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Tumor immune recognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109751/cord-blood-natural-killer-cells-expressing-a-dominant-negative-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-implications-for-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#1
Eric S Yvon, Rachel Burga, Allison Powell, Conrad R Cruz, Rohan Fernandes, Cecilia Barese, Tuongvan Nguyen, Mohamed S Abdel-Baki, Catherine M Bollard
Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) cells are promising effector cells for tumor immunotherapy but are currently limited by immune-suppressive cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β). We observed that TGF-β inhibits expression of activating receptors such as NKG2D and DNAM1 and decreases killing activity against glioblastoma tumor cells through inhibition of perforin secretion. To overcome the detrimental effects of TGF-β, we engrafted a dominant negative TGF-β receptor II (DNRII) on CB-derived NK cells by retroviral transduction and evaluated their ability to kill glioblastoma cells in the presence of TGF-β...
January 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101591/functions-of-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-immunosuppression
#2
REVIEW
Liliana Czernek, Markus Düchler
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, constitute an important element of intercellular communication by carrying a variety of molecules from producer to target cells. The transport of mRNA and miRNA can directly modulate gene expression in the target cells. The miRNA content in exosomes is characteristic for the cell from which the vesicles were derived enabling the usage of exosomes as biomarkers for the diagnosis various diseases, including cancer. Cancer-derived exosomes support the survival and progression of tumors in many ways and also contribute to the neutralization of the anti-cancer immune response...
January 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088707/dna-sensing-and-immune-responses-in-cancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Jian Qiao, Haidong Tang, Yang-Xin Fu
The identification of critical DNA sensors and their pathways has led to revealing the central role of DNA sensing in immune system. It has been initially demonstrated that DNA sensing and immune responses have high impacts on the development and prevention of infection and inflammatory. In addition to toll-like receptor pathways, there is now also emerging evidence that cytosolic enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for the recognition of not only pathogen-derived DNA but also tumor DNA for innate sensing...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077173/is-cd47-an-innate-immune-checkpoint-for-tumor-evasion
#4
REVIEW
Xiaojuan Liu, Hyunwoo Kwon, Zihai Li, Yang-Xin Fu
Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) (also known as integrin-associated protein) is a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a critical role in self-recognition. Various solid and hematologic cancers exploit CD47 expression in order to evade immunological eradication, and its overexpression is clinically correlated with poor prognoses. One essential mechanism behind CD47-mediated immune evasion is that it can interact with signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) expressed on myeloid cells, causing phosphorylation of the SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to ultimately result in delivering an anti-phagocytic-"don't eat me"-signal...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068458/synthetic-muc1-glycopeptide-bearing-%C3%AE-galnac-thr-as-tn-antigen-isomer-induces-antibodies-production-against-tumor-cells
#5
Vanessa Leiria Campo, Thalita Riul, Leandro Bortot, Maristela Martins-Teixeira, Marcelo Marchiori, Emanuela Iaccarino, Menotti Ruvo, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Ivone Carvalho
This study presents the synthesis of the novel protected O-glycosyl amino acids βGalNAc-SerOBn (1) and βGalNAc-ThrOBn (2) as mimetics of the natural Tn antigen (αGalNAc-Ser/Thr), along with the solid-phase assembly of the glycopeptides NHAcSer-Ala-Pro-Asp-Thr[αGalNAc]-Arg-Pro-Ala-Pro-Gly-BSA (3-BSA) and NHAcSer-Ala-Pro-Asp-Thr[βGalNAc]-Arg-Pro-Ala-Pro-Gly-BSA (4-BSA), bearing αGalNAc-Thr or βGalNAc-Thr, as mimetics of MUC1 tumor mucin glycoproteins. According to ELISA tests, mice immunizations with βGalNAc-glycopeptide 4-BSA induced higher sera titers (1:320000) if compared to immunizations with αGalNAc-glycopeptide 3-BSA (1:40000)...
January 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065604/characterization-of-galectin-1-from-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-and-its-involvements-during-immune-response
#6
Hui Yang, Qingjing Lan, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Fenggang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. In spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. In the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named AdGal1) from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. AdGal1 cDNA possesses an open reading frame of 598 bp, which encodes a putative galectin of 134 amino acids containing one carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)...
January 5, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060562/pathogen-recognition-and-toll-like-receptor-targeted-therapeutics-in-innate-immune-cells
#7
Sarang Tartey, Osamu Takeuchi
The innate immune system deploys a variety of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors to detect the invasion of pathogens and initiate protective responses. The intercellular and intracellular orchestration of signals from different PRRs, their endogenous or microbial ligands and accessory molecules determine the stimulatory or inhibitory responses. Progressing over the last two decades, considerable research on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions has led to a paradigm shift of our understanding of TLR signaling in the innate immune system...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057175/pour-comprendre-l%C3%A2-activation-lymphocytaire-t
#8
Jeanne Galaine, Yann Godet, Olivier Adotévi
T cells activation is a finely regulated process to establish an effective anti-infectious or antitumor immune response while avoiding harmful autoimmune reactions. Although T cells are considered to be the main protagonists of the antitumor immune response, they act in interaction with other immune cells. The meeting of naive T cells with dendritic cells induces their differentiation into effector cells following the recognition of the peptide-MHC complex by the T cell receptor. The interaction of costimulatory molecules present on the surface of T cells with their ligand (s) expressed by mature dendritic cells contribute to the optimal T cell activation and to the formation of the immunological synapse...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045432/cancer-therapy-due-to-apoptosis-galectin-9
#9
REVIEW
Koji Fujita, Hisakazu Iwama, Kyoko Oura, Tomoko Tadokoro, Eri Samukawa, Teppei Sakamoto, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Asahiro Morishita, Takashi Himoto, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
Dysregulation of apoptosis is a major hallmark in cancer biology that might equip tumors with a higher malignant potential and chemoresistance. The anti-cancer activities of lectin, defined as a carbohydrate-binding protein that is not an enzyme or antibody, have been investigated for over a century. Recently, galectin-9, which has two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker peptide, was noted to induce apoptosis in thymocytes and immune cells. The apoptosis of these cells contributes to the development and regulation of acquired immunity...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042519/potential-of-radiofrequency-ablation-in-combination-with-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Guangfu Li, Kevin F Staveley-O'Carroll, Eric T Kimchi
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important treatment option for patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RFA offers a reliable, reproducible modality to effectively treat hepatic lesions with minimal collateral damage to the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. In addition to traditional open operative techniques, RFA can be performed percutaneously or laparoscopically to minimize the physiologic insult to the patient. Due to the concomitant hepatic damage and dysfunction that often is present in patients with HCC these factors make RFA a frequently utilized therapeutic option...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028314/redirecting-t-cells-to-eradicate-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-bispecific-t-cell-engagers-and-chimeric-antigen-receptors
#11
REVIEW
I Aldoss, R C Bargou, D Nagorsen, G R Friberg, P A Baeuerle, S J Forman
Recent advances in antibody technology to harness T-cells for cancer immunotherapy, particularly in the difficult-to-treat setting of relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL), has led to innovative methods for directing cytotoxic T-cells to specific surface antigens on cancer cells. One approach involves administration of soluble bispecific (or dual-affinity) antibody-based constructs that temporarily bridge T-cells and cancer cells. Another approach infuses ex vivo-engineered T-cells that express a surface plasma membrane-inserted antibody construct called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)...
December 28, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018989/the-intersection-of-radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#12
Michael Spiotto, Yang-Xin Fu, Ralph R Weichselbaum
By inducing DNA damage, radiotherapy both reduces tumor burden and enhances anti-tumor immunity. Here, we will review the mechanisms by which radiation induces anti-tumor immune responses that can be augmented using immunotherapies to facilitate tumor regression. Radiotherapy increases inflammation in tumors by activating the NF-κB and the Type I interferon response pathways to induce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This inflammation coupled with antigen release from irradiated cells facilitates dendritic cell maturation and cross-presentation of tumor antigens to prime tumor-specific T cell responses...
September 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012132/galectins-their-network-and-roles-in-immunity-tumor-growth-control
#13
REVIEW
Herbert Kaltner, Stefan Toegel, Gabriel García Caballero, Joachim C Manning, Robert W Ledeen, Hans-Joachim Gabius
One route of realizing the information of glycans involves endogenous receptors (lectins). Occurrence at branch ends renders galactosides particularly accessible. Thus, they are suited for such a recognition process. Fittingly, these epitopes serve as physiological ligands. The ga(lactoside-binding) lectins share the β-sandwich fold with a sequence signature around a central tryptophan residue besides this specificity. Three modes of presentation of the carbohydrate recognition domain are known for galectins, and genome monitoring from fungi to mammals discloses that galectins form a network...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008927/immunotherapy-against-cancer-related-viruses
#14
REVIEW
Haruko Tashiro, Malcolm K Brenner
Approximately 12% of all cancers worldwide are associated with viral infections. To date, eight viruses have been shown to contribute to the development of human cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C viruses, and Human papilloma virus, among others. These DNA and RNA viruses produce oncogenic effects through distinct mechanisms. First, viruses may induce sustained disorders of host cell growth and survival through the genes they express, or may induce DNA damage response in host cells, which in turn increases host genome instability...
January 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008807/the-role-of-hla-class-i-heavy-chain-interactions-with-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-in-immune-regulation
#15
Simon Kollnberger
HLA-class I molecules form trimeric complexes (pMHC) of peptides, class I heavy chains, and β2microglobulins (β2m) that regulate immune responses by binding to T cells and other immune receptors. B2m-free class I heavy chains (FHCs) form on cells either as a consequence of the natural turnover of pMHC or, in the case of HLA-F, are expressed without β2m. Distinct characteristics of certain HLA-class I members, such as HLA-B27 and HLA-F, stabilize these forms facilitating interactions with immune receptors...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991903/structural-basis-for-targeted-dna-cytosine-deamination-and-mutagenesis-by-apobec3a-and-apobec3b
#16
Ke Shi, Michael A Carpenter, Surajit Banerjee, Nadine M Shaban, Kayo Kurahashi, Daniel J Salamango, Jennifer L McCann, Gabriel J Starrett, Justin V Duffy, Özlem Demir, Rommie E Amaro, Daniel A Harki, Reuben S Harris, Hideki Aihara
APOBEC-catalyzed cytosine-to-uracil deamination of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has beneficial functions in immunity and detrimental effects in cancer. APOBEC enzymes have intrinsic dinucleotide specificities that impart hallmark mutation signatures. Although numerous structures have been solved, mechanisms for global ssDNA recognition and local target-sequence selection remain unclear. Here we report crystal structures of human APOBEC3A and a chimera of human APOBEC3B and APOBEC3A bound to ssDNA at 3.1-Å and 1...
December 19, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964740/lw-afc-a-new-formula-derived-from-liuwei-dihuang-decoction-ameliorates-behavioral-and-pathological-deterioration-via-modulating-the-neuroendocrine-immune-system-in-prp-ha%C3%AE-ppswe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-transgenic-mice
#17
Jian-Hui Wang, Xi Lei, Xiao-Rui Cheng, Xiao-Rui Zhang, Gang Liu, Jun-Ping Cheng, Yi-Ran Xu, Ju Zeng, Wen-Xia Zhou, Yong-Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates the neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network in the physiopathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, we previously revealed that the NIM network is dysregulated in the PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1(ΔE9) (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of AD. METHODS: After treatment with a novel Liuwei Dihuang formula (LW-AFC), mice were cognitively evaluated in behavioral experiments. Neuron loss, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, and Aβ level were analyzed using Nissl staining, immunofluorescence, and an AlphaLISA assay, respectively...
December 13, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957769/microarray-analysis-of-antibodies-induced-with-synthetic-antitumor-vaccines-specificity-against-diverse-mucin-core-structures
#18
Christian Pett, Hui Cai, Jia Liu, Björn Palitzsch, Manuel Schorlemer, Sebastian Hartmann, Natascha Stergiou, Mengji Lu, Horst Kunz, Edgar Schmitt, Ulrika Westerlind
Glycoprotein research is pivotal for vaccine development and biomarker discovery. Many successful methodologies for reliably increasing the antigenicity towards tumor-associated glycopeptide structures have been reported. Deeper insights into the quality and specificity of the raised polyclonal, humoral reactions are often not addressed, despite the fact that an immunological memory, which produces antibodies with cross-reactivity to epitopes exposed on healthy cells, may cause auto-immune diseases. In the current work three MUC1 antitumor vaccine candidates conjugated with different immune stimulants were immunologically evaluated...
December 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951636/adjuvant-activity-enhanced-by-cross-linked-cpg-oligonucleotides-in-%C3%AE-glucan-nanogel-and-its-antitumor-effect
#19
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Shota Fujii, Kenta Yoshida, Kazuo Sakurai
Cancer vaccine has the ability to directly eradicate tumor cells by creating and activating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). To achieve efficient CTL activity and to induce Th1 responses, it is essential to administer an appropriate adjuvant as well as an antigen. CpG-ODN is known as a ligand of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and strongly induces Th1 responses. In our previous study, we developed a CpG-ODN delivery system by use of the formation of complexes between ODN and a β-glucan SPG, denoted as CpG/SPG, and demonstrated that CpG/SPG induces high Th1 responses...
January 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941769/sensing-danger-toll-like-receptors-and-outcome-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
B Kornblit, K Müller
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses. Based mainly on animal studies there is growing evidence to suggest that TLRs are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and in the propagation of graft versus host reactions as well as graft versus tumor effects in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this review we discuss these findings along with the emerging, although still preliminary, clinical evidence, that points to a role of PRRs in determining the outcome of HSCT and new therapeutic perspectives that may be related to this development...
December 12, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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