Read by QxMD icon Read


Mark J Bailey, Felix Broecker, Paul E Leon, Gene S Tan
Antibodies play a crucial role in coupling the innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens through their antigen binding domains and Fc-regions. Here, we describe how to measure the activation of Fc effector functions by monoclonal antibodies targeting the influenza virus hemagglutinin with the use of a genetically engineered Jurkat cell line expressing an activating type 1 Fc-FcγR. Using this method, the contribution of specific Fc-FcγR interactions conferred by immunoglobulins can be determined using an in vitro assay...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ahmad Yaseen, Sa'd Suleiman, Omar Abu Zenah, Adham Abu Taha
BACKGROUND: Red blood-cell transfusion has greatly reduced the mortality and morbidity in multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. However, this can result in red blood-cell isoimmunisation with autoantibodies and alloantibodies, which can lead to serious complications such as delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and types of alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients living in the north of the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Charlene M C Rodrigues, Jay Lucidarme, Ray Borrow, Andrew Smith, J Claire Cameron, E Richard Moxon, Martin C J Maiden
In September 2015, 4CMenB meningococcal vaccine was introduced into the United Kingdom infant immunization program without phase 3 trial information. Understanding the effect of this program requires enhanced surveillance of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) Neisseria meningitidis isolates and comparison with prevaccination isolates. Bexsero Antigen Sequence Types (BASTs) were used to analyze whole-genome sequences of 3,073 prevaccine IMD N. meningitidis isolates obtained during 2010-2016. Isolates exhibited 803 BASTs among 31 clonal complexes...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Qinglan Guo, Mustapha M Mustapha, Mingliang Chen, Di Qu, Xi Zhang, Min Chen, Yohei Doi, Minggui Wang, Lee H Harrison
The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. Knowledge of the evolution and genetic origin of the emergent MenC strains is limited. In this study, we subjected 76 CC4821 isolates collected across China during 1972-1977 and 2005-2013 to phylogenetic analysis, traditional genotyping, or both. We show that successive recombination events within genes encoding surface antigens and acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations possibly played a role in the emergence of CC4821 as an epidemic clone in China...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tomotaka Kawayama, Takashi Kinoshita, Kazuko Matsunaga, Yoshiko Naito, Jun Sasaki, Yoshikazu Tominaga, Tomoaki Hoshino
Asthma is an allergic disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), reversibility and remodeling. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are effective in many patients with asthma. However, ICS are a controlling, but not but curative treatment, and there are still many patients with refractory and difficult-to-treat asthma. The evaluation of airway inflammation by induced sputum, non-specific AHR by methacholine, and asthmatic reactions by specific allergen challenge techniques are useful not only to investigate the pathogenesis of asthma but also to help develop new drugs for asthma management...
March 16, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
Yukio Fujiwara, Yoichi Saito, Takuya Shiota, Pan Cheng, Tsuyoshi Ikeda, Koji Ohnishi, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
Recent progress in anti-tumor therapy has revealed the significance of anti-tumor immune responses in tumor progression and clinical course in several kinds of malignant tumors. The draining lymph node is an important immune system component that contains a number of antigen-presenting cells, which induce rapid immune responses to foreign antigens. Current studies have shown that higher expression of CD169 on lymph node sinus macrophages is associated with the induction of anti-tumor immunity. In the present study, we searched for natural compounds that regulate the CD169-positive phenotype in macrophages to identify potential new anti-cancer agents targeting macrophage activation...
2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
Hiroshi Nomoto, Hideaki Miyoshi, Tomonori Sekizaki, Tatsuya Atsumi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Nitin Gupta, Animesh Ray, Sudeshna Ghosh, Sundeep Malla, Surabhi Vyas
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a rare allergic manifestation to the filarial nematode. A 38-year old male and a 15-year old female presented with cough and breathlessness. Their complete blood count showed eosinophilia. This finding was overshadowed by the radiological findings suggestive of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TPE was confirmed by filarial antigen detection test and both the patients were successfully treated with diethylcarbamazine. TPE presents with cough and breathlessness and can be often confused with tuberculosis, especially in endemic settings...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Osamu Kawase, Mitsuru Jimbo
Antisperm antibodies potentially inhibit sperm functions causing the sterility in humans and experimentally treated animals. However, there is no information about antisperm antibodies emerging spontaneously in wildlife. In this study, we searched for the sperm-reactive antibodies, spontaneously produced in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon), and identified the sperm antigens. We collected 529 fecal masses of sika deer in Japanese cities, from which we extracted the mucosal antibodies to test them for reactivities to deer sperm proteins by ELISA...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Zhiyan Wang, Chaochao Lv, Xin Xu, Xiangdong Li, Yali Yao, Xiaojing Gao, Zhe Sun, Yuzhou Wang, Yujie Sun, Yan Xiao, Kegong Tian
Rotavirus A (RVA) G9 genotype is recognized as an emerging genotype which is spreading worldwide, however, our knowledge on pathogenicity of this virus is limited. In this study, porcine RVA strain HN03 was successfully isolated on MA-104 cells, and the isolate was propagated continuously for 7 passages after a virus cloning at passage 3. The virus titers from 4 to 10 passages ranged from 107.1 to 108.1 TCID50 /ml. The growth curve of HN03 strain in cell culture was determined, and the virus production dynamics was confirmed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Veeru Kasivisvanathan, Antti S Rannikko, Marcelo Borghi, Valeria Panebianco, Lance A Mynderse, Markku H Vaarala, Alberto Briganti, Lars Budäus, Giles Hellawell, Richard G Hindley, Monique J Roobol, Scott Eggener, Maneesh Ghei, Arnauld Villers, Franck Bladou, Geert M Villeirs, Jaspal Virdi, Silvan Boxler, Grégoire Robert, Paras B Singh, Wulphert Venderink, Boris A Hadaschik, Alain Ruffion, Jim C Hu, Daniel Margolis, Sébastien Crouzet, Laurence Klotz, Samir S Taneja, Peter Pinto, Inderbir Gill, Clare Allen, Francesco Giganti, Alex Freeman, Stephen Morris, Shonit Punwani, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, Jonathan Deeks, Yemisi Takwoingi, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore
Background Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy...
March 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Qing Li, Yan Ding, Xu-Yin Zhang, Wei-Wei Feng, Ke-Qin Hua
Objective To provide novel insights into the clinical treatment of adenomyosis. Methods Two hundred patients with adenomyosis were enrolled in this prospective, nonrandomized, parallel-controlled study with a 1-year follow-up in our hospital. Group 1 was treated with 3.75 mg leuprorelin acetate (LA) (n = 40), Group 2 was treated with 1.88 mg LA (n = 40), Group 3 underwent Mirena implantation (n = 40), Group 4 underwent Mirena implantation after treatment with 3.75 mg LA (n = 40), Group 5 underwent Mirena implantation after treatment with 1...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Jale Moradi, Maryam Izad, Mina Tabrizi, Nader Mosavari, Behnaz Esmaeili, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
One third of the world population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are at the risk of reactivation of tuberculosis (TB). The most effective strategy for control of TB worldwide is the development of a vaccine that inhibits progression of latent TB to active infection. In this study, two optimized constructs consisting of multi-epitopes DNA derived from three latency antigens Rv2029c, Rv2031c, and Rv2627c fused with or without light chain 3 (LC3) are synthetized. The immunogenicity effectiveness of two DNA constructs was evaluated in the mouse model...
March 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
E Ridolo, I Martignago, S Masieri
Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease caused by inhalation of an allergen to which the patients is sensitized. Etiopathogenesis of AR comprises a sensitization phase, an immediate phase and a late phase. In the sensitization phase, inhaled allergens are processed in peptides and come into contact with the nasal mucosa cells. Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs), especially represented by Dendritic Cells (DCs), capture them through the interaction with their own MHC class II complexes and migrate to lymph nodes...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
A Porzia, C Cavaliere, E Begvarfaj, S Masieri, F Mainiero
The mucosal immune system located in correspondence to the olfactory organs in adult humans is not well identifiable but has proven important in establishing an effective immune response against inhaled antigens, including the generation of Helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells. It is constituted by a diffused network of cells of epithelial and immune origin, as well as organized lymphoid tissue, where each component has a role in the initiation and maintenance of a long-lasting immune response, which is evoked not only in the oral and nasal cavities but also in the respiratory, intestinal and genito-urinary tracts...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Zhongzhen Yi, Brooke L Prinzing, Felicia Cao, Stephen Gottschalk, Giedre Krenciute
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans and is virtually incurable with conventional therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy targeting the glioblastoma antigen EphA2 is an attractive approach to improve outcomes because EphA2 is expressed highly in glioblastoma but only at low levels in normal brain tissue. Building upon our previous findings in this area, we generated and evaluated a panel of EphA2-specific CARs. We demonstrate here that T cells expressing CD28...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Michael C Milone, Vijay G Bhoj
Adoptive cellular therapy using T cells with tumor specificity derived from either natural T cell receptors (TCRs) or an artificial chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has reached late phase clinical testing, with two CAR T cell therapies achieving regulatory approval within the United States in 2017. The effective use of these therapies depends upon an understanding of their pharmacology, which is quite divergent from traditional small molecule or biologic drugs. We review the different types of T cell therapy under clinical development, the factors affecting cellular kinetics following infusion, and the relationship between these cellular kinetics and anti-cancer activity...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
John E Mullinax, MacLean Hall, Sangeetha Prabhakaran, Jeffrey Weber, Nikhil Khushalani, Zeynep Eroglu, Andrew S Brohl, Joseph Markowitz, Erica Royster, Allison Richards, Valerie Stark, Jonathan S Zager, Linda Kelley, Cheryl Cox, Vernon K Sondak, James J Mulé, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Amod A Sarnaik
Purpose: Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for metastatic melanoma can be highly effective, but attrition due to progression before TIL administration (32% in prior institutional experience) remains a limitation. We hypothesized that combining ACT with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade would decrease attrition and allow more patients to receive TIL. Experimental design: Thirteen patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Camille G Artur, Tasha Womack, Fusheng Zhao, Jason L Eriksen, David Mayerich, Wei-Chuan Shih
Fluorescence-based expansion microscopy (ExM) is a new technique which can yield nanoscale resolution of biological specimen on a conventional fluorescence microscope through physical sample expansion up to 20 times its original dimensions while preserving structural information. It however inherits known issues of fluorescence microscopy such as photostability and multiplexing capabilities, as well as an ExM-specific issue in signal intensity reduction due to a dilution effect after expansion. To address these issues, we propose using antigen-targeting plasmonic nanoparticle labels which can be imaged using surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) and dark-field spectroscopy...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"