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Tumor specific antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053402/what-are-we-missing-false-negative-cancers-at-multiparametric-mr-imaging-of-the-prostate
#1
Samuel Borofsky, Arvin K George, Sonia Gaur, Marcelino Bernardo, Matthew D Greer, Francesca V Mertan, Myles Taffel, Vanesa Moreno, Maria J Merino, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey
Purpose To characterize clinically important prostate cancers missed at multiparametric (MP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective single-center study, which included 100 consecutive patients who had undergone MP MR imaging and subsequent radical prostatectomy. A genitourinary pathologist blinded to MP MR findings outlined prostate cancers on whole-mount pathology slices. Two readers correlated mapped lesions with reports of prospectively read MP MR images...
October 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052791/potential-diagnostic-performance-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-and-tumor-markers-in-differentiating-combined-hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma-from-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-cholangiocarcinoma
#2
Xiao-Wen Huang, Yang Huang, Li-da Chen, Zhu Wang, Zheng Yang, Jin-Ya Liu, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-De Lu, Shun-Li Shen, Wei Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the combination of tumor markers [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)] and imaging features in differentiating combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC). METHODS: Forty consecutive patients with pathologically proven CHC were retrospectively evaluated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Additionally, 40 HCC and 40 CC patients who were randomly selected from the same period served as a control group...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051161/prostate-cancer-cells-express-more-androgen-receptor-ar-following-androgen-deprivation-improving-recognition-by-ar-specific-t-cells
#3
Brian M Olson, Melissa Gamat, Joseph Seliski, Thomas Sawicki, Justin Jeffery, Leigh Ellis, Charles G Drake, Jamey Weichert, Douglas G McNeel
Androgen deprivation is the primary therapy for recurrent prostate cancer, and agents targeting the androgen receptor (AR) pathway continue to be developed. Because androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has immmunostimulatory effects as well as direct antitumor effects, AR-targeted therapies have been combined with other anti-cancer therapies, including immunotherapies. Here, we sought to study whether an antigen-specific mechanism of resistance to ADT (overexpression of the AR) may result in enhanced AR-specific T-cell immune recognition, and whether this might be strategically combined with an antitumor vaccine targeting the AR...
October 19, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050282/effective-antitumor-peptide-vaccines-can-induce-severe-autoimmune-pathology
#4
Hussein Sultan, Jimena Trillo-Tinoco, Paulo Rodriguez, Esteban Celis
Immunotherapy has shown a tremendous success in treating cancer. Unfortunately, this success is frequently associated with severe autoimmune pathology. In this study, we used the transgenic RIP-gp mouse model to assess the antitumor therapeutic benefit of peptide vaccination while evaluating the possible associated autoimmune pathology. We report that palmitoylated gp33-41 peptide and poly-IC adjuvant vaccine (BiVax) generated ∼ 5-10 % of antigen specific T cell responses in wild type and supposedly immune tolerant RIP-gp mice...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050075/-specific-cytotoxicity-of-a-novel-her2-based-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-lymphocytes-against-her2-positive-tumor-cells
#5
H J Tang, Y Q Liu, X C Bian, H L Feng, B Gu, H Sun, C X Zuo, F Y Zhou, J Liu
Objective: To construct the third generation chimeric antigen receptor based on a novel humanized anti-HER2 H1-2 scFv, and to investigate the specific cytotoxicity of H1-2 CAR modified T lymphocytes(CAR-T) against HER2(+) tumor cells. Method: The expression cassette of the third generation CAR gene and anti-HER2 H1-2 scFv were constructed and cloned into lentivirus transfer plasmid, and then the third generation H1-2 CAR was transduced into human T lymphocytes using lentivirus.Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of cytokines IL2, and LDH release assay was used to detect the cytotoxic effect of the H1-2 CAR-T...
October 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049328/ca-19-9-and-ca-125-as-potential-predictors-of-disease-recurrence-in-resectable-lung-adenocarcinoma
#6
Sofi Isaksson, Per Jönsson, Nastaran Monsef, Hans Brunnström, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Mats Jönsson, Johan Staaf, Maria Planck
OBJECTIVES: Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected prior to lung cancer surgery from 107 patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma surgically treated at Lund University hospital, Lund, Sweden, between 2005 and 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048978/antitumor-effect-of-oral-cancer-vaccine-with-bifidobacterium-delivering-wt1-protein-to-gut-immune-system-is-superior-to-wt1-peptide-vaccine
#7
Toshiro Shirakawa, Koichi Kitagawa
Despite the revolutionary progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) for cancer immunotherapy, CPIs are effective only in a subset of patients. Combining CPIs and cancer vaccines to achieve better clinical outcomes is a reasonable approach since CPI enhances cancer vaccine-induced tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific CTL. Among the various TAAs so far identified, WT1 protein is one of the most promising TAAs as a cancer vaccine target. Until now clinical trials of WT1 vaccine have demonstrated only modest clinical efficacy...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048935/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-for-solid-tumors-require-new-clinical-regimens
#8
Jinjing Xu, Kang Tian, Haixu Zhang, Liantao Li, Hongyan Liu, Jingjie Liu, Qing Zhang, Junnian Zheng
Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) therapy has achieved encouraging breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Nevertheless, this success has not yet been extrapolated to solid tumors. This review focuses on new clinical regimens that could improve the therapeutic efficacy of CAR-T in solid tumors. Areas covered: Herein, the authors reviewed recent clinical trials using CAR-T therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. Specifically, this review covered the following areas: (1) the current status of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors; (2) the major factors constraining the efficacy of CAR-T cells in solid tumors; and (3) opinions regarding the future of CAR-T as a treatment for solid tumors...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048671/adoptive-immunotherapy-combined-with-fp-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#9
Mayako Nishio-Nagai, Susumu Suzuki, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Ryuzo Ueda, Yoshiaki Kazaoka
FP treatment, which combines 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy, is widely used for treatment of advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It has been suggested that these drugs cause immunomodulation in the cancer microenvironment, for example, downregulation of immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), activating dendritic cells (DCs), and upregulation of tumor antigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in cancer cells leads to enhancement of cancer immunity, which is important in cancer treatment, as well as providing a direct killing effect...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046789/a-retrospective-study-of-late-adverse-events-in-proton-beam-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#10
Hirokazu Makishima, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Keiichi Tanaka, Yutaro Mori, Masashi Mizumoto, Kayoko Ohnishi, Teruhito Aihara, Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu, Toshiyuki Okumura, Hideyuki Sakurai
The efficacy and safety of proton beam therapy (PBT) were retrospectively evaluated in 111 consecutive patients with prostate cancer who underwent definitive PBT between 2008 and 2012. Following exclusion of 18 patients due to treatment suspension, loss to follow-up, and histology, the analysis included 93 patients with a median age of 68 years (range, 49-81 years). A total of 7, 32 and 54 prostate cancer patients were classified as low-, intermediate- and high-risk, respectively, as follows: High-risk, T≥3a or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥20 ng/ml or Gleason Score ≥8; low-risk, T ≤2b and PSA≤10 ng/ml and Gleason Score=6; intermediate-risk, all other combinations...
October 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045711/the-endothelial-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-is-highly-expressed-in-gliosarcoma-and-visualized-by-68ga-psma-11-pet-a-theranostic-outlook-for-brain-tumor-patients
#11
Marcus Unterrainer, Maximilian Niyazi, Viktoria Ruf, Peter Bartenstein, Nathalie L Albert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043661/development-of-adenosine-deaminase-specific-igy-antibodies-diagnostic-and-inhibitory-application
#12
Agnieszka Łupicka-Słowik, Mateusz Psurski, Renata Grzywa, Kamila Bobrek, Patrycja Smok, Maciej Walczak, Andrzej Gaweł, Tadeusz Stefaniak, Józef Oleksyszyn, Marcin Sieńczyk
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is currently used as a diagnostic marker for tuberculous pleuritis. Although ADA has been suggested as a potential marker for several types of cancer, the importance of each of ADA isoforms as well as their levels and enzymatic activities in tumors need to be further investigated. Herein we developed avian immunoglobulin Y highly specific to human ADA via hens immunization with calf adenosine deaminase. The obtained antibodies were used for the development of a sensitive double-egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) sandwich ELISA assay with an ADA detection limit of 0...
October 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042925/calreticulin-is-an-effective-immunologic-adjuvant-to-tumor-associated-antigens
#13
Jun Wang, Zhi Peng Gao, Song Qin, Chang Bai Liu, Li Li Zou
As a key molecule involved in cell recognition, calreticulin (CRT) may be expressed on the surface of (pre-) apoptotic cells and provide the signal that is recognized by dendritic cells (DCs) or other antigen presenting cells (APCs), which results in phagocytosis. Within the APCs, tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) may be subsequently presented to T lymphocytes, which triggers a specific antitumor immune response. It has been hypothesized that CRT is able to act as the immunologic adjuvant and translocate itself and TAAs to the cell surface and induce a specific antitumor immune response...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042417/restoration-of-natural-killer-cell-anti-metastatic-activity-by-il-12-and-checkpoint-blockade
#14
Isabel Ohs, Laura Ducimetiere, Joana Marinho, Paulina Kulig, Burkhard Becher, Sonia Tugues
Immune checkpoint therapies target tumor antigen-specific T cells, but less is known about their effects on natural killer (NK) cells, which help control metastasis. In studying the development of lung metastases, we found that NK cells lose their cytotoxic capacity and acquire a molecular signature defined by the expression of co-inhibitory receptors. In an effort to overcome this suppressive mechanism, we evaluated NK cell responses to the immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12. Exposure to IL-12 rescued the cytotoxicity of NK cells but also led to the emergence of an immature NK cell population which expressed high levels of the co-inhibitory molecules PD-1, Lag-3 and TIGIT, thereby limiting NK cell-mediated control of pulmonary metastases...
October 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040917/enhanced-diffusometric-immunosensing-with-grafted-gold-nanoparticles-for-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy-biomarker-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#15
Han-Sheng Chuang, Yu-Ju Chen, Hui-Pin Cheng
Diffusometry is sensitive to geometric changes of particles. Target antigens can be detected through diffusivity changes resulting from their immunoreactions by functionalizing particle surface with a specific antibody. Considering that Brownian motion is a self-driven phenomenon, diffusometric immunosensing features several characteristics, such as no-washing steps, rapid detection, high flexibility, and high sensitivity. Until recently, this technique has been applied to many biomedical fields, such as monitoring of microorganism motility and diagnosis of diseases with biomarkers...
October 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040754/development-of-unique-cytotoxic-chimeric-antigen-receptors-based-on-human-scfv-targeting-b7h6
#16
Casey K Hua, Albert T Gacerez, Charles L Sentman, Margaret E Ackerman
As a stress-inducible natural killer (NK) cell ligand, B7H6 plays a role in innate tumor immunosurveillance and is a fairly tumor selective marker expressed on a variety of solid and hematologic cancer cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new family of single chain fragment variable (scFv) molecules targeting the human B7H6 ligand. Through directed evolution of a yeast surface displayed non-immune human-derived scFv library, eight candidates comprising a single family of clones differing by up to four amino acid mutations and exhibiting nM avidities for soluble B7H6-Ig were isolated...
October 11, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036791/globo-h-expression-is-associated-with-driver-mutations-and-pd-l1-expressions-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Ching-Yao Yang, Mong-Wei Lin, Yih-Leong Chang, Chen-Tu Wu
BACKGROUND: Globo H is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen exclusively expressed in cancer cells rather than normal tissue. Globo H has been found on many cancers of epithelial origins, and become an attractive target for cancer vaccine. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the expression of Globo H in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and correlated its expression with common driver mutations, clinical outcomes, and status of immune checkpoint, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)...
September 29, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035540/targeted-clinical-nanoparticles-for-precision-cancer-therapy-based-on-disease-specific-molecular-inflection-points
#18
Charalambos Kaittanis, Alexander Bolaender, Barney Yoo, Nilesh Shah, Ouathek Ouerfelli, Jan Grimm
ional approaches based on clinical modular nanoplatforms are needed, in order to treat solid cancers according to their discrete molecular features. In the present study, we show that the clinical nanopharmaceutical Ferumoxytol, which consists of a glucose-based coat surrounding an iron oxide core, could identify molecular characteristics of prostate cancer, corresponding to unique phases of the disease continuum. By affixing a targeting probe for the prostate-specific membrane antigen on its surface, the nanopharmaceutical was able to assess the functional state of the androgen receptor pathway via MRI, guiding therapy and delivering it with the same clinical nanoparticle...
October 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034817/enhanced-cytotoxic-activity-of-effector-t-cells-against-cholangiocarcinoma-by-dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-pooled-mrna
#19
Mutita Junking, Janya Grainok, Chutamas Thepmalee, Sopit Wongkham, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus
Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy of bile duct epithelia with an increasing in incidence rate worldwide. Surgery is the only curative treatment, while adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy render poor responses. Cell-based immunotherapy is a potential strategy for cholangiocarcinoma treatment. However, variation of tumor antigens in cholangiocarcinoma leads to the ineffectiveness of cell-based immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the activation of effector T-cells by dendritic cells pulsed with protein lysate or total RNA from cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for their cytolytic activity against cholangiocarcinoma...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034816/clinical-performance-of-loci%C3%A2-based-tumor-marker-assays-for-tumor-markers-ca-15-3-ca-125-cea-ca-19-9-and-afp-in-gynecological-cancers
#20
Ramona C Dolscheid-Pommerich, Mignon Keyver-Paik, Thomas Hecking, Walther Kuhn, Gunther Hartmann, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Stefan Holdenrieder
Evidence is sparse regarding the clinical performance of luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassays-based tumor marker assays in gynecological cancer. Analyzing serum samples of 336 patients with Dimension™Vista1500, we investigated the diagnostic power of carbohydrate antigen 15-3, carbohydrate antigen 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and alpha-fetoprotein in patients suffering from different types of gynecological cancer and precancerous gynecological diseases and compared findings to appropriate control groups...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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