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Cerebral function imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932115/the-long-term-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-visible-polymersomes-in-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Xiaohui Duan, Liejing Lu, Yong Wang, Fang Zhang, Jiaji Mao, Minghui Cao, Bingling Lin, Xiang Zhang, Xintao Shuai, Jun Shen
Understanding the long-term fate and potential mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after transplantation is essential for improving functional benefits of stem cell-based stroke treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered an attractive and clinically translatable tool for longitudinal tracking of stem cells, but certain controversies have arisen in this regard. In this study, we used SPION-loaded cationic polymersomes to label green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing MSCs to determine whether MRI can accurately reflect survival, long-term fate, and potential mechanisms of MSCs in ischemic stroke therapy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931571/sublaminar-subdivision-of-mouse-auditory-cortex-layer-2-3-based-on-functional-translaminar-connections
#2
Xiangying Meng, Daniel E Winkowski, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick O Kanold
The cerebral cortex is subdivided into 6 layers based on morphological features. The supragranular layers 2/3 (L2/3) contain morphologically and genetically diverse populations of neurons, suggesting the existence of discrete classes of cells. In primates and carnivores L2/3 can be subdivided morphologically, but cytoarchitectonic divisions are less clear in rodents. Nevertheless, discrete classes of cells could exist based on their computational requirement, which might be linked to their associated functional microcircuits...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930819/recovery-of-an-injured-corticobulbar-tract-in-a-patient-with-stroke-a-case-report
#3
Sungho Jang, Jonghoon Kim, Yousung Seo, Soyoung Kwak
RATIONALE: The corticobulbar tract (CBT) is known to be involved in the motor function of the non-oculomotor cranial nuclei and controls the muscles of the face, head, and neck. Several studies have reported injury of the CBT in patients with brain injury, however, little is known about recovery of the injured CBT. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old right-handed male underwent decompressive craniectomy for management of brain swelling and intracerebral hemorrhage following an infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928704/prediction-of-cognitive-decline-from-white-matter-hyperintensity-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hirotaka Kida, Tetsuo Hosoya, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
BACKGROUND: While several studies support an association of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD), no reports have simultaneously considered the effects of both factors on cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare WMH volume and rCBF in relation to cognitive function by developing a new software program to fuse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927746/-proposal-of-screening-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-in-the-population-from-20-to-40years
#5
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Luc Taillandier, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are cerebral tumors occurring in young adults, with an inescapable progression to higher grade of malignancy, resulting in functional impairment and death. DLGG evolve in several phases: an asymptomatic period despite a slow radiological growth; a period in which inaugural symptoms occur, usually epilepsy with possible mild cognitive disorders; then a phase with malignant transformation generating disabling neurological deficits; and ultimately the terminal stage. Early maximal surgical resection significantly increases overall survival while preserving quality of life...
September 15, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926645/alterations-in-regional-homogeneity-of-resting-state-cerebral-activity-in-patients-with-chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#6
Yusong Lin, Yan Bai, Peng Liu, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin, Jianqin Gu, Degang Ding, Jie Tian, Meiyun Wang
The purpose of this study was to explore the neural mechanism in Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 31 male CP/CPPS-patients and 31 age and education matched male healthy controls on a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging unit. A two-sample t-test was adopted to reveal the regional homogeneity between the patients and healthy controls. The mean regional homogeneity values in the alerted brain regions of patients were correlated with the clinical measurements by using Pearson's correlation analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924181/common-and-dissociable-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-differences-associate-with-dimensions-of-psychopathology-across-categorical-diagnoses
#7
A N Kaczkurkin, T M Moore, M E Calkins, R Ciric, J A Detre, M A Elliott, E B Foa, A Garcia de la Garza, D R Roalf, A Rosen, K Ruparel, R T Shinohara, C H Xia, D H Wolf, R E Gur, R C Gur, T D Satterthwaite
The high comorbidity among neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a possible common neurobiological phenotype. Resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abnormalities in regional CBF are present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Regional CBF may also provide a useful biological marker across different types of psychopathology. To investigate CBF changes common across psychiatric disorders, we capitalized upon a sample of 1042 youths (ages 11-23 years) who completed cross-sectional imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920537/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-brain-injury-in-the-chronic-phase-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#8
Bertine L Stehouwer, Lisa A van der Kleij, Jeroen Hendrikse, Gabriel Je Rinkel, Jill B De Vis
Background Case-fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have decreased over the past decades. However, many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have long-term functional and cognitive impairments. Aims We sought to review all data on conventional brain MRI obtained in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to (1) analyze the proportion of patients with cerebral infarction or brain volume changes; (2) investigate baseline determinants predictive of MRI-detected damage; and (3) assess if brain damage is predictive of patient outcome...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919749/ginsenoside-rg1-nanoparticle-penetrating-the-blood-brain-barrier-to-improve-the-cerebral-function-of-diabetic-rats-complicated-with-cerebral-infarction
#9
Junyi Shen, Zhiming Zhao, Wei Shang, Chunli Liu, Beibei Zhang, Lingjie Zhao, Hui Cai
Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS) diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H), Rg1, and OX26 antibody), targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#10
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911901/structural-brain-abnormalities-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#11
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Corina U Greven, Kim Veroude, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula...
July 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906205/preventing-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-from-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-the-laci-1-trial-protocol-and-statistical-analysis-plan-of-a-phase-iia-dose-escalation-trial-testing-tolerability-safety-and-effect-on-intermediary-endpoints-of-isosorbide-mononitrate
#12
Gordon W Blair, Jason P Appleton, Zhe Kang Law, Fergus Doubal, Katie Flaherty, Richard Dooley, Kirsten Shuler, Carla Richardson, Iona Hamilton, Yulu Shi, Michael Stringer, Julia Boyd, Michael J Thrippleton, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath, Joanna M Wardlaw
Rationale The pathophysiology of most lacunar stroke, a form of small vessel disease, is thought to differ from large artery atherothrombo- or cardio-embolic stroke. Licensed drugs, isosorbide mononitrate and cilostazol, have promising mechanisms of action to support their testing to prevent stroke recurrence, cognitive impairment, or radiological progression after lacunar stroke. Aim LACI-1 will assess the tolerability, safety, and efficacy, by dose, of isosorbide mononitrate and cilostazol, alone and in combination, in patients with ischemic lacunar stroke...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902897/testing-the-effects-of-sensory-stimulation-as-a-collateral-based-therapeutic-for-ischemic-stroke-in-c57bl-6j-and-cd1-mouse-strains
#13
Aneeka M Hancock, Ron D Frostig
Utilizing a rat model of ischemic stroke, we have previously shown that sensory stimulation can completely protect rats from impending ischemic damage of cortex if this treatment is delivered within the first two hours post-permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). The current study sought to extend our findings in rats to mice, which would allow new avenues of research not available in rats. Thus, young adult C57BL/6J and CD1 mice were tested for protection from ischemic stroke with the same protective sensory stimulation-based treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902436/neuroprotective-effect-of-amantadine-on-corticosterone-induced-abnormal-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-of-ca3-ca1-pathway-in-rat-s-hippocampal-slices
#14
Xi Xiao, Hui Zhang, Hui Wang, Qun Li, Tao Zhang
Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway...
September 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902339/terson-syndrome-associated-with-acute-macular-neuropathy-type-2
#15
Stela Vujosevic, Ilaria Testi, Elisabetta Nacci, Edoardo Midena
Terson syndrome is defined as the incidence of intraocular hemorrhage in patients following a subarachnoid or intracranial bleed. A 38-year-old female with both intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages secondary to Terson syndrome underwent repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. One month following resolution of the macular hemorrhages, a paracentral scotoma persisted. Multimodal imaging (morphological and functional) confirmed the presence of acute macular neuroretinopathy Type 2 associated with deep retinal capillary ischemia...
September 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900664/-prehospital-care-for-stroke-patients
#16
REVIEW
C H Nolte, H J Audebert
The effectiveness of thrombolysis or mechanical recanalization for acute stroke is higher, the sooner these therapies are started. Therefore, acute stroke patients need to be evaluated by qualified staff for these therapies as soon as possible. Lay persons need to identify the typical symptoms of stroke as an emergency and act accordingly by calling the emergency medical system (EMS). The EMS team reassesses the symptoms and prompts cerebral imaging. Cerebral imaging is performed ideally in hospitals with a stroke unit where subsequent (stroke) treatments occur...
September 12, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899758/chronic-global-analysis-of-vascular-permeability-and-cerebral-blood-flow-after-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-a-long-term-mri-study
#17
Lian Li, Michael Chopp, Guangliang Ding, Qingjiang Li, Asim Mahmood, Quan Jiang
Vascular permeability and hemodynamic alteration in response to the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were longitudinally investigated in non directly injured and normal-appearing cerebral tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (300-350g, n=30) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=5/group) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x10(6) hMSCs, at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=10/group)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899019/cerebral-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-predicts-amyloid-%C3%AE-related-cognitive-decline
#18
Scott Ayton, Amir Fazlollahi, Pierrick Bourgeat, Parnesh Raniga, Amanda Ng, Yen Ying Lim, Ibrahima Diouf, Shawna Farquharson, Jurgen Fripp, David Ames, James Doecke, Patricia Desmond, Roger Ordidge, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Paul Maruff, Victor L Villemagne, Olivier Salvado, Ashley I Bush
See Derry and Kent (doi:10.1093/awx167) for a scientific commentary on this article.The large variance in cognitive deterioration in subjects who test positive for amyloid-β by positron emission tomography indicates that convergent pathologies, such as iron accumulation, might combine with amyloid-β to accelerate Alzheimer's disease progression. Here, we applied quantitative susceptibility mapping, a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging method sensitive to tissue iron, to assess the relationship between iron, amyloid-β load, and cognitive decline in 117 subjects who underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid-β positron emission tomography from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study (AIBL)...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893588/resting-state-fmri-observations-of-baseline-brain-functional-activities-and-connectivities-in-primary-blepharospasm
#19
Ming-Fei Ni, Xiao-Feng Huang, Yan-Wei Miao, Zhan-Hua Liang
Primary blepharospasm (BPS) is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eyelid spasms and blinking. The pathophysiology of BPS remains unclear. Several functional and structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities of sensorimotor structures such as the sensorimotor cortex, the basal ganglia, the thalamus and the cerebellum in BPS patients. However, some of the results of these studies were inconsistent. In addition, the relationship between the motor and sensory structures in patients with BPS still needs to be investigated...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893572/reduced-severity-of-outcome-of-recurrent-ipsilateral-transient-cerebral-ischemia-compared-with-contralateral-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#20
Chenyu Fan, Li Zhang, Zhijie He, Peng Shao, Li Ding, Guili Wang, Wenxiu Niu, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) had a preconditioning effect on subsequent cerebral infarction in a rat model using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: those with transient (5 minutes) left MCAO (left TIA) (n = 15), those with transient right MCAO (right TIA) (n = 15), and a sham operation group (n = 6). Seven days after the initial transient MCAO, rats in all groups underwent permanent left MCAO...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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