, but the recognition, specificity, sensitivity, and memory mechanisms are drastically different. While many of these topics have been extensively studied in CD8+ T cells, very little is known about NK cells. Current cancer immunotherapies mainly focus on CD8+ T cells, but have many issues of toxicity and efficacy. Given the heterogeneous nature of cancer, personalized cancer immunotherapy that integrates the power of both CD8+ T cells in adaptive immunity and NK cells in innate immunity might be the future direction, along with precision targeting and effective delivery of tumor-specific, memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
Girish S Shroff, Patricia M de Groot, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Mylene T Truong, Brett W Carter
The treatment strategy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has evolved from empirical chemotherapy to a personalized approach based on histology and molecular markers of primary tumors. Targeted therapies are directed at the products of oncogenic driver mutations. Immunotherapy facilitates the recognition of cancer as foreign by the host immune system, stimulates the immune system, and alleviates the inhibition that allows the growth and spread of cancer cells. The authors describes the role of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC, patterns of disease present on imaging studies, and immune-related adverse events encountered with immunotherapy...
May 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Tyler W Hulett, Shawn M Jensen, Phillip A Wilmarth, Ashok P Reddy, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Michael E Afentoulis, Christopher Dubay, Larry L David, Bernard A Fox
BACKGROUND: One of today's greatest hurdles for cancer immunotherapy is the absence of information regarding which tumor antigens are already recognized by patients receiving immunotherapies, and whether those therapies then boost or generate an immune response against tumor proteins. For CD8+ T cells in particular, patient-specific immune recognition and responses at the level of individual tumor antigens are rarely characterized. Because of this, some immunologists have turned to serum antibodies as an alternative measure of antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity...
April 5, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Sun-Hee Kim, Jason Roszik, Elizabeth A Grimm, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu
The progression from neoplastic initiation to malignancy happens in part because of the failure of immune surveillance. Cancer cells successfully escape immune recognition and elimination and create an immune-suppressive microenvironment. A suppressive metabolic microenvironment may also contribute to ineffective T-cell function. Tumor progression is characterized by a complex network of interactions among different cell types that cooperatively exploit metabolic reprogramming. As we start to recognize that cancer cells use different metabolism processes than normal cells do, a better understanding of the functional mechanisms of the regulation and reprogramming of the metabolic landscape in cancer cells is crucial to successful immunotherapy strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Alexander A Celik, Gwendolin S Simper, Trevor Huyton, Rainer Blasczyk, Christina Bade-Döding
The trade-off from HLA class I expression to HLA-G expression support the immune evasion of malignant cells. The essential role of the virtually invariant HLA-G in immune tolerance, tumor immunology and its expression frequency in immune privileged tissues is known; however the specific importance of allelic subtypes in immune responses is still not well understood. HLA-G∗01:01, ∗01:03 and ∗01:04 are the most prevalent allelic variants differing at residues 31 and 110, respectively. In cytotoxicity assays applying K562 cells transduced with the HLA-G variants as targets and NK cells as effectors the differential protective potential of HLA-G variants was analyzed...
March 29, 2018: Human Immunology
Lucas Ferrari de Andrade, Rong En Tay, Deng Pan, Adrienne M Luoma, Yoshinaga Ito, Soumya Badrinath, Daphne Tsoucas, Bettina Franz, Kenneth F May, Christopher J Harvey, Sebastian Kobold, Jason W Pyrdol, Charles Yoon, Guo-Cheng Yuan, F Stephen Hodi, Glenn Dranoff, Kai W Wucherpfennig
MICA and MICB are expressed by many human cancers as a result of cellular stress, and can tag cells for elimination by cytotoxic lymphocytes through natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor activation. However, tumors evade this immune recognition pathway through proteolytic shedding of MICA and MICB proteins. We rationally designed antibodies targeting the MICA α3 domain, the site of proteolytic shedding, and found that these antibodies prevented loss of cell surface MICA and MICB by human cancer cells. These antibodies inhibited tumor growth in multiple fully immunocompetent mouse models and reduced human melanoma metastases in a humanized mouse model...
March 30, 2018: Science
Charlotte de Wolf, Marja van de Bovenkamp, Marcel Hoefnagel
The adaptive immune system is known to play an important role in anti-neoplastic responses via induction of several effector pathways, resulting in tumor cell death. Because of their ability to specifically recognize and kill tumor cells, the potential use of autologous tumor-derived and genetically engineered T cells as adoptive immunotherapy for cancer is currently being explored. Because of the variety of potential T cell-based medicinal products at the level of starting material and manufacturing process, product-specific functionality assays are needed to ensure quality for individual products...
March 26, 2018: Cytotherapy
Caterina Camodeca, Doretta Cuffaro, Elisa Nuti, Armando Rossello
The ADAMs, together with ADAMTSs and snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs), are members of the Adamalysin family. Differences in structural organization, functions and localization are known and their domains, catalytic or non-catalytic, show key roles in the substrate recognition and protease activity. Some ADAMs, as membrane-bound enzymes, show sheddase activity. Sheddases are key to modulation of functional proteins such as the tumor necrosis factor, growth factors, cytokines and their receptors, adhesion proteins, signaling molecules and stress molecules involved in immunity...
March 26, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Qiaohong Wang, Jingze Gao, Xia Wu
Immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be one of the most promising immunotherapies with significant clinical benefits and durable responses in multiple tumor types. A heterogeneity of responses appears in patients receiving checkpoint blockade, including pseudoprogression where the tumor burden or number of tumor lesions increases initially before decreasing. Another special response observed after checkpoint blockade is hyperprogression, a phenomenon reflecting a very rapid tumor progression following immunotherapy, suggesting that checkpoint blockade could impact detrimentally on a small subset of patients...
March 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Stefano Cavalieri, Licia Rivoltini, Cristiana Bergamini, Laura D Locati, Lisa Licitra, Paolo Bossi
According to the new determinants of cancer immunity, head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has to be considered as an immunogenic tumor for the relatively high number of somatic mutations giving rise to neoantigens recognized by T cell. HNSCC develop at a significant rate despite the antitumoral immune response indicating the existence of effective escape mechanisms. The lack of antigen presentation or co-stimulatory molecules required and immunosuppressive phenomena established by the tumor or the host microenvironment impair immune-mediated recognition and cancer control...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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