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Critically ill infectious diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992880/delayed-introduction-of-immunosuppressive-regimens-in-critically-ill-patients-after-liver-transplantation
#1
Ying Luo, Wen-Bin Ji, Wei-Dong Duan, Xian-Jie Shi, Zhi-Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: The manipulation of immunosuppression therapy remains challenging in patients who develop infectious diseases or multiple organ dysfunction after liver transplantation. We evaluated the outcomes of delayed introduction of immunosuppression in the patients after liver transplantation under immune monitoring with ImmuKnow assay. METHODS: From March 2009 to February 2014, 225 consecutive liver recipients in our institute were included. The delayed administration of immunosuppressive regimens was attempted in 11 liver recipients with multiple severe comorbidities...
October 15, 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979611/forecasting-seasonal-influenza-with-a-state-space-sir-model
#2
Dave Osthus, Kyle S Hickmann, Petruţa C Caragea, Dave Higdon, Sara Y Del Valle
Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960624/talking-to-the-people-that-really-matter-about-their-participation-in-pandemic-clinical-research-a-qualitative-study-in-four-european-countries
#3
Nina H Gobat, Micaela Gal, Christopher C Butler, Steve A R Webb, Nicholas A Francis, Helen Stanton, Sibyl Anthierens, Hilde Bastiaens, Maciek Godycki-Ćwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Anna Berenguera, Angela Watkins, Prasanth Sukumar, Ronald G Moore, Kerenza Hood, Alistair Nichol
BACKGROUND: Pandemics of new and emerging infectious diseases are unpredictable, recurrent events that rapidly threaten global health and security. We aimed to identify public views regarding provision of information and consent to participate in primary and critical care clinical research during a future influenza-like illness pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive-interpretive qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 10) and semi-structured interviews (n = 16), with 80 members of the public (>18 years) in Belgium, Spain, Poland and the UK...
September 27, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945064/-candidemia-and-invasive-candidiasis-approach-in-critically-ill-patients-role-of-the-echinocandins
#4
B Almirante, J Garnacho-Montero, E Maseda, F J Candel, S Grau, J Guinea, I Moreno, P Muñoz, S Ruiz-Santana
OBJECTIVE: Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. in critically ill patients may significantly worsen their prognosis, so it is of great importance to establish an early detection and a suitable therapeutic strategy. The objective of this study was to define the differential role of echinocandins in treating certain critical patient profiles. METHODS: A scientific committee of 9 experts in infectious diseases, critical care, microbiology, and hospital pharmacy reviewed the existing evidence on the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients...
September 25, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934195/a-scoring-model-for-predicting-prognosis-of-patients-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#5
Bei Jia, Xiaomin Yan, Yuxin Chen, Guiyang Wang, Yong Liu, Biyun Xu, Peixin Song, Yang Li, Yali Xiong, Weihua Wu, Yingying Hao, Juan Xia, Zhaoping Zhang, Rui Huang, Chao Wu
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging epidemic infectious disease caused by the SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) with an estimated high case-fatality rate of 12.7% to 32.6%. Currently, the disease has been reported in mainland China, Japan, Korea, and the United States. At present, there is no specific antiviral therapy for SFTSV infection. Considering the higher mortality rate and rapid clinical progress of SFTS, supporting the appropriate treatment in time to SFTS patients is critical. Therefore, it is very important for clinicians to predict these SFTS cases who are more likely to have a poor prognosis or even more likely to decease...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919803/empirical-validation-of-the-horowitz-multiple-systemic-infectious-disease-syndrome-questionnaire-for-suspected-lyme-disease
#6
Maryalice Citera, Phyllis R Freeman, Richard I Horowitz
PURPOSE: Lyme disease is spreading worldwide, with multiple Borrelia species causing a broad range of clinical symptoms that mimic other illnesses. A validated Lyme disease screening questionnaire would be clinically useful for both providers and patients. Three studies evaluated such a screening tool, namely the Horowitz Multiple Systemic Infectious Disease Syndrome (MSIDS) Questionnaire. The purpose was to see if the questionnaire could accurately distinguish between Lyme patients and healthy individuals...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831134/evaluation-of-the-new-chinese-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-scoring-system-in-critically-ill-patients-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#7
Yingying Wu, Lili Luo, Ting Niu, Yue Han, Ying Feng, Qiulan Ding, Ruibin Huang, Xiaohui Zhang, Jianming Feng, Ming Hou, Jun Peng, Yan Li, Yuhong Zhou, Lei Su, Linhua Yang, Zeping Zhou, Feng Xue, Jian Gu, Tienan Zhu, Xiaomin Wang, Jun Deng, Heng Mei, Yu Hu
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a common life-threatening complication in critically ill patients. The diagnostic scoring systems of DIC enable a more prompt and accurate diagnosis of DIC, such as the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW). This study prospectively evaluated the newly proposed Chinese DIC Scoring System (CDSS), which was conducted at 18 centers in China during a one-year period...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820454/personal-hygiene-practices-among-urban-homeless-persons-in-boston-ma
#8
Jessica H Leibler, Daniel D Nguyen, Casey León, Jessie M Gaeta, Debora Perez
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA (n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804005/performance-assessment-of-the-saps-ii-and-sofa-scoring-systems-in-hanta-virus-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#9
Zhenjun Yu, Ni Zhou, Ali Li, Jie Chen, Huazhong Chen, Zebao He, Fei Yan, Haihong Zhao, Jiansheng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), caused by the hantavirus, is a natural infectious disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal damage. China is the most severely endemic area for HFRS in the world. In recent years, critical scoring systems based on quantitative classification have become an important clinical tool for predicting and evaluating the prognosis of critical illness, and provide guidelines for clinical practice. METHODS: The sample comprised 384 patients with HFRS treated in the Taizhou Hospital from January 2006 to February 2017...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779833/high-containment-pathogen-preparation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
REVIEW
Brian T Garibaldi, Daniel S Chertow
The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak highlighted the need to build national and worldwide capacity to provide care for patients with highly infectious diseases. Specialized biocontainment units were successful in treating several critically ill patients with Ebola virus disease both in the United States and Europe. Several key principles underlie the care of critically ill patients in a high-containment environment. Environmental factors, staffing, equipment, training, laboratory testing, procedures, and waste management each present unique challenges...
September 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759468/the-evaluation-of-critically-ill-transplant-patients-with-infectious-diarrhea
#11
Diana F Florescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the most important etiologic agents of infectious diarrhea in critically ill transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Diarrhea, frequently caused by infectious pathogens, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. Diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, acute renal failure, medication toxicity, rejection, graft-versus-host disease and impairs patients' quality of life...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752474/secondary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-review-of-recent-literature
#12
REVIEW
John Brooling, Rolando Leal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is an emerging entity. Yet, because of the low incidence and varying etiologies of this disease, the literature is not robust. There are mainly case reports and small studies evaluating the disease. Our aim in this review is to bring the reader up to date with recent literature on secondary sclerosing cholangitis including the disease presentation, course, prognosis, and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous case reports have been published the last 5 years on secondary sclerosing cholangitis...
September 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751079/one-size-does-not-fit-all-disease-profiles-of-serious-illness-patients-receiving-specialty-palliative-care
#13
Arif H Kamal, Donald H Taylor, Benjamin Neely, Matthew Harker, Parampal Bhullar, John Morris, Lindsay Bonsignore, Janet Bull
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the symptom profiles of seriously ill patients who receive palliative care, especially noncancer diagnoses where the data are sparse and are critical to better targeting our resources to the needs of patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicohort study of patients evaluated during their first consultative palliative care visit in a community-based palliative care registry. We placed into one of seven major disease categories based on clinician-reported primary diagnosis for consultation...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734773/epico-4-0-total-quality-in-the-management-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-critically-ill-patients-by-analysing-the-integrated-process
#14
Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Pedro Llinares, Emilio Maseda, Alejandro Rodríguez, Santiago Grau, Guillermo Quindós
BACKGROUND: A high quality integrated process in the clinical setting of non-neutropenic critically ill patients at risk for invasive candidiasis is a necessary tool to improve the management of these patients. AIMS: To identify the key points on invasive candidiasis in order to develop a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus required for the creation of a total quality integrated process for the management of non-neutropenic critically ill patients at risk of invasive candidiasis...
July 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661973/determinants-of-antibiotic-tailoring-in-pediatric-intensive-care-a-national-survey
#15
Patricia S Fontela, Caroline Quach, Mohammad E Karim, Douglas F Willson, Elaine Gilfoyle, James Dayre McNally, Milagros Gonzales, Jesse Papenburg, Steven Reynolds, Jacques Lacroix
OBJECTIVES: To describe the criteria that currently guide empiric antibiotic treatment in children admitted to Canadian PICUs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Canadian PICUs. SUBJECTS: Pediatric intensivists and pediatric infectious diseases specialists. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We used focus groups and literature review to design the survey questions and its four clinical scenarios (sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and intra-abdominal infections)...
September 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658101/propensity-score-matched-analysis-comparing-the-clinical-outcome-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-escherichia-coli-causing-community-onset-monomicrobial-bacteremia
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tsung-Hang Kuo, Chao-Yung Yang, Chung-Hsun Lee, Chih-Chia Hsieh, Wen-Chien Ko, Ching-Chi Lee
Bacteremia is a life-threatening condition that is associated with substantial healthcare costs. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the leading causes of community-onset gram-negative bacteremia. However, a comprehensive comparison between these pathogens involved in bacteremia episodes has yet to be reported.In this retrospective cohort study, adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteremia caused by E coli or K pneumoniae were recruited in the emergency department of a medical center during a 6-year period, and the clinical variables were collected retrospectively from medical records...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639000/infections-in-neurocritical-care
#17
John C O'Horo, Priya Sampathkumar
Neurointensive care (NICU) patients experience complex infectious disease challenges. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, and post-neurosurgical patients are vulnerable to a unique set of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) in addition to those typical of critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize the approach to suspected infection in the NICU and discuss management of several infectious syndromes in the NICU setting.
June 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#18
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620385/the-antibody-secreting-cell-response-to-infection-kinetics-and-clinical-applications
#19
REVIEW
Michael J Carter, Ruth M Mitchell, Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Dominic F Kelly, Johannes Trück
Despite the availability of advances in molecular diagnostic testing for infectious disease, there is still a need for tools that advance clinical care and public health. Current methods focus on pathogen detection with unprecedented precision, but often lack specificity. In contrast, the host immune response is highly specific for the infecting pathogen. Serological studies are rarely helpful in clinical settings, as they require acute and convalescent antibody testing. However, the B cell response is much more rapid and short-lived, making it an optimal target for determining disease aetiology in patients with infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601946/clinical-management-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-in-high-resource-settings
#20
G Marshall Lyon, Aneesh K Mehta, Bruce S Ribner
Like most viral illnesses in humans, supportive care of the patient is the mainstay of clinical care for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The goal is to maintain and sustain the patient until a specific immune response develops and clears the viral infection. Clearly, antiviral therapy may eventually help speed recovery, but supportive care will likely always be the centerpiece of care of the patient with EVD. While terrible in terms of human suffering and loss, the EVD outbreak of 2014-2016 provided an unheralded opportunity to advance our understanding in the care of patients (WHO 2016)...
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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