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Early onset schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528586/white-matter-connectivity-disruptions-in-early-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#1
M A Di Biase, V L Cropley, B T Baune, J Olver, G P Amminger, C Phassouliotis, C Bousman, P D McGorry, I Everall, C Pantelis, A Zalesky
BACKGROUND: White matter disruptions in schizophrenia have been widely reported, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities differ between illness stages. We mapped the connectome in patients with recently diagnosed and chronic schizophrenia and investigated the extent and overlap of white matter connectivity disruptions between these illness stages. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in recent-onset (n = 19) and chronic patients (n = 45) with schizophrenia, as well as age-matched controls (n = 87)...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#2
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526280/an-overview-of-medical-risk-factors-for-childhood-psychosis-implications-for-research-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Marianna Giannitelli, Angèle Consoli, Marie Raffin, Renaud Jardri, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520931/altered-white-matter-connectivity-within-and-between-networks-in-antipsychotic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenia
#4
Fei Li, Su Lui, Li Yao, Gong-Jun Ji, Wei Liao, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Analyzing the schizophrenia connectome can identify illness-related alterations in connectivity across the brain. An important question that remains unanswered is whether connectivity alterations are already evident at the onset of illness, before treatment with antipsychotic medication and possible influences of neuroprogressive or secondary alterations related to chronic illness duration. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic fiber tractography were performed with 137 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 113 matched healthy controls...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507523/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-and-developmental-trajectories
#5
Roberto Canitano, Mauro Pallagrosi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) share clinical and genetic components that have long been recognized. The two disorders co-occur more frequently than would be predicted by their respective prevalence, suggesting that a complex, multifactor association is involved. However, DSM-5 maintains the distinction between ASD, with core social and communication impairments, and SSD, including schizophrenia (SCZ), with hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder as essential features...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501553/progressive-cortical-reorganisation-a-framework-for-investigating-structural-changes-in-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Lena Palaniyappan
One of the few well-replicated features of schizophrenia is the demonstration of neuroanatomical abnormalities affecting cortical and subcortical grey matter (GM). Evidence to date suggests that the greatest reduction in GM occurs in the immediate post-onset phase. The predominant view to date is that the accelerated grey matter (GM) loss represents an adverse process (degenerative or developmental deficit) contributing to the unfavourable course of schizophrenia. This prevailing emphasis on decompensation often overlooks the fact that human brain has an inherent capacity to remodel itself in response to insults that affect its function...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468274/clock-genes-and-altered-sleep-wake-rhythms-their-role-in-the-development-of-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Annaëlle Charrier, Bertrand Olliac, Pierre Roubertoux, Sylvie Tordjman
In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445633/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-recent-onset-psychosis-indicate-early-onset-of-cardiovascular-risk
#8
Julia M Hagen, Arjen L Sutterland, Maarten W Koeter, Rene Lutter, Dan Cohen, Lieuwe de Haan
OBJECTIVE: Profoundly increased mortality rates in schizophrenia, largely caused by a higher risk and earlier onset of cardiovascular disease, remain a major challenge. During the human lifespan, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate, and their concentration is strongly linked to cardiovascular mortality. AGE accumulation can be accelerated by several pathways, including oxidative stress. METHODS: From March 2015 through January 2016, a case-control study including 111 patients with a recent-onset psychosis, 135 controls from a validation cohort, and 286 healthy controls was performed...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430790/whole-genome-sequencing-suggests-mechanisms-for-22q11-2-deletion-associated-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Nancy J Butcher, Daniele Merico, Mehdi Zarrei, Lucas Ogura, Christian R Marshall, Eva W C Chow, Anthony E Lang, Stephen W Scherer, Anne S Bassett
OBJECTIVES: To investigate disease risk mechanisms of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with the recurrent 22q11.2 deletion, a genetic risk factor for early-onset PD. METHODS: In a proof-of-principle study, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate sequence variants in nine adults with 22q11.2DS, three with neuropathologically confirmed early-onset PD and six without PD. Adopting an approach used recently to study schizophrenia in 22q11...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427946/is-an-early-age-at-illness-onset-in-schizophrenia-associated-with-increased-genetic-susceptibility-analysis-of-data-from-the-nationwide-danish-twin-register
#10
Rikke Hilker, Dorte Helenius, Birgitte Fagerlund, Axel Skytthe, Kaare Christensen, Thomas M Werge, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Early age at illness onset has been viewed as an important liability marker for schizophrenia, which may be associated with an increased genetic vulnerability. A twin approach can be valuable, because it allows for the investigation of specific illness markers in individuals with a shared genetic background. METHODS: We linked nationwide registers to identify a cohort of twin pairs born in Denmark from 1951 to 2000 (N=31,524 pairs), where one or both twins had a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419390/adolescent-stress-as-a-driving-factor-for-schizophrenia-development-a-basic-science-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Felipe V Gomes, Anthony A Grace
Schizophrenia has been associated with heightened stress responsivity in adolescence that precedes onset of psychosis. We now report that multiple stressors during adolescence in normal rats leads to deficits in adults analogous to that seen in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, impairment of stress control by lesion of the prelimbic prefontal cortex in adolescence caused previously subthreshold levels of stress to induce these deficit states when tested as adults. Thus, predisposition to stress hyper-responsivity, or exposure to substantial stressors, during adolescence can trigger a cascade of events that result in a schizophrenia-like profile in adults...
May 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401151/white-matter-integrity-in-genetic-high-risk-individuals-and-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-similarities-and-disassociations
#12
Yifang Zhou, Jie Liu, Naomi Driesen, Fay Womer, Kaiyuan Chen, Ye Wang, Xiaowei Jiang, Qian Zhou, Chuan Bai, Dahai Wang, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
White matter (WM) neuroimaging studies have shown varied findings at different stages of schizophrenia (SZ). Understanding these variations may elucidate distinct markers of genetic vulnerability and conversion to psychosis. To examine the similarities and differences in WM connectivity between those at-risk for and in early stages of SZ, a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study of 48 individuals diagnosed with first-episode SZ (FE-SZ), 37 nonpsychotic individuals at a high genetic risk of SZ (GHR-SZ), and 67 healthy controls (HC) was conducted...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395674/antipsychotic-treatment-resistance-in-first-episode-psychosis-prevalence-subtypes-and-predictors
#13
A Demjaha, J M Lappin, D Stahl, M X Patel, J H MacCabe, O D Howes, M Heslin, U A Reininghaus, K Donoghue, B Lomas, M Charalambides, A Onyejiaka, P Fearon, P Jones, G Doody, C Morgan, P Dazzan, R M Murray
BACKGROUND: We examined longitudinally the course and predictors of treatment resistance in a large cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients from initiation of antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that antipsychotic treatment resistance is: (a) present at illness onset; and (b) differentially associated with clinical and demographic factors. METHOD: The study sample comprised 323 FEP patients who were studied at first contact and at 10-year follow-up...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373685/early-neuromodulation-prevents-the-development-of-brain-and-behavioral-abnormalities-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia
#14
R Hadar, L Bikovski, M L Soto-Montenegro, J Schimke, P Maier, S Ewing, M Voget, F Wieske, T Götz, M Desco, C Hamani, J Pascau, I Weiner, C Winter
The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371072/can-lncrnas-be-indicators-for-the-diagnosis-of-early-onset-or-acute-schizophrenia-and-distinguish-major-depressive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-cross-validation-analysis
#15
Xuelian Cui, Wei Niu, Lingming Kong, Mingjun He, Kunhong Jiang, Shengdong Chen, Aifang Zhong, Wanshuai Li, Jim Lu, Liyi Zhang
Depression and anxiety are apparent symptoms in the early onset or acute phase of schizophrenia (SZ), which complicate timely diagnosis and treatment. It is imperative to seek an indicator to distinguish schizophrenia from depressive and anxiety disorders. Using lncRNA microarray profiling and RT-PCR, three up-regulated lncRNAs in SZ, six down-regulated lncRNAs in major depressive disorder (MDD), and three up-regulated lncRNAs in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) had been identified as potential biomarkers...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370311/diagnostic-clusters-associated-with-an-early-onset-schizophrenia-diagnosis-among-children-and-adolescents
#16
Jeanette M Jerrell, Roger S McIntyre, Chelsea B Deroche
OBJECTIVE: Given the greater severity and chronicity of psychiatric disorders that first declare in individuals under the age of 18, early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and its association with co-occurring psychiatric conditions deserve further investigation. METHODS: Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to examine the heterogeneity of children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia in 1 statewide system of care. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's (USA) Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical services between January, 1999 and December, 2013 to identify patients ≤17 years of age...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370310/pharmacotherapy-effectiveness-for-clinical-subgroups-among-children-and-adolescents-with-early-onset-schizophrenia
#17
Jeanette M Jerrell, Roger S McIntyre, Chelsea B Deroche
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies among children and adolescents diagnosed with early onset schizophrenia subgrouped according to their co-occurring psychiatric disorders. METHODS: A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's (USA) Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical services, between January, 1999 and December, 2013 to identify patients ≤17 years of age. Random effects regression analyses assessed differential changes in acute psychiatric service utilization over time across the 3 subgroups associated with antipsychotic, mood stabilizer, psychostimulant, or antidepressant pharmacotherapy...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369257/neuroimaging-and-clinical-features-in-adults-with-a-22q11-2-deletion-at-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Nancy J Butcher, Connie Marras, Margarita Pondal, Pablo Rusjan, Erik Boot, Leigh Christopher, Gabriela M Repetto, Rosemarie Fritsch, Eva W C Chow, Mario Masellis, Antonio P Strafella, Anthony E Lang, Anne S Bassett
The recurrent 22q11.2 deletion is a genetic risk factor for early-onset Parkinson's disease. Adults with the associated 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may exhibit phenotypes that could help identify those at highest risk and reveal disease trajectories. We investigated clinical and neuroimaging features relevant to Parkinson's disease in 26 adults: 13 with 22q11.2DS at genetic risk of Parkinson's disease (mean age = 41.5 years, standard deviation = 9.7), 12 healthy age and sex-matched controls, and a 22q11...
March 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353222/application-of-proteomic-techniques-for-improved-stratification-and-treatment-of-schizophrenia-patients
#19
Johann Steiner, Paul C Guest, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
For major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, there have been shortcomings in the translation of scientific findings into new treatments and this has led to diminished interest for large pharmaceutical companies. This chapter describes how incorporation of proteomic approaches into the clinical pipeline can lead to identification and implementation of biomarker tests for improved patient characterization, prediction of treatment response and monitoring treatment effects to help revitalize efforts in this important area...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351597/neuropsychology-of-subjects-with-ultra-high-risk-uhr-of-psychosis-a-critical-analysis-of-the-literature
#20
C Mam-Lam-Fook, C Danset-Alexandre, L Pedron, I Amado, R Gaillard, M-O Krebs
Cognitive disorders are currently considered as central components of disorders found in schizophrenia and are a major handicap for patients day to day. These disorders appear before the first psychotic episode, in the prodromal phase, during which time the symptoms are below the threshold for psychosis. People with these symptoms are considered as presenting an at-risk mental state (or at ultra-high risk, UHR of psychosis) and their risk for psychotic transition is between 20% and 40% within one year. Despite a number of studies, the chronology in which cognitive disorders appear in relation to the psychotic symptoms has not clearly been established and the study of the links between cognition and symptoms could improve our understanding of psychotic disorders...
March 25, 2017: L'Encéphale
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