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Cerebral function imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334217/testosterone-effects-on-the-brain-in-transgender-men
#1
Sarah M Burke, Amir H Manzouri, Cecilia Dhejne, Karin Bergström, Stefan Arver, Jamie D Feusner, Ivanka Savic-Berglund
Transgender individuals experience incongruence between their gender identity and birth-assigned sex. The resulting gender dysphoria (GD), which some gender-incongruent individuals experience, is theorized to be a consequence of atypical cerebral sexual differentiation, but support for this assertion is inconsistent. We recently found that GD is associated with disconnected networks involved in self-referential thinking and own body perception. Here, we investigate how these networks in trans men (assigned female at birth with male gender identity) are affected by testosterone...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333012/cerebral-cortex-regions-selectively-vulnerable-to-radiation-dose-dependent-atrophy
#2
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Samar Kaifi, Jeffrey Burkeen, Michael Connor, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Nathan S White, Nikdokht Farid, Hauke Bartsch, Vyacheslav Murzin, Tanya T Nguyen, Vitali Moiseenko, James B Brewer, Carrie R McDonald, Anders M Dale, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330501/intraarterial-transplantation-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-hyperacute-stroke-improves-vascular-function
#3
Lei Huang, Yichu Liu, Jianfei Lu, Bianca Cerqueira, Vivek Misra, Timothy Q Duong
BACKGROUND: Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cell therapy is a promising treatment for ischemic stroke. The effects of hyperacute stem cell transplantation on cerebrovascular function in ischemic stroke are, however, not well understood. This study evaluated the effects of hyperacute intraarterial transplantation of hUCB mononuclear cells (MNCs) on cerebrovascular function in stroke rats using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: HUCB MNCs or vehicle were administered to stroke rats via the internal carotid artery immediately after reperfusion at 60 min following ischemia onset...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326034/the-presence-of-previous-cerebral-microbleeds-has-a-negative-effect-on-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage-recovery
#4
Kang Yang, Yulan Feng, JinJin Mu, Ningzhen Fu, Shufen Chen, Yi Fu
Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds are an intracerebral microangiopathy with bleeding tendency found in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. However, studies about cerebral microbleed effects on the prognosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients are rare. We performed a prospective study to discuss not only the risk factors of cerebral microbleed incidence in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients but also the relevance of cerebral microbleeds with silent brain infarction, hemorrhage and prognosis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326010/impact-of-resveratrol-on-glucose-control-hippocampal-structure-and-connectivity-and-memory-performance-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Jan-Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Jens Bohlken, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50-80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325788/decompression-illness-with-hypovolemic-shock-and-neurological-failure-symptoms-after-two-risky-dives-a-case-report
#6
Sebastian Klapa, Johannes Meyne, Wataru Kähler, Frauke Tillmans, Henning Werr, Andreas Binder, Andreas Koch
Hypovolemia is known to be a predisposing factor of decompression illness (DCI) while diving. The typical clinically impressive neurological symptoms of DCI may distract from other symptoms such as an incipient hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 61-year-old male Caucasian, who presented with an increasing central and peripheral neural failure syndrome and massive hypovolemia after two risky dives. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head revealed multiple cerebral and pulmonary thromboembolisms...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325030/application-of-meg-coherence-in-lateralization-of-mtle
#7
Mohammad R Nazem-Zadeh, Susan M Bowyer, John E Moran, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Andrew Zillgitt, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Fariborz Mahmoudi, Kost V Elisevich, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive imaging method for localization of focal epileptiform activity in patients with epilepsy. This study investigates the cerebral functional abnormalities quantified by MEG coherence laterality in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Resting state MEG data was analyzed using MEG coherence source imaging (MEG-CSI) method to determine the coherence in 54 anatomical sites in 12 adult mTLE patients and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. MEG coherence laterality, after Bonferroni adjustment, showed significant differences for right versus left mTLE in insular cortex and both lateral orbitofrontal and superior temporal gyri (p<;0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321605/long-term-effects-of-stimulant-exposure-on-cerebral-blood-flow-response-to-methylphenidate-and-behavior-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Anouk Schrantee, C Bouziane, E E Bron, S Klein, M A Bottelier, J J S Kooij, S A R B Rombouts, L Reneman
Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We here assessed the long-term modifying effects of age-of-first-stimulant treatment on the human brain and behavior. 81 male adult ADHD patients were stratified into three groups: 1) early stimulant treatment (EST; <16 years of age) 2) late stimulant treatment (LST: ≥23 years of age) and 3) stimulant treatment naive (STN; no history of stimulant treatment)...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321186/brain-activity-during-mental-imagery-of-gait-versus-gait-like-plantar-stimulation-a-novel-combined-functional-mri-paradigm-to-better-understand-cerebral-gait-control
#9
Matthieu Labriffe, Cédric Annweiler, Liubov E Amirova, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Aram Ter Minassian, Louis-Marie Leiber, Olivier Beauchet, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Mickaël Dinomais
Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#10
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319240/two-paradigms-for-endovascular-thrombectomy-after-intravenous-thrombolysis-for-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Gaspard Gerschenfeld, Ioan-Paul Muresan, Raphael Blanc, Michael Obadia, Marie Abrivard, Michel Piotin, Sonia Alamowitch
Importance: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) followed by mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is recommended to treat acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with a large vessel occlusion (LVO). Most hospitals do not have on-site MT facilities, and most patients need to be transferred secondarily after IVT (drip and ship), which may have an effect on the neurologic outcome. Objective: To compare the functional independence at 3 months between patients treated under the drip-and-ship paradigm and those treated on site (mothership)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314796/prehypertensive-blood-pressures-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-independently-relate-to-cognitive-performance-in-midlife
#12
J Richard Jennings, Matthew F Muldoon, Christopher Ryan, H Michael Gach, Alicia Heim, Lei K Sheu, Peter J Gianaros
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is thought to contribute to dementia in late life, but our understanding of the relationship between individual differences in blood pressure (BP) and cognitive functioning is incomplete. In this study, cognitive performance in nonhypertensive midlife adults was examined as a function of resting BP and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) responses during cognitive testing. We hypothesized that BP would be negatively related to cognitive performance and that cognitive performance would also be related to rCBF responses within areas related to BP control...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303161/a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies-examining-nutritional-and-herbal-therapies-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-neuroimaging-methods-study-characteristics-and-intervention-efficacy
#13
REVIEW
Genevieve Z Steiner, Danielle C Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A Camfield, Nerida L Klupp, Sai W Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#14
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299225/thrombosis-of-the-azygos-anterior-cerebral-artery
#15
Camila Soares Moreira de Sousa, Carla Lorena Vasques Mendes de Miranda, Marcelo Coelho Avelino, Breno Braga Bastos, Rafael Soares Moreira de Sousa, Carla Valéria Vasques Mendes de Miranda
The azygos anterior cerebral artery is a rare variant, characterized by the absence of the anterior communicating artery and the union of two proximal segments of the anterior cerebral artery, forming a single trunk and ascending through the interhemispheric fissure. The incidence in the population varies from 0.3 to 2%. The presence of occlusion for this vessel causes bifrontal infarcts, with potentially devastating functional consequences, hence the importance of recognizing this anatomical variation in imaging exams...
2017: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298042/the-effect-of-cranioplasty-following-decompressive-craniectomy-on-cerebral-blood-perfusion-neurological-and-cognitive-outcome
#16
Adnan Hussain Shahid, Manju Mohanty, Navneet Singla, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Sunil Kumar Gupta
OBJECTIVE Decompressive craniectomy is an established therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. Cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy not only provides protection to the brain along with cosmetic benefits, but also enhances rehabilitation with meaningful functional recovery of potentially reversible cortical and subcortical damaged areas of the affected as well as the contralateral hemisphere. The aim of the study was to assess neurological and cognitive outcome as well as cerebral blood flow after cranioplasty...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295824/wavelet-entropy-of-bold-time-series-an-application-to-rolandic-epilepsy
#17
Lalit Gupta, Jacobus F A Jansen, Paul A M Hofman, René M H Besseling, Anton J A de Louw, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes
PURPOSE: To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295175/hypothesis-testing-in-functional-linear-models
#18
Yu-Ru Su, Chong-Zhi Di, Li Hsu
Functional data arise frequently in biomedical studies, where it is often of interest to investigate the association between functional predictors and a scalar response variable. While functional linear models (FLM) are widely used to address these questions, hypothesis testing for the functional association in the FLM framework remains challenging. A popular approach to testing the functional effects is through dimension reduction by functional principal component (PC) analysis. However, its power performance depends on the choice of the number of PCs, and is not systematically studied...
March 10, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283789/cerebral-metabolic-changes-related-to-clinical-parameters-in-idiopathic-anosmic-patients-during-olfactory-stimulation-a-pilot-investigation
#19
Alessandro Micarelli, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Roberta Danieli, Orazio Schillaci, Marco Alessandrini
Idiopathic olfactory loss neural consequences have been studied especially by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Since other functional neuroimaging technique findings are lacking in the literature, present study used a validated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) functional positron emission tomography procedure under olfactory stimulation (OS) to assess brain changes in idiopathic anosmic patients (IAPs) in comparison with healthy subjects (HS). A voxel-based analysis between these groups was used to evaluate FDG uptake in the brain and perform a correlation analysis between metabolic responses and the Sniffin' stick test as well as intensity visuo-analogue scores and disease duration (DD)...
March 10, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283606/predictive-value-of-rapid-assessed-perfusion-thresholds-on-final-infarct-volume-in-swift-prime-solitaire-with-the-intention-for-thrombectomy-as-primary-endovascular-treatment
#20
Maxim Mokin, Elad I Levy, Jeffrey L Saver, Adnan H Siddiqui, Mayank Goyal, Alain Bonafé, Christophe Cognard, Reza Jahan, Gregory W Albers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Computed tomography perfusion imaging can estimate the size of the ischemic core, which can be used for the selection of patients for endovascular therapy. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) thresholds chosen to identify ischemic core influence the accuracy of prediction. We aimed to analyze the accuracy of various rCBV and rCBF thresholds for predicting the 27-hour infarct volume using RAPID automated analysis software from the SWIFT PRIME trial (Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment) data...
March 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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