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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931091/mt-cell-responses-targeting-hiv-nef-uniquely-correlate-with-infected-cell-frequencies-after-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones
HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931058/molecular-characterization-of-neisseria-meningitidis-isolates-recovered-from-11-19-year-old-meningococcal-carriers-in-salvador-brazil
#2
Ana Rafaela Silva Simões Moura, Cécilia Batmalle Kretz, Italo Eustáquio Ferreira, Amélia Maria Pithon Borges Nunes, José Cássio de Moraes, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Alan John Alexander McBride, Xin Wang, Leila Carvalho Campos
Characterization of meningococci isolated from the pharynx is essential towards understanding the dynamics of meningococcal carriage and disease. Meningococcal isolates, collected from adolescents resident in Salvador, Brazil during 2014, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, genotyping or whole-genome sequencing. Most were nongroupable (61.0%), followed by genogroups B (11.9%) and Y (8.5%). We identified 34 different sequence types (STs), eight were new STs, distributed among 14 clonal complexes (cc), cc1136 represented 20...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931021/zoonotic-infection-of-brazilian-primate-workers-with-new-world-simian-foamy-virus
#3
Cláudia P Muniz, Liliane T F Cavalcante, Hongwei Jia, HaoQiang Zheng, Shaohua Tang, Anderson M Augusto, Alcides Pissinatti, Luiz P Fedullo, André F Santos, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Plasma from these workers was tested using Western blot (WB) assays containing NWP SFV antigens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931010/response-to-folfirinox-by-gender-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-results-from-the-prodige-4-accord-11-randomized-trial
#4
Aurélien Lambert, Marta Jarlier, Sophie Gourgou Bourgade, Thierry Conroy
BACKGROUND: Hohla et al. suggested that female gender could positively predict response to FOLFIRINOX in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In this study, we explored the response to the FOLFIRINOX regimen by gender within the trial PRODIGE4/ACCORD 11. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were described by gender, both in FOLFIRINOX group and in the intention-to-treat population of the trial. The relative effect of gender (females in comparison to males) on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival was estimated by using a Cox proportional hazard model and was presented with the Hazard Ratio and their 95% confidence interval...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930983/personalized-peptide-arrays-for-detection-of-hla-alloantibodies-in-organ-transplantation
#5
Pan Liu, Tomokazu Souma, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Xueying Xie, Xunrong Luo, Jing Jin
In organ transplantation, the function and longevity of the graft critically rely on the success of controlling immunological rejection reactivity against human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Histocompatibility guidelines are based on laboratory tests of anti-HLA immunity, which presents either as pre-existing or de novo generated HLA antibodies that constitute a major transplantation barrier. Current tests are built on a single-antigen beads (SAB) platform using a fixed set of ~100 preselected recombinant HLA antigens to probe transplant sera...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930939/preventing-mistransfusions-an-evaluation-of-institutional-knowledge-and-a-response
#6
Nickolas MacDougall, Fanglong Dong, Latoya Broussard, Mark E Comunale
BACKGROUND: Blood product mistransfusions occur when a process error causes transfusion of incompatible blood products. These events are known sources of negative patient outcomes. One such event demonstrated an institutional knowledge gap and an opportunity to reduce this source of transfusion errors. The focus of this study was to evaluate the application of point of care cognitive aids to bridge potentially lethal knowledge gaps in blood product to patient compatibility. METHODS: A patient-donor ABO antigen compatibility grid for red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was developed for creation of a cognitive aid and a blood product safety quiz...
September 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930779/inhibition-of-lymphatic-drainage-with-a-self-designed-surgical-approach-prolongs-the-vascularized-skin-allograft-survival-in-rats
#7
Jiaomiao Pei, Yang Li, Chen Chen, Xi Zhang, Shiping Wang, Yajuan Song, Bei Liu, Yingjun Su, Shuzhong Guo
Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is an emerging treatment for significant tissue defects. However, VCAs usually consist of multiple highly antigenic skin tissues. Previous studies have shown that the lymphatic system in skin plays important roles in the initiation of immune responses during acute rejection, by transporting T cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes. Therefore, we designed a new surgical treatment to inhibit lymphatic drainage of skin allografts and investigated whether this approach could promote the survival of allografts and suppress immunological events after transplantation...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930608/anti-tick-vaccines-in-the-omics-era
#8
Manuel Rodriguez Valle, Felix D Guerrero
Tick vaccines have been available for more than 20 years. They are useful and effective control agents when used properly. However, no new products have emerged since the Bm86-based Gavac vaccine was commercialized. Acaricide resistance is a problem with no abatement in sight and anti-tick vaccines are likely to be relied upon even more in the coming years. As human medicine and plant agriculture has embraced the various Omics technologies, the search for anti-tick vaccines would be well served to follow; so that new vaccine antigens and adjuvants might be developed to assist tick control programs...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930586/drug-repurposing-approaches-to-fight-dengue-virus-infection-and-related-diseases
#9
Lorenzo Botta, Mirko Rivara, Valentina Zuliani, Marco Radi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically distinct serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV), namely DENV1-4 and is currently considered the most important arthropod-born viral disease in the world. An effective antiviral therapy to treat Dengue Virus infection is still missing and a number of replicative cycle inhibitors are currently under study. Considering the rapid spreading of DENV and the common timeframe required for bringing a new drug on the market, the repurposing of approved drugs used for different diseases to identify novel inhibitors of this pathogen represents an attractive approach for a rapid therapeutic intervention...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930522/advances-in-tick-vaccinology-in-brazil-from-gene-expression-to-immunoprotection
#10
Renato Andreotti, Poliana Fernanda Giachetto, Rodrigo Casquero Cunha
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus has substantial economic impact on the cattle breeding industry and, chemical control and tick resistance development are the major concern. There is a worldwide search for new options, and control using vaccines has been the main focus nowadays. Studies performed in Brazil found that Bm86-based immunization of bovines reduced the infestation of R. (B.) microplus of vaccinated bovines by 45% to 60%. Native Boophilusmicroplus tripsin inhibitors (BmTIs) with trypsin-, kallikrein-, and elastase-inhibiting activities have been used as immunogens in bovines reaching 72...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930493/effect-of-comorbidity-on-prostate-cancer-specific-mortality-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Prabhakar Rajan, Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Tommy Nyberg, Olof Akre, Stefan Carlsson, Lars Egevad, Gunnar Steineck, N Peter Wiklund
Purpose To determine the effect of comorbidity on prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality across treatment types. Patients and Methods These are the results of a population-based observational study in Sweden from 1998 to 2012 of 118,543 men who were diagnosed with PCa with a median follow-up of 8.3 years (interquartile range, 5.2 to 11.5 years) until death from PCa or other causes. Patients were categorized by patient characteristics (marital status, educational level) and tumor characteristics (serum prostate-specific antigen, tumor grade and clinical stage) and by treatment type (radical prostatectomy, radical radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and watchful waiting)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930287/exposure-to-human-alveolar-lining-fluid-enhances-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-cd8-t-cell-dependent-manner
#12
J I Moliva, A P Hossfeld, C H Canan, V Dwivedi, M D Wewers, G Beamer, J Turner, J B Torrelles
Current tuberculosis (TB) treatments include chemotherapy and preventative vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In humans, however, BCG vaccination fails to fully protect against pulmonary TB. Few studies have considered the impact of the human lung mucosa (alveolar lining fluid (ALF)), which modifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall, revealing alternate antigenic epitopes on the bacterium surface that alter its pathogenicity. We hypothesized that ALF-induced modification of BCG would induce better protection against aerosol infection with M...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930285/interleukin-17a-negatively-regulates-lymphangiogenesis-in-t-helper-17-cell-mediated-inflammation
#13
H J Park, C M Yuk, K Shin, S-H Lee
During inflammation lymphatic vessels (LVs) are enlarged and their density is increased to facilitate the migration of activated immune cells and antigens. However, after antigen clearance, the expanded LVs shrink to maintain homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-17A, secreted from T helper type 17 (TH17) cells, is a negative regulator of lymphangiogenesis during the resolution phase of TH17-mediated immune responses. Moreover, IL-17A suppresses the expression of major lymphatic markers in lymphatic endothelial cells and decreases in vitro LV formation...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930171/comprehensive-evaluation-of-tff3-promoter-hypomethylation-and-molecular-biomarker-potential-for-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#14
Maibritt Nørgaard, Christa Haldrup, Tine Maj Storebjerg, Else Marie Vestergaard, Peter J Wild, Søren Høyer, Michael Borre, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors remains a major problem in prostate cancer (PC) due to suboptimal diagnostic and prognostic tools. Thus, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the biomarker potential of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) promoter methylation and RNA expression levels for PC. Initially, by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) analysis of a large radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort (n = 292), we found that the TFF3 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in PC compared to non-malignant (NM) prostate tissue samples (p < 0...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929636/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-highly-sensitized-pediatric-kidney-transplant-recipients
#15
Irene K Kim, Jua Choi, Ashley Vo, Alexis Kang, Justin Steggerda, Sabrina Louie, Mark Haas, James Mirocha, J Louis Cohen, Helen Pizzo, Elaine S Kamil, Stanley C Jordan, Dechu Puliyanda
ABMR remains a significant concern for early graft loss, especially for those who are HS against HLA antigens. We sought to determine the risk factors leading to ABMR in HS pediatric kidney transplant recipients. From January 2009 to December 2015, 16 HS pediatric kidney transplant patients at our center (age range 2-21) were retrospectively reviewed for outcomes and risk factors for ABMR. All HS patients received desensitization with high-dose IVIG/rituximab prior to transplant. Two groups were examined: ABMR(+) (n = 7) and ABMR(-) (n = 9)...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929626/association-of-human-platelet-antigens-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-chinese-population
#16
S-H Zhou, X-H Liang, L-N Shao, W-J Yu, C Zhao, M Liu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis. Previous studies have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with HCV infection. Human platelet antigens (HPAs) polymorphisms play an important role in several diseases. Here, we demonstrated the association of the HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-5 and HPA-15 polymorphisms with susceptibility to HCV infection in Chinese population. Overall, 118 patients with HCV and 167 controls were genotyped for HPAs. There were no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency distribution for the HPA-3, HPA-5 and HPA-15 systems between the patients with chronic HCV infection and the healthy controls (p > ...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929455/role-of-mast-cells-in-regulation-of-t-cell-responses-in-experimental-and-clinical-settings
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Korneel Grauwet
Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of stored or newly synthesized pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunosuppressive mediators and express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules. Mast cells finely tune activities of T cells, B cells, and regulatory cells and effectively contribute to the development of different T cell-associated responses by influencing their recruitment, activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The interaction between mast cells and T cells, with regard to cellular functionality and immune responses, can be assessed in both activating and inhibitory regulations...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929449/concordance-analysis-of-paired-cancer-antigen-ca-15-3-and-27-29-testing
#18
David C Lin, Jonathan R Genzen
PURPOSE: Cancer antigens (CA) 15-3 and 27.29 are used in the clinical management of many breast cancer patients. Given that immunoassays for CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 target epitopes on the same glycoprotein-Mucin 1 (MUC1)-the present analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential concordance of tumor marker results when both tests were ordered by providers on the same specimens. METHODS: A retrospective limited dataset of paired CA 15-3 (Roche Diagnostics) and CA 27...
September 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929423/oxidative-stress-in-inflammatory-cells-of-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-clinical-efficacy-of-dietary-antioxidants
#19
REVIEW
Asis Bala, Chaitali Mondal, Pallab Kanti Haldar, Bidita Khandelwal
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease responsible for significant human morbidity in modern life. However, oxidative stress is one of the key markers for determining pathophysiology of patients with RA. The interaction between cellular immune system and body's endogenous and/or exogenous antigens produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in autoimmune disease like RA. ROS and RNS include highly toxic superoxide (O2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) radicals, which activate the signaling cascades of inflammatory cells to synthesize pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
September 19, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929350/optimal-mri-sequences-for-68-ga-psma-11-pet-mri-in-evaluation-of-biochemically-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#20
Spencer T Lake, Kirsten L Greene, Antonio C Westphalen, Spencer C Behr, Ronald Zagoria, Eric J Small, Peter R Carroll, Thomas A Hope
BACKGROUND: PET/MRI can be used for the detection of disease in biochemical recurrence (BCR) patients imaged with (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET. This study was designed to determine the optimal MRI sequences to localize positive findings on (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET of patients with BCR after definitive therapy. Fifty-five consecutive prostate cancer patients with BCR imaged with (68)Ga-PSMA-11 3.0T PET/MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Mean PSA was 7.9 ± 12.9 ng/ml, and mean PSA doubling time was 7...
September 19, 2017: EJNMMI Research
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