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Critically ill infectious diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520859/the-role-of-patient-care-items-as-a-fomite-in-healthcare-associated-outbreaks-and-infection-prevention
#1
Hajime Kanamori, William A Rutala, David J Weber
Patient-care items can serve as a source or reservoir for healthcare associated pathogens in hospitals. We reviewed healthcare-associated outbreaks from medical equipment and provided infection prevention recommendations. Multiple healthcare-associated outbreaks via a contaminated patient-care item were identified, including infections with multidrug-resistant organisms. The type of patient-care items implicated as a fomite causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI) has changed over time. Patient populations at risk were most commonly critically ill patients in adult and neonatal ICUs...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462212/animal-models-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-current-practices-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Kenny Bielen, Bart 's Jongers, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Philippe G Jorens, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh
Lower respiratory tract infections are amongst the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Especially in hospital settings and more particularly in critically ill ventilated patients, nosocomial pneumonia is one of the most serious infectious complications frequently caused by opportunistic pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia as well as the major cause of chronic pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. Animal models of pneumonia allow us to investigate distinct types of pneumonia at various disease stages, studies that are not possible in patients...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412382/use-of-nebulized-antimicrobials-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-infections-in-invasively-mechanically-ventilated-adults-a-position-paper-from-the-european-society-of-clinical-microbiology-and-infectious-diseases
#3
Jordi Rello, Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Jean Chastre, Stijn Blot, Garyfallia Poulakou, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Jordi Riera, Lucy B Palmer, Jose M Pereira, Tim Felton, Jayesh Dhanani, Matteo Bassetti, Tobias Welte, Jason A Roberts
With an established role in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, nebulized antibiotics are increasingly being used to treat respiratory infections in critically ill invasively mechanically ventilated adult patients. Although there is limited evidence describing their efficacy and safety, in an era of need for new strategies to enhance antibiotic effectiveness because of a shortage of new agents and increases in antibiotic resistance, the potential of nebulization of antibiotics to optimize therapy is considered of high interest, particularly in patients infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409203/the-role-of-infection-models-and-pk-pd-modelling-for-optimising-care-of-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-infections
#4
REVIEW
T Tängdén, V Ramos Martín, T W Felton, E I Nielsen, S Marchand, R J Brüggemann, J B Bulitta, M Bassetti, U Theuretzbacher, B T Tsuji, D W Wareham, L E Friberg, J J De Waele, V H Tam, Jason A Roberts
Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed. Use of such regimens often results in inadequate antimicrobial concentrations at the site of infection and is associated with poor patient outcomes. In this article, we describe the potential of in vitro and in vivo infection models, clinical pharmacokinetic data and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to guide the design of more effective antimicrobial dosing regimens...
April 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377522/human-health-alters-the-sustainability-of-fishing-practices-in-east-africa
#5
Kathryn J Fiorella, Erin M Milner, Charles R Salmen, Matthew D Hickey, Dan O Omollo, Abdi Odhiambo, Brian Mattah, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Lia C H Fernald, Justin S Brashares
Understanding feedbacks between human and environmental health is critical for the millions who cope with recurrent illness and rely directly on natural resources for sustenance. Although studies have examined how environmental degradation exacerbates infectious disease, the effects of human health on our use of the environment remains unexplored. Human illness is often tacitly assumed to reduce human impacts on the environment. By this logic, ill people reduce the time and effort that they put into extractive livelihoods and, thereby, their impact on natural resources...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353455/pharmacogenomic-influence-on-sepsis-outcome-in-critically-ill-patients
#6
Sarah Allegra, Giovanna Fatiguso, Lorena Baietto, Silvia Corcione, Fabio Favata, Alessandra Ariaudo, Nicole Pagani, Vito Marco Ranieri, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
In infectious and inflammatory diseases, pharmacogenetics affects treatment efficacy and toxicity. Moreover, recent studies suggest its important role in predicting the clinical outcome of sepsis. Our aim was to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes which we supposed to be involved in linezolid elimination upon sepsis outcome. Fourteen ICU-admitted patients in therapy with intravenous linezolid (600mg q12h) were enrolled and classified into three groups: group 0 for sepsis, 1 for severe sepsis and 2 for septic shock...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#7
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331993/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-human-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-iran-during-the-2014-2015-season
#8
Elham Moasser, Farida Behzadian, Afagh Moattari, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Amir Rahimi, Hassan Zaraket, Seyed Younes Hosseini
Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290130/the-choosing-wisely-initiative-in-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Clara Lehmann, Reinhard Berner, Johannes R Bogner, Oliver A Cornely, Katja de With, Susanne Herold, Winfried V Kern, Sebastian Lemmen, Mathias W Pletz, Bernhard Ruf, Bernd Salzberger, Hans Jürgen Stellbrink, Norbert Suttorp, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
OBJECTIVE: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. METHODS: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine...
March 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288231/-primary-immunodeficiencies-in-seriously-ill-children-report-of-3-clinical-cases
#10
Leticia Yáñez, Pamela Lama, Carolina Rivacoba, Juanita Zamorano, María Angélica Marinovic
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are congenital disorders secondary to an impaired immune response. Infections, autoimmune disorders, atopy, and lymphoproliferative syndromes are commonly associated with this disorder. OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss 3 infants diagnosed with PID. CLINICAL CASES: The cases are presented of three patients with PID diagnosed during their first admission to a Paediatric Intensive Critical Care Unit. The first patient, a 4-month-old infant affected by a severe pneumonia, and was diagnosed as a Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283821/significance-of-admission-hypoalbuminemia-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#11
Andrea Morotti, Sandro Marini, Umme K Lena, Katherine Crawford, Kristin Schwab, Christina Kourkoulis, Alison M Ayres, M Edip Gurol, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, Christopher D Anderson, Jonathan Rosand, Joshua N Goldstein
Low levels of serum albumin may increase the risk of infections and mortality in critically ill patients. We tested the hypothesis that admission hypoalbuminemia predicted infectious complications and poor outcome in subjects with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We analyzed a single center cohort of ICH patients collected between 1994 and 2015. Pneumonia, urinary tract infection and sepsis were retrospectively identified, according to validated criteria. Serum albumin was measured on admission and hypoalbuminemia was defined as total albumin ≤3...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267670/selective-digestive-decontamination-in-critically-ill-children-a-survey-of-canadian-providers
#12
Srinivas Murthy, Nazima Pathan, Brian H Cuthbertson
BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination of the digestive tract involves the routine administration of oral, gastric, and intravenous antibiotics to mechanically ventilated children to prevent hospital-acquired infections. It has a strong evidence base in adults, with limited pediatric evidence. Current utilization of this intervention among pediatric physicians in North America is unknown. METHODS: An electronic survey administered to pediatric critical care and pediatric infectious disease providers in Canada...
June 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261149/diagnostic-value-of-positron-emission-tomography-combined-with-computed-tomography-for-evaluating-critically-ill-neurological-patients
#13
Knut Kurt William Kampe, Roman Rotermund, Milena Tienken, Götz Thomalla, Marc Regier, Susanne Klutmann, Stefan Kluge
PURPOSE: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a promising new tool for the identification of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic foci. The aim of our work was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDG-PET/CT in patients treated on a neurological/neurosurgical ICU or stroke unit. METHODS: We performed a single-center, 10-year, retrospective evaluation of the value of FDG-PET/CT in critically ill adult patients with severe neurological disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207512/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-acute-kidney-injury-associated-with-continuous-intravenous-high-dose-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Guillaume Lacave, Vincent Caille, Fabrice Bruneel, Catherine Palette, Stéphane Legriel, David Grimaldi, Mathilde Eurin, Jean-Pierre Bedos
For vancomycin therapy of severe infections, the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends high vancomycin trough levels, whose potential for inducing nephrotoxicity is controversial. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients given continuous intravenous vancomycin with target serum vancomycin levels of 20 to 30 mg/L.We retrospectively studied 107 continuous intravenous vancomycin treatments of ≥48 hours' duration with at least 2 serum vancomycin levels ≥20 mg/L in critically ill patients...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169558/validation-of-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing-tests-for-universal-pathogen-detection
#15
Robert Schlaberg, Charles Y Chiu, Steve Miller, Gary W Procop, George Weinstock
CONTEXT: -Metagenomic sequencing can be used for detection of any pathogens using unbiased, shotgun next-generation sequencing (NGS), without the need for sequence-specific amplification. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated in infectious disease outbreaks of unknown causes and in patients with suspected infections but negative results for conventional tests. Metagenomic NGS tests hold great promise to improve infectious disease diagnostics, especially in immunocompromised and critically ill patients...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114880/factors-associated-with-patients-who-prefer-hiv-self-testing-over-health-professional-testing-in-an-emergency-department-based-rapid-hiv-screening-program
#16
Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Kaylin J Beck, Richard E Rothman, Megan Gauvey-Kern, Alonzo Woodfield, Stephen Peterson, Danielle Signer, Charlotte A Gaydos
Kiosk-facilitated HIV self-testing has been shown to be accurate and well accepted by emergency department (ED) patients. We investigated factors associated with patients who preferred self-testing over testing performed by health professionals in an ED-based HIV screening program. This opt-in program evaluation studied 332 patients in an inner-city academic ED from February 2012 to April 2012, when a kiosk-based HIV self-testing program was standard of care. The first kiosk in the 2-stage system registered patients and assessed their interest in screening, while the second kiosk gathered demographic and risk factor information and also provided self-testing instructions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056053/soluble-b-and-t-lymphocyte-attenuator-correlates-to-disease-severity-in-sepsis-and-high-levels-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-mortality
#17
Anna Lange, Jonas Sundén-Cullberg, Anders Magnuson, Olof Hultgren
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: B- and T-lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA), Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) are co-inhibitory receptors that regulate T cell activation. In the present study of ICU-treated patients we measured plasma concentrations of their soluble isoforms, with the aim to evaluate their potential as sepsis biomarkers and utility as prognostic indicators. METHODS: 101 patients with sepsis, 28 patients with non-infectious critical illness (ICU controls) and 31 blood donors (healthy controls, HC) were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045552/factors-influencing-knowledge-food-safety-practices-and-food-preferences-during-warm-weather-of-salmonella-and-campylobacter-cases-in-south-australia
#18
Adriana Milazzo, Lynne C Giles, Ying Zhang, Ann P Koehler, Janet E Hiller, Peng Bi
OBJECTIVE: To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days...
January 3, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030850/changes-of-circulating-th22-cells-in-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-enterovirus-71-infection
#19
Dawei Cui, Fengyun Zhong, Jie Lin, Yidong Wu, Quan Long, Xianzhi Yang, Qiaoyun Zhu, Li Huang, Qifen Mao, Zhaoxia Huo, Zhe Zhou, Guoliang Xie, Shufa Zheng, Fei Yu, Yu Chen
Interleukin (IL)-22+CD4+T (Th22) cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases, although the role of Th22 cells remains largely unclear in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). This study aims to explore the role of circulating IL-22+IL-17A-CD4+T (cTh22) cells in children with EV71-associated HFMD. We found that during the acute stage of illness, the frequencies of cTh22 and circulating IL-22+IL-17A+CD4+T (IL-22+cTh17) cells in CD4+T cells infrom affected patients, and especially in severely affected patients, were significantly higher than in healthy controls (HC)...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966301/colistin-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extremelydrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#20
Çiğdem Banu Çetin, Deniz Özer Türk, Şebnem Şenol, Gönül Dinç Horasan, Özlem Tünger
BACKGROUND/AIM: Colistin is used as a salvage therapy for multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. Our aim was to evaluate colistin efficiency and toxicity in the treatment of these resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care hospital during 2011-2013. Study data were collected from the medical records and consultations of the infectious diseases clinic...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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