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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110421/dendritic-cell-immune-responses-in-hiv-1-controllers
#1
REVIEW
Enrique Martin-Gayo, Xu G Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110220/hypoxia-inducing-factor-hif-1%C3%AE-derived-peptide-capable-of-inducing-cancer-reactive-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-from-hla-a24-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
Takafumi Minami, Naoki Matsumura, Koichi Sugimoto, Nobutaka Shimizu, Marco De Velasco, Masahiro Nozawa, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Nanae Harashima, Mamoru Harada, Hirotsugu Uemura
Hypoxic tumor microenvironment makes cancer cells to be therapy-resistant and hypoxia-inducing factors (HIFs) play a central role in hypoxic adaptation. Especially, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is often associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations, leading to up-regulation of HIFs. However, from a different point of view, this suggests the possibility that HIFs could be promising targets in anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we searched for HIF-1α-derived peptides that are able to induce RCC-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from HLA-A24(+) RCC patients...
January 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110209/expansion-of-cd11b-ly-6c-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-driven-by-galectin-9-attenuates-cvb3-induced-myocarditis
#3
Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Xueqin Li, Zongsheng Tang, Ling He, Kun Lv
Galectin-9 is known to play a role in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity to ameliorate CVB3-induced myocarditis. In the present study, we found that galectin-9 induced the expansion of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the heart from CVB3-infected mice. Adoptive transfer of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) MDSCs significantly alleviated myocarditis accompanied by increased Th2 and Treg frequency and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression in the heart tissue. Moreover, Ly6C(+) MDSCs, but not Ly6G(+) cells, expressed Arg-1 and NOS2, and suppressed CD4(+) T cell proliferation in vitro in an Arg-1-dependent mechanism; an event that was reversed with treatment of either an Arg-1 inhibitor or addition of excess l-arginine...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110191/asiatic-acid-enhances-nrf2-signaling-to-protect-hepg2-cells-from-oxidative-damage-through-akt-and-erk-activation
#4
Zhimin Qi, Xinxin Ci, Jingbo Huang, Qinmei Liu, Qinlei Yu, Junfeng Zhou, Xuming Deng
Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, have antioxidative potential, but the molecular mechanism of AA against oxidative stress remains unclear. Our study was performed to investigate the antioxidative effect of AA against oxidative stress and the antioxidative mechanism in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) -stimulated the HepG2 cells. The results showed that AA suppressed t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Additionally, AA activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signal, which was closely related to induction Nrf2 nuclear translocation, reduction the expression of Keap1 and up-regulation the activity of the antioxidant response element (ARE)...
January 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110021/the-application-of-crispr-technology-to-high-content-screening-in-primary-neurons
#5
Ben L Callif, Brian Maunze, Nick L Krueger, Matthew T Simpson, Murray G Blackmore
Axon growth is coordinated by multiple interacting proteins that remain incompletely characterized. High content screening (HCS), in which manipulation of candidate genes is combined with rapid image analysis of phenotypic effects, has emerged as a powerful technique to identify key regulators of axon outgrowth. Here we explore the utility of a genome editing approach referred to as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats) for knockout screening in primary neurons. In the CRISPR approach a DNA-cleaving Cas enzyme is guided to genomic target sequences by user-created guide RNA (sgRNA), where it initiates a double-stranded break that ultimately results in frameshift mutation and loss of protein production...
January 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109817/salecan-protected-against-concanavalin-a-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-modulating-t-cell-immune-responses-and-nmr-based-metabolic-profiles
#6
Qi Sun, Xi Xu, Xiao Yang, Dan Weng, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Salecan, a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of salecan against Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to search for possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with salecan followed by ConA injection. Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced acute liver injury, and suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in ConA-induced liver injury model...
January 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109697/fibronectin-fibrils-regulate-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Lauren A Griggs, Nadiah T Hassan, Roshni S Malik, Brian Griffin, Brittany A Martinez, Lynne W Elmore, Christopher A Lemmon
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a dynamic process through which epithelial cells transdifferentiate from an epithelial phenotype into a mesenchymal phenotype. Previous studies have also demonstrated that both mechanical signaling and soluble growth factor signaling facilitate this process. One possible point of integration for mechanical and growth factor signaling is the extracellular matrix. Here we investigate the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN) in this process...
January 18, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109438/proteomic-analysis-of-metabolic-responses-to-biofuels-and-chemicals-in-photosynthetic-cyanobacteria
#8
T Sun, L Chen, W Zhang
Recent progresses in various "omics" technologies have enabled quantitative measurements of biological molecules in a high-throughput manner. Among them, high-throughput proteomics is a rapidly advancing field that offers a new means to quantify metabolic changes at protein level, which has significantly facilitated our understanding of cellular process, such as protein synthesis, posttranslational modifications, and degradation in responding to environmental perturbations. Cyanobacteria are autotrophic prokaryotes that can perform oxygenic photosynthesis and have recently attracted significant attentions as one promising alternative to traditionally biomass-based "microbial cell factories" to produce green fuels and chemicals...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109308/semaphorin-7a-as-a-potential-immune-regulator-and-promising-therapeutic-target-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Jianmin Xie, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) is expressed by several different classes of lymphoid and myeloid cells and is a potent immunomodulator. We examined the role of Sema7A in modulating cellular immune responses and to provide experimental data validating the therapeutic potential of Sema7A in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Soluble Sema7A (sSema7A) levels in the serum and synovial fluid from patients with RA or osteoarthritis, as well as cytokine secretions, were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 21, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109018/gonad-histology-and-serum-11-kt-profile-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-in-sterlet-sturgeon-adult-males-acipenser-ruthenus
#11
A Golpour, C Broquard, S Milla, H Dadras, A R Baloch, T Saito, M Pšenička
The aim of this study was to assess monthly testicular development in the cultured breeding stock of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus, using histological and serum sex steroid changes. Testicular development in the adult male was examined monthly and showed four distinct phases including resting, pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning. Also, seasonal changes of the testes were described according to its variations in gonadosomatic index (GSI) during different phases of testicular development. Using histology, we identified continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous gonad development pattern in the testes of male sterlet, which shows that regulation of annual gonadal cycle is influenced by season...
January 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108989/tigit-signaling-pathway-negatively-regulates-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Lie Mao, Hongyan Hou, Shiji Wu, Yu Zhou, Juan Wang, Jing Yu, Xiaohui Wu, Yanfang Lu, Liyan Mao, Munyemana Jean Bosco, Feng Wang, Ziyong Sun
B lymphocyte hyperactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is T cell-dependent, and CD4(+) T cell activation is essential to SLE pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of the deregulation of CD4(+) T cells in SLE is largely unknown. T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a new inhibitory receptor preferentially expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells. Here, we addressed the role of TIGIT in the pathogenesis of SLE. Our results showed that TIGIT expression on CD4(+) T cells was significantly elevated in patients with SLE and highly correlated with the activity of the disease...
January 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108987/activation-of-sirt1-by-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-exerts-a-therapeutic-effect-on-hepatic-injury-and-inflammation
#13
Caroline Steinmetz, Anubha Kashyap, Nataliya Zhivkova, Henry Alizor, Isabell Ernst, Daniela Gottfried-Brand, Henning Janssen, Andreas Teufel, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Johannes Lotz, Jürgen Kuball, Matthias Theobald, Michael Heise, Hauke Lang, Peter R Galle, Dennis Strand, Susanne Strand
: The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory liver diseases has increased over the last years but therapeutic options are limited. Pregnancy induces a state of immune tolerance, which can result in spontaneous improvement of clinical symptoms of certain autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We investigated the immune suppressive mechanisms of the human pregnancy hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the liver. HCG signaling activates SIRT1, which deacetylates FOXO3a, leading to repression of pro-apoptotic gene expression...
January 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108980/the-influence-of-macrophages-on-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-passive-or-aggressive-agents
#14
REVIEW
Fiona Carty, Bernard P Mahon, Karen English
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as promising cell therapies for multiple conditions based on demonstrations of their potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capacities in models of inflammatory disease. Understanding the effects of MSC on T cells has dominated the majority of work carried out in this field to date, however, recently a number of studies have shown that the therapeutic effect of MSC requires the presence of macrophages. It is timely to review the mechanisms and manner by which MSC modulate macrophage populations in order to better design MSC therapies and clinical studies...
January 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108952/transcriptional-regulators-dictate-innate-lymphoid-cell-fates
#15
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Research on innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has recently been a fast paced topic of immunological research. As ILCs are able to produce signature Th cytokine, ILCs have garnered considerable attention and have been described to represent the innate counterpart of the CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. The development and function of ILCs are precisely regulated by a network of crucial transcription factors, which are also involved in the development or differentiation of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and T cells...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108937/glycyrrhizin-ameliorates-experimental-colitis-through-attenuating-interleukin-17-producing-t-cell-responses-via-regulating-antigen-presenting-cells
#16
Xiangyu Chen, Dai Fang, Lingyun Li, Liyong Chen, Qirui Li, Feili Gong, Min Fang
Glycyrrhizin, a component of Chinese medicine licorice root, has the ability to inhibit the functions of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). While glycyrrhizin is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, the underlying mechanisms by which glycyrrhizin inhibits inflammation during the development of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis are not well understood. This study systemically examined the regulatory effects of glycyrrhizin on inflammatory response in TNBS-induced murine colitis and explored the potential mechanisms involved in this process...
January 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108653/galectin-1-expression-is-associated-with-tumour-immunity-and-prognosis-in-gingival-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Yuri Noda, Mitsunobu Kishino, Sunao Sato, Katsutoshi Hirose, Manabu Sakai, Yasuo Fukuda, Shumei Murakami, Satoru Toyosawa
AIMS: Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding protein that overexpresses in cancer and plays pivotal roles in tumour progression. Gal-1 regulates angiogenesis and invasiveness, and suppresses tumour immunity by inducing T cell apoptosis. Several studies have examined the relationship between Gal-1 and tumour immunosuppression in vivo, but they have not examined the clinicopathological relationship between Gal-1 expression and apoptotic T cell number in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the association between Gal-1 expression and apoptotic T cells of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC), as well as other clinicopathological factors...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108622/a-genome-wide-loss-of-function-screen-identifies-slc26a2-as-a-novel-mediator-of-trail-resistance
#18
Lina Dimberg, Christina G Towers, Kian Behbakht, Taylor Hotz, Jihye Kim, Susan P Fosmire, Christopher C Porter, Aik-Choon Tan, Andrew Thorburn, Heide L Ford
: TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent death-inducing ligand that mediates apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway and serves as an important endogenous tumor suppressor mechanism. Because tumor cells are often killed by TRAIL and normal cells are not, drugs that activate the TRAIL pathway have been thought to have potential clinical value. However, to date, most TRAIL-related clinical trials have largely failed due to the tumor cells having intrinsic or acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108607/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-could-improve-glucose-regulation-and-insulin-sensitivity-through-its-rgd-domain
#19
Natalie J Haywood, Paul A Cordell, Kar Yeun Tang, Natallia Makova, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Helen Imrie, Hema Viswambharan, Alexander F Bruns, Richard M Cubbon, Mark T Kearney, Stephen B Wheatcroft
Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with insulin resistance and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. IGFBP-1 can affect cellular functions independently of IGF binding through an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding motif. Whether causal mechanisms underlie the favorable association of high IGFBP-1 levels with insulin sensitivity and whether these could be exploited therapeutically remain unexplored. We used recombinant IGFBP-1 and a synthetic RGD-containing hexapeptide in complementary in vitro signaling assays and in vivo metabolic profiling in obese mice to investigate the effects of IGFBP-1 and its RGD domain on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and whole-body glucose regulation...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108558/irf4-expression-in-thymic-epithelium-is-critical-for-thymic-regulatory-t-cell-homeostasis
#20
Uku Haljasorg, James Dooley, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand, Rudolf Bichele, Adrian Liston, Pärt Peterson
The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ required for the induction and maintenance of central tolerance. The main function of the thymus is to generate an immunocompetent set of T cells not reactive to self. During negative selection in the thymus, thymocytes with autoreactive potential are either deleted or differentiated into regulatory T cells (Tregs). The molecular basis by which the thymus allows high-efficiency Treg induction remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that IFN regulatory factor 4 (Irf4) is highly expressed in murine thymic epithelium and is required to prime thymic epithelial cells (TEC) for effective Treg induction...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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