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Early onset schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045744/developmental-differences-between-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#1
Mara Parellada, Sandra Gomez-Vallejo, Monica Burdeus, Celso Arango
Ample evidence supports a neurodevelopmental origin in some cases of schizophrenia (SZ). More inconsistent information is available for bipolar disorder (BD). We herein review studies with a focus on premorbid (adjustment and functionality) and early developmental milestones that include both SZ and BD patients. A search was performed in the PubMed electronic database, retrieving 619 abstracts; 30 were ultimately included in this systematic review. Eight prospective cohorts, 15 retrospective studies, and 7 studies based on national registries...
October 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034144/exercise-treatments-for-psychosis-a-review
#2
Vijay A Mittal, Teresa Vargas, K Juston Osborne, Derek Dean, Tina Gupta, Ivanka Ristanovic, Christine I Hooker, Stewart A Shankman
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that has profound effects on a person's health and quality of life. Exercise represents a promising new treatment option that may supplement current psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis. A large body of work suggests that exercise can improve cardio-metabolic and health behavior and facilitate neurogenesis in areas of the brain that are notably impacted by psychosis. Recent efforts to incorporate exercise as either stand-alone or adjunctive treatment for individuals with schizophrenia range from yoga and light stretching to moderately intense walking, bike riding, or team sports...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990294/genetic-and-molecular-risk-factors-within-the-newly-identified-primate-specific-exon-of-the-sap97-dlg1-gene-in-the-3q29-schizophrenia-associated-locus
#3
Akihito Uezato, Naoki Yamamoto, Daisuke Jitoku, Emiko Haramo, Eri Hiraaki, Yoshimi Iwayama, Tomoko Toyota, Masakazu Umino, Asami Umino, Yasuhide Iwata, Katsuaki Suzuki, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tasuku Hashimoto, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Akeo Kurumaji, Takeo Yoshikawa, Toru Nishikawa
The synapse-associated protein 97/discs, large homolog 1 of Drosophila (DLG1) gene encodes synaptic scaffold PDZ proteins interacting with ionotropic glutamate receptors including the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) that is presumed to be hypoactive in brains of patients with schizophrenia. The DLG1 gene resides in the chromosomal position 3q29, the microdeletion of which confers a 40-fold increase in the risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we performed genetic association analyses for DLG1 gene using a Japanese cohort with 1808 schizophrenia patients and 2170 controls...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987061/evaluation-of-white-matter-structure-changes-as-assessed-in-tractography-and-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-early-onset-schizophrenia-and-their-first-degree-relatives
#4
Marta Gawłowska-Sawosz, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Piotr Gębski, Tomasz Pawełczyk, Dominik Strzelecki, Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the project was to assess the differences in the white matter (WM) fiber structure between patients with early onset schizophrenia (EOS), their first degree relatives and controls using Fractional Anisotropy (FA), and an independent evaluation of the severity of working memory disturbances in the study groups. METHODS: The study included 20 patients diagnosed with paranoid EOS (diagnosed before the age of 18), a group of 20 parents of patients, matched for gender, and 18 healthy controls...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986006/association-between-mismatch-negativity-and-global-functioning-is-specific-to-duration-deviance-in-early-stages-of-psychosis
#5
Daisuke Koshiyama, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Tatsuya Nagai, Mao Fujioka, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a candidate biomarker for early stages of psychosis. Although an association among duration MMN (dMMN), cognitive deficits, and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia has been shown by a large-scale study, the effects of deviant type and clinical stages have not been investigated. METHODS: We investigated the relationships among dMMN, frequency MMN (fMMN), global functioning, and cognitive function in early stages of psychosis...
October 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976410/early-onset-schizophrenia-associated-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-clinical-features-and-correlates
#6
Burak Baytunca, Tuğba Kalyoncu, Ismail Ozel, Serpil Erermiş, Bülent Kayahan, Dost Öngur
OBJECTIVES: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is notably a comorbid disorder in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and correlates of early onset patients with schizophrenia with OCD. METHODS: In the present study, we included 10 patients with both schizophrenia and OCD and 19 patients with schizophrenia without OCD. The mean antipsychotic doses the patients needed for treatment are standardized as chlorpromazine equivalent dose...
October 2, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972123/a-multi-level-functional-study-of-a-snap25-at-risk-variant-for-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#7
Josselin Houenou, Jennifer Boisgontier, Annabelle Henrion, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Anne Dumaine, Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa, Claire Daban, Nora Hamdani, Marine Delavest, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Franck Schürhoff, Andrei Szöke, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Caroline Barau, Cyril Poupon, Bruno Etain, Marion Leboyer, Stéphane Jamain
The synaptosomal associated protein SNAP25 is a key player in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion and has been associated with multiple psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We recently identified a promoter variant in SNAP25, rs6039769, associated with early-onset bipolar disorder and a higher gene expression level in human prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we showed that this variant was associated both in males and females with schizophrenia in two independent cohorts...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967348/psychotic-patients-who-used-cannabis-frequently-before-illness-onset-have-higher-genetic-predisposition-to-schizophrenia-than-those-who-did-not
#8
M Aas, I Melle, F Bettella, S Djurovic, S Le Hellard, T Bjella, P A Ringen, T V Lagerberg, O B Smeland, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, M Tesli
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are heritable, polygenic disorders with shared clinical and genetic components, suggesting a psychosis continuum. Cannabis use is a well-documented environmental risk factor in psychotic disorders. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between SZ genetic load and cannabis use before illness onset in SZ and BD spectrums. Since frequent early cannabis use (age <18 years) is believed to increase the risk of developing psychosis more than later use, follow-up analyses were conducted comparing early use to later use and no use...
October 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941299/considering-the-role-of-adolescent-sex-steroids-in-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Samantha J Owens, Caitlin E Murphy, Tertia D Purves-Tyson, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Schizophrenia is a disabling illness that is typically first diagnosed during late adolescence to early adulthood, has an unremitting course, and is often treatment resistance. Many clinical aspects of the illness suggest that sex steroid-nervous system interactions may contribute to the onset and course of symptoms and the cognitive impairment displayed by men and women with schizophrenia. Here, we discuss the actions of estrogen and testosterone on the brain during adolescent development and in schizophrenia from the perspective of experimental studies in animals, human post-mortem studies, magnetic resonance imaging studies in living humans, and clinical trials of sex steroid based treatments...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941101/schizophrenia-and-the-neurodevelopmental-continuum-evidence-from-genomics
#10
Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan
The idea that disturbances occurring early in brain development contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, often referred to as the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, has become widely accepted. Despite this, the disorder is viewed as being distinct nosologically, and by implication pathophysiologically and clinically, from syndromes such as autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability, which typically present in childhood and are grouped together as "neurodevelopmental disorders"...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934990/x-linked-ichthyosis-associated-with-psychosis-and-behavioral-abnormalities-a-case-report
#11
Amna Malik, Ahmed Bait Amer, Mohammed Salama, Bander Haddad, Muhammad T Alrifai, Mohammed Al Balwi, William Davies, Wafaa Eyaid
BACKGROUND: X-linked ichthyosis is a dermatological condition caused by deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase. Previously, X-linked ichthyosis/steroid sulfatase deficiency has been associated with developmental and neurological phenotypes. Here, we show for the first time, that X-linked ichthyosis may be comorbid with an additional psychiatric phenotype (psychosis). CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an 11-year-old Saudi Arabian boy with X-linked ichthyosis associated with psychosis, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922588/persistent-negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-early-cognitive-and-social-functioning-correlates-and-differences-between-early-and-adult-onset
#12
Olga Puig, Immaculada Baeza, Elena de la Serna, Bibiana Cabrera, Gisela Mezquida, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Mara Parellada, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Manuel J Cuesta, Miquel Bernardo, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, The PEPs Group
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the early cognitive and social functioning characteristics of a sample of first-episode psychosis patients with and without persistent negative symptoms (PNS) and to examine the prevalence and cognitive and functional correlates of PNS in patients with early-onset versus adult-onset first-episode psychosis. METHODS: Participants were 235 patients with first-episode psychosis (51 early-onset, 184 adult-onset) and 240 healthy controls from a multicenter longitudinal study (recruited between 2009 and 2011)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919609/psychiatric-disorders-in-drop-out-from-educational-attainment-attending-mental-health-facilities-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#13
M S Islam, M H Rashid, M N Uddin, R K Singha, M A Rahman, M A Haque, C K Saha, M F Abedin
Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare. Mental disorders, those beginning in childhood or adolescence may increase the risk of early drop out from education. The latter has been shown to have adverse life-course consequences on individuals such as greater demand on social welfare entitlements. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the department of Psychiatry, Comilla Medical College, Comilla, Bangladesh. All cases were selected from patients attending at Comilla Medical College Hospital and Private Mental Health Facilities in Comilla City from March 2015 to February 2016...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918417/-clinical-features-of-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-bipolar-patients
#14
Zsuzsanna Belteczki, Zoltan Rihmer, Julia Ujvari
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in the case of manic, depressive and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder; however, the assessment of delusions and hallucinations is frequently improper, thus the patients presenting also psychotic symptoms are treated based on their diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or paranoia. Psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder result less favourable outcomes and course of illness. METHODS: 365 patients (106 males, 259 females) were hospitalized in or institution from January 1st 2015 to September 30th 2016, who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to the ICD-10 criteria...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918241/stigma-experienced-by-patients-with-severe-mental-disorders-a-nationwide-multicentric-study-from-india
#15
Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi, Aakanksha Singh, Amitava Dan, Rajarshi Neogi, Darpan Kaur, Bhavesh Lakdawala, Abhijit R Rozatkar, Naresh Nebhinani, Suravi Patra, Priya Sivashankar, Alka A Subramanyam, Adarsh Tripathi, Ab Majid Gania, Gurvinder Pal Singh, Prakash Behere
This study aimed to evaluate the stigma and its correlates among patients with severe mental disorders. Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 707), bipolar disorder (N = 344) and recurrent depressive disorder (N = 352) currently in clinical remission from 14 participating centres were assessed on Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS). Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia experienced higher level of alienation, sterotype endorsement, discrimination experience and total stigma when compared to patients with bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder...
August 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888362/risk-factors-for-increased-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-results-from-the-face-sz-dataset
#16
G Fond, L Boyer, M Andrianarisoa, O Godin, L Brunel, E Bulzacka, N Coulon, P M Llorca, F Berna, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, R Rey, R Richieri, P Roux, C Passerieux, A Schandrin, A M Tronche, P Vidailhet, M Leboyer, F Schürhoff
OBJECTIVES: Reducing the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) may improve the prognosis of schizophrenia. This study investigated the prevalence, and associated risk factors, of long DUP in a large, non-selected sample of community-dwelling schizophrenia patients (SZ). METHOD: 478 community-dwelling stable SZ participants (122 women and 356 men; mean age 32.37±9.86years) were recruited between 2010 and 2016. The mean retrospective DUP was evaluated from both patient and family reports, as well as hospital/psychiatrists records...
September 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870686/-risk-factors-related-to-homicide-in-moroccan-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
A Kachouchi, M Sebbani, S Salim, I Adali, F Manoudi, M Amine, F Asri
BACKGROUND: Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime - 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of homicide in Moroccan patients suffering from schizophrenia and to determine the correlated sociodemographic, clinical and toxic variables...
September 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867517/schizophrenia-and-creativity-a-meta-analytic-review
#18
Selcuk Acar, Xiao Chen, Nur Cayirdag
The present study investigated the relationship between creativity and schizophrenia with a 3-level multilevel meta-analytic approach. Analyses with 200 effect sizes obtained from 42 studies found a mean effect size of r=-0.324, 95%CI [-0.42, -0.23]. Further analyses focused on moderators and indicated that the relationship between schizophrenia and creativity is moderated by type of creativity measure, the content of creativity measure, the severity of schizophrenia, and patient status. The negative mean effect size was stronger with semantic-category or verbal-letter fluency tasks than the divergent thinking or associational measures...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852253/very-early-onset-schizophrenia-with-secondary-onset-tic-disorder
#19
Shilpa A Telgote, Shreyas Shrikant Pendharkar, Amol D Kelkar, Sachin Bhojane
Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported <12 years of age in Indian literature. Here, we present a 15-year-old boy who developed psychosis at 9 years of age and during illness developed tic disorder.
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835863/clozapine-induced-microseizures-orofacial-dyskinesia-and-speech-dysfluency-in-an-adolescent-with-treatment-resistant-early-onset-schizophrenia-on-concurrent-lithium-therapy
#20
Vivekananda Rachamallu, Ayman Haq, Michael M Song, Manish Aligeti
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. It has a well-known side effect profile, including agranulocytosis, decreased seizure threshold, and tardive dyskinesia. In addition, numerous case reports have described clozapine-induced stuttering in adults. However, there has been only one previous case report describing it in the adolescent population. In addition, concurrent lithium therapy has been shown to enhance the neurotoxic effects of antipsychotics and lower the seizure threshold...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
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