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Ultra high risk

M Pruessner, L Bechard-Evans, S Pira, R Joober, D L Collins, J C Pruessner, A K Malla
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Anne H Calhoun
Unnecessary confusion still surrounds the use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in the setting of migraine with aura (MwA). Clearing this confusion is a key issue for headache specialists, since most women with migraine have menstrual-related migraine (MRM), and some CHCs can prevent this particularly severe migraine. Their use, however, is still restricted by current guidelines due to concerns of increased stroke risk - concerns that originated over half a century ago in the era of high dose contraceptives...
October 24, 2016: Headache
Tina Gupta, Steven M Silverstein, Jessica A Bernard, Brian P Keane, Thomas V Papathomas, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Derek J Dean, Raeana E Newberry, Ivanka Ristanovic, Vijay A Mittal
Patients with psychosis exhibit a reduced susceptibility to depth inversion illusions (DII) in which a physically concave surface is perceived as convex (e.g., the hollow mask illusion). Here, we examined the extent to which lessened susceptibility to DII characterized youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. In this study, 44 UHR participants and 29 healthy controls judged the apparent convexity of face-like human masks, two of which were concave and the other convex. One of the concave masks was painted with realistic texture to enhance the illusion; the other was shown without such texture...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nikolai Albert, Louise Birkedal Glenthøj, Marianne Melau, Heidi Jensen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Merete Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report that 20% to 30% of those initially diagnosed with schizotypal disorder go on to develop a psychotic disorder (predominantly schizophrenia). Schizotypal disorder share some traits of those used to identify patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis. METHOD: As part of a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of prolonged specialized early intervention, we recruited 83 participants diagnosed with a schizotypal disorder. Participants were recruited 18 months into their two-year treatment program, and follow-up interviews were conducted three and a half year later...
October 16, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Jonathan P Roiser, Gemma Modinos, Irina Falkenberg, Carly Samson, Philip McGuire, Paul Allen
Emotional processing dysfunction is widely reported in patients with chronic schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis (FEP), and has been linked to functional abnormalities of corticolimbic regions. However, corticolimbic dysfunction is less studied in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), particularly during processing prosodic voices. We examined corticolimbic response during an emotion recognition task in 18 UHR participants and compared them with 18 FEP patients and 21 healthy controls (HC). Emotional recognition accuracy and corticolimbic response were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using emotional dynamic facial and prosodic voice stimuli...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
October 15, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Zhen Zhao, Xu Gu, Xiaoou Su, Junguo Li, Jun Li, Yingchao Dong, Yujuan Yang, Ting Yao, Yuchang Qin
This study investigated the ractopamine (RAC) distribution and depletion process in goat plasma, urine and various muscle tissues which were associated with a potential risk for consumer health. The experiment was carried out in 21 goats (18 treated and 3 controls). Treated animals were administered orally a dose of 1 mg/kg body mass per day for 28 consecutive days and randomly sacrificed on Days 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the withdrawal period. RAC in goat samples was analyzed by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Erin Jo Tiedeken, Alexandre Tahar, Brendan McHugh, Neil J Rowan
Pollution of European receiving waters with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as with 17-beta-estradiol (a natural estrogenic hormone, E2), along with pharmaceutically-active compounds diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug, DCL) and 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (a synthetic estrogenic hormone, EE2)) is a ubiquitous phenomenon. These three CECs were added to the EU watch list of emerging substances to be monitoring in 2013, which was updated in 2015 to comprise 10 substances/groups of substances in the field of water policy...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Giuseppa Di Bella, Imen Haddaoui, Vincenzo Lo Turco, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Maria Rita Fede, Giacomo Dugo
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of beans as food, few works are conducted to control their contamination by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), compounds of highly importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by beans consumption a monitoring program was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Cali F Bartholomeusz, Vanessa L Cropley, Cassandra Wannan, Maria Di Biase, Patrick D McGorry, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. METHODS: A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Psychosis-Predictive Value of Self-Reported Schizotypy in a Clinical High-Risk Sample" by Rahel Flückiger, Stephan Ruhrmann, Martin Debbané, Chantal Michel, Daniela Hubl, Benno G. Schimmelmann, Joachim Klosterkötter and Frauke Schultze-Lutter (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 1, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Author Note. The affiliation of Daniela Hubl was incorrectly listed as "University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mona Abaoui, Michel Boutin, Pamela Lavoie, Christiane Auray-Blais
Fabry disease is a multisystemic, X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene, leading to α-galactosidase A deficiency and resulting in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in different tissues and biological fluids. Glycosphingolipid biomarkers, such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 ) isoforms, globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3 ) and related analogs, and galabiosylceramide (Ga2 ) isoforms and analogs, are found to be abnormally increased in urine and in plasma of Fabry patients and have the potential to be used as specific biomarkers of the disease...
October 11, 2016: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Ainara Gredilla, Kátia da Boit, Elba C Teixeira, Carlos H Sampaio, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Luis F O Silva
Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected...
October 6, 2016: Chemosphere
Maude Schneider, Marco Armando, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Martin Debbané, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Stephan Eliez
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by high rates of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia, making this condition a promising human model for studying risk factors for psychosis. We explored the predictive value of ultra high risk (UHR) criteria in a sample of patients with 22q11DS. We also examined the additional contribution of socio-demographic, clinical and cognitive variables to predict transition to psychosis within a mean interval of 32.5 ± 17.6 months after initial assessment...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Leonardo Mariño-Repizo, Raquel Gargantini, Humberto Manzano, Julio Raba, Soledad Cerutti
BACKGROUND: The assessment of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine is relevant for food safety and its continuous control allows to reduce the risk of intake. Thus, a novel sensitive QuEChERS-SPE (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe - Solid Phase Extraction) pretreatment prior to liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of OTA in red wine samples from different grape-growing regions in Argentine. RESULTS: A sensitive methodology was achieved, thus limits of detection and quantification were 0...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M Ladetto, C Buske, M Hutchings, M Dreyling, G Gaidano, S Le Gouill, S Luminari, C Pott, A Zamò, E Zucca
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommendations on critical subjects difficult to consider in detail in the ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. The following areas were identified: (i) the elderly patient, (ii) prognostic factors suitable for clinical use and (iii) the 'ultra-high-risk' group...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Sanne de Wit, Tim B Ziermans, M Nieuwenhuis, Patricia F Schothorst, Herman van Engeland, René S Kahn, Sarah Durston, Hugo G Schnack
An important focus of studies of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis has been to identify biomarkers to predict which individuals will transition to psychosis. However, the majority of individuals will prove to be resilient and go on to experience remission of their symptoms and function well. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using structural MRI measures collected in UHR adolescents at baseline to quantitatively predict their long-term clinical outcome and level of functioning...
October 4, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
A Schmidt, M Antoniades, P Allen, A Egerton, C A Chaddock, S Borgwardt, P Fusar-Poli, J P Roiser, O Howes, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: Impairments in the attribution of salience are thought to be fundamental to the development of psychotic symptoms and the onset of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore longitudinal alterations in salience processing in ultra-high-risk subjects for psychosis. METHOD: A total of 23 ultra-high-risk subjects and 13 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at two time points (mean interval of 17 months) while performing the Salience Attribution Test to assess neural responses to task-relevant (adaptive salience) and task-irrelevant (aberrant salience) stimulus features...
October 4, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Coskun U Oruc, Yunus E Akpinar, Shirkhan Amikishiyev, Ayse Kubat Uzum, Artur Salmaslioglu, Figen Gurdol, Beyhan Omer
OBJECTIVES: Recent research has shown that hypovitaminosis D may increase the risk of hypertension, vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is one of the key components of MetS which is associated with an imbalance between vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and endothelins (ET). In this study, we assessed the association of 25(OH) D3 level with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis in MetS patients...
October 2, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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