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Early onset schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453035/changes-in-correlation-characteristics-of-time-consumption-and-mind-reading-performance-in-pre-onset-and-post-onset-psychosis
#1
TianHong Zhang, LiHua Xu, HuiRu Cui, YingYing Tang, YanYan Wei, XiaoChen Tang, XiaoHua Liu, XinMei Cao, ChunBo Li, JiJun Wang
There is a strong correlation between neurocognition and social cognition. However, none of these studies have examined the key role of time consumption during social cognition tasks. Participants included 84 individuals with clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR), 95 healthy controls (HC), and 66 case controls (schizophrenia patients, SZ), who were assessed through the Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks (RMET) with computerized recording of the response time (RT). Neurocognitive tests were also performed for the HC and CHR groups...
February 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452966/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-of-childhood-trauma-and-the-course-of-illness-in-schizophrenia
#2
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Veronika Mészáros, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
INTRODUCTION: Different types of childhood trauma have been repeatedly shown to contribute to psychotic symptoms. Gender differences in schizophrenia are well known. Some studies argue that trauma history means a significantly higher risk of psychosis for women than men. However, there is evidence of early adverse life events to be associated with higher stress-sensitivity in men. Little is known about the connection of specific type of trauma and specific psychotic symptoms as well as the course of illness with explicit regard to gender differences...
February 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435496/zika-virus-alters-dna-methylation-of-neural-genes-in-an-organoid-model-of-the-developing-human-brain
#3
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Rahul Karnik, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Marion Dejosez, Alexander Meissner, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy can cause microcephaly and associated defects at birth, but whether it can induce neurologic sequelae that appear later in life remains unclear. Using a model of the developing brain based on embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids, we studied the impact of ZIKV infection on the DNA methylation pattern across the entire genome in selected neural cell types. The virus unexpectedly alters the DNA methylome of neural progenitors, astrocytes, and differentiated neurons at genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of brain disorders, most prominently mental retardation and schizophrenia...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426848/sleep-endophenotypes-of-schizophrenia-slow-waves-and-sleep-spindles-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#4
Armando D'Agostino, Anna Castelnovo, Simone Cavallotti, Cecilia Casetta, Matteo Marcatili, Orsola Gambini, Mariapaola Canevini, Giulio Tononi, Brady Riedner, Fabio Ferrarelli, Simone Sarasso
Sleep spindles and slow waves are the main brain oscillations occurring in non-REM sleep. Several lines of evidence suggest that spindles are initiated within the thalamus, whereas slow waves are generated and modulated in the cortex. A decrease in sleep spindle activity has been described in Schizophrenia (SCZ), including chronic, early course, and early onset patients. In contrast, slow waves have been inconsistently found to be reduced in SCZ, possibly due to confounds like duration of illness and antipsychotic medication exposure...
February 9, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402581/patterns-in-adolescent-cannabis-use-predict-the-onset-and-symptom-structure-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#5
C Shahzade, J Chun, L E DeLisi, T C Manschreck
This study investigated adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Motives for early cannabis use and resulting usage patterns were examined alongside clinical measures of SSD onset and symptomatology. Participants (N = 178) were recruited for two samples, 1: healthy controls (HC) with cannabis use, 2: schizophrenia patients (SSD) with cannabis use. Structured interviews of participants and family informants were used to obtain diagnostic and biographical information...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395612/altered-auditory-processing-and-effective-connectivity-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#6
Kit Melissa Larsen, Morten Mørup, Michelle Rosgaard Birknow, Elvira Fischer, Oliver Hulme, Anders Vangkilde, Henriette Schmock, William Frans Christiaan Baaré, Michael Didriksen, Line Olsen, Thomas Werge, Hartwig R Siebner, Marta I Garrido
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common copy number variants and confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. As such, 22q11.2DS is a homogeneous genetic liability model which enables studies to delineate functional abnormalities that may precede disease onset. Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia relative to healthy controls in MMN tasks...
January 30, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387876/mortality-rates-after-the-first-diagnosis-of-psychotic-disorder-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Gregory E Simon, Christine Stewart, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Frances Lynch, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Belinda H Operskalski, Robert B Penfold, Enid M Hunkeler
Importance: Individuals with psychotic disorders have increased mortality, and recent research suggests a marked increase shortly after diagnosis. Objective: To use population-based data to examine overall and cause-specific mortality after first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used records from 5 integrated health systems that serve more than 8 million members in 5 states. Members aged 16 through 30 years who received a first lifetime diagnosis of a psychotic disorder from September 30, 2009, through September 30, 2015, and 2 comparison groups matched for age, sex, health system, and year of diagnosis were selected from all members making an outpatient visit (general outpatient group) and from all receiving a first diagnosis of unipolar depression (unipolar depression group)...
January 31, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379293/efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-paliperidone-palmitate-injections-in-the-management-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-an-evidence-based-review
#8
REVIEW
Robin Emsley, Sanja Kilian
The course of schizophrenia is characterized by multiple relapses, incomplete remission of symptoms, enduring cognitive deficits, and social and occupational functional impairments. Nonadherence to antipsychotic medication is a major determinant of this poor outcome. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics were developed specifically to address the nonadherence problem and are increasingly considered as an early treatment option, in an attempt to prevent accruing morbidity. This review focuses on paliperidone palmitate, the long-acting injectable (LAI) formulation of paliperidone...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345055/npas4-deficiency-interacts-with-adolescent-stress-to-disrupt-prefrontal-gabaergic-maturation-and-adult-cognitive-flexibility
#9
Chloe Page, Jonathan Alexander, Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
Healthy cognitive and emotional functioning relies on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex. This balance is largely established during early postnatal and adolescent developmental periods by maturation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, including increased density of parvalbumin cells and perineuronal nets. Genetic and/or environmental factors during adolescence can disrupt GABAergic maturation and lead to behavioral dysfunction in adulthood. The present study examined the interaction between chronic mild stress during adolescence and genetic deficiency of neuronal PAS domain 4 (Npas4), a brain-specific transcription factor that regulates inhibitory neurotransmission and that contributes to adolescent prefrontal GABAergic maturation...
January 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344339/clozapine-discontinuation-in-early-schizophrenia-a-retrospective-case-note-review-of-patients-under-an-early-intervention-service
#10
Andrew Shaker, Rowena Jones
Aim: Research in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia has demonstrated that clozapine discontinuation is associated with poor outcomes. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the impact of clozapine discontinuation specifically in younger patients with more recent onset schizophrenia. A case note review was therefore conducted to ascertain medium-term prognoses in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia under an early intervention service (EIS) following clozapine discontinuation...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342497/non-antipsychotic-catecholaminergic-drugs-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#11
REVIEW
Hany G El-Sayeh, John Rathbone, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of antipsychotic medication. Several strategies have been examined in the treatment of TD. Currently, however, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs in TD and they have been associated with many side effects. One particular strategy would be to use pharmaceutical agents which are known to influence the catecholaminergic system at various junctures. OBJECTIVES: 1...
January 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341067/vitamin-e-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#12
REVIEW
Karla Soares-Weiser, Nicola Maayan, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. Vitamin E has been proposed as a treatment to prevent or decrease TD. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the clinical effects of vitamin E in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness who had developed antipsychotic-induced TD...
January 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338891/gray-and-white-matter-changes-and-their-relation-to-illness-trajectory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#13
Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Anna Alonso-Solís, Iluminada Corripio, Rosa B Sauras-Quetcuti, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Erick J Canales-Rodriguez, Eva Grasa-Bello, Enric Álvarez, Maria J Portella
Previous works have studied structural brain characteristics in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but few have focused on the relation between brain differences and illness trajectories. The aim of this study is to analyze gray and white matter changes in FEP patients and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes. A sample of 41 FEP patients and 41 healthy controls (HC), matched by age and educational level was scanned with a 3T MRI during the first month of illness onset. One year later, patients were assigned to two illness trajectories (schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia)...
January 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334044/gene-environment-interplay-in-the-etiology-of-psychosis
#14
Alyson Zwicker, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Rudolf Uher
Schizophrenia and other types of psychosis incur suffering, high health care costs and loss of human potential, due to the combination of early onset and poor response to treatment. Our ability to prevent or cure psychosis depends on knowledge of causal mechanisms. Molecular genetic studies show that thousands of common and rare variants contribute to the genetic risk for psychosis. Epidemiological studies have identified many environmental factors associated with increased risk of psychosis. However, no single genetic or environmental factor is sufficient to cause psychosis on its own...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332009/poststroke-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Helle Stangeland, Vasiliki Orgeta, Vaughan Bell
A preregistered systematic review of poststroke psychosis examining clinical characteristics, prevalence, diagnostic procedures, lesion location, treatments, risk factors and outcome. Neuropsychiatric outcomes following stroke are common and severely impact quality of life. No previous reviews have focused on poststroke psychosis despite clear clinical need. CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsychINFO were searched for studies on poststroke psychosis published between 1975 and 2016. Reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and rated study quality...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310912/monocyte-activation-detected-prior-to-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia-in-the-us-military-new-onset-psychosis-project-mnopp
#16
Natalya S Weber, Kristin L Gressitt, David N Cowan, David W Niebuhr, Robert H Yolken, Emily G Severance
Low-grade inflammation is present in some cases of schizophrenia, particularly in the early stages of this disorder. The inflammation source is not known but may be the result of dysbiotic processes occurring in the gut. We examined peripheral biomarkers of bacterial translocation, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and of general inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in a unique, pre-onset study of schizophrenia. This sample was composed of 80 case-control matched pairs of US military service members from whom blood samples were obtained at time of entry to service, before a psychiatric diagnosis was made...
January 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303949/psychosis-risk-syndrome-what-now
#17
Othman Sentissi, Maria A Andreou, Clotilde Moeglin, Logos Curtis, Micaela Santos Brosch
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder that generally begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. This early onset is often linked with a devastating lifelong impact on both the social network and work capacities of the affected subjects. Beginning in the mid-1990s, several sets of diagnostic criteria aiming to identify "high-risk" patients were developed and applied in clinical studies. Short-term rates of onset of psychosis in this subgroup of subjects ranged from 20% to 40%...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299680/validation-study-of-the-early-onset-schizophrenia-diagnosis-in-the-danish-psychiatric-central-research-register
#18
Ditte Lammers Vernal, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Nina Staal, Anne Marie Raabjerg Christensen, Christine Ebbesen, Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Christoph U Correll, René Ernst Nielsen, Marlene Briciet Lauritsen
The objective of this study is to assess (1) the concordance and validity of schizophrenia register diagnoses among children and adolescents (early onset schizophrenia = EOS) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR), and (2) the validity of clinical record schizophrenia diagnoses. Psychiatric records from 200 patients with a first-time diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20.x) at age < 18 years between 1994 and 2009 in the DPCRR were rated by experienced clinicians according to ICD-10 criteria, using a predefined checklist...
January 3, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287238/detection-of-early-psychotic-symptoms-validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-symptom-onset-in-schizophrenia-sos-inventory
#19
Gisela Mezquida, Bibiana Cabrera, Anabel Martínez-Arán, Eduard Vieta, Miguel Bernardo
The period of subclinical signs that precedes the onset of psychosis is referred to as the prodrome or high-risk mental state. The "Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory" is an instrument to characterize and date the initial symptoms of a psychotic illness. The present study aims to provide reliability and validity data for clinical and research use of the Spanish version of the SOS. Thirty-six participants with a first-episode of psychosis meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia/schizoaffective/schizophreniform disorder were administered the translated SOS and other clinical assessments...
December 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287075/association-of-serum-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-with-duration-of-drug-naive-period-and-positive-negative-symptom-scores-in-drug-naive-schizophrenia
#20
Abdurrahim Bakirhan, Safak Yalcin Sahiner, Ismail Volkan Sahiner, Yasir Safak, Erol Goka
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the serum brain derived neurotropic factor (BNDF) levels of patients with schizophrenia who had never received an antipsychotic treatment with those of a control group. Also, to analyze the relationship between the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores and BDNF levels of the patients during the period they were drug-naive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample of the study comprised patients who presentedto the Psychiatry Clinic and were admitted after a distinctive schizophrenia diagnosis was made in accordance with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis classification and who were not using and never had any antipsychotic medicine...
2017: PloS One
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