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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212173/prediction-of-conversion-to-psychosis-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a-brief-update-on-recent-developments
#1
Anita Riecher-Rössler, Erich Studerus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, only little more than one-third of individuals classified as being at-risk for psychosis have been shown to actually convert to frank psychosis during follow-up. There have therefore been enormous efforts to improve the accuracy of predicting this transition. We reviewed the most recent studies in the field with the aim to clarify whether accuracy of prediction has been improved by the different research endeavors and what could be done to further improve it, and/or what alternative goals research should pursue...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198437/increased-nutrient-availability-in-dense-breast-tissue-of-postmenopausal-women-in-vivo
#2
Annelie Abrahamsson, Anna Rzepecka, Charlotta Dabrosin
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Nutrient availability in the tissue microenvironment determines cellular events and may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. High mammographic density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Whether nutrient availability differs in normal breast tissues with various densities is unknown. Therefore we investigated whether breast tissues with various densities exhibited differences in nutrient availability. Healthy postmenopausal women from the regular mammographic screening program who had either predominantly fatty breast tissue (nondense), n = 18, or extremely dense breast tissue (dense), n = 20, were included...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194233/checkpoints-for-preliminary-identification-of-small-molecules-found-enriched-in-autophagosomes-and-activated-mast-cell-secretions-analyzed-by-comparative-uplc-ms-e
#3
Chad P Satori, Marzieh Ramezani, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Audrey F Meyer, Jose A Rodriguez-Navarro, Michelle M Kuhns, Thane H Taylor, Christy L Haynes, Joseph J Dalluge, Edgar A Arriaga
We report the use of ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) to explore small molecule compositions that are unique to either enriched-autophagosomes or secretions of chemically activated murine mast cells. Starting with thousands of features, each defined by a chromatographic retention time, m/z values and ion intensities, manual examination of the extracted ion chromatograms (XIC) of chemometrically selected features was essential to eliminate false positives, occurring at rates of 33, 14 and 37% in samples of three biological systems...
2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187217/electrophysiological-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles-of-at-risk-mental-state-the-longitudinal-minds-in-transition-mint-study
#4
Rebbekah J Atkinson, W Ross Fulham, Patricia T Michie, Philip B Ward, Juanita Todd, Helen Stain, Robyn Langdon, Renate Thienel, Georgie Paulik, Gavin Cooper, Ulrich Schall
The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178969/neuroblastoma-treatment-in-the-post-genomic-era
#5
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Esposito, Sanja Aveic, Anke Seydel, Gian Paolo Tonini
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy of early childhood originating from neural crest cells and showing heterogeneous biological, morphological, genetic and clinical characteristics. The correct stratification of neuroblastoma patients within risk groups (low, intermediate, high and ultra-high) is critical for the adequate treatment of the patients.High-throughput technologies in the Omics disciplines are leading to significant insights into the molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Nonetheless, further study of Omics data is necessary to better characterise neuroblastoma tumour biology...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168698/cannabis-use-and-symptom-severity-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#6
R Carney, J Cotter, J Firth, T Bradshaw, A R Yung
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis have higher rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) than non-UHR individuals and determine whether UHR cannabis users have more severe psychotic experiences than non-users. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting cannabis use in the UHR group and/or positive or negative symptoms among UHR cannabis users and non-users. Logit event rates were calculated for cannabis use, in addition to odds ratios to assess the difference between UHR and controls...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157215/identification-of-a-genetically-defined-ultra-high-risk-group-in-relapsed-pediatric-t-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#7
P Richter-Pechańska, J B Kunz, J Hof, M Zimmermann, T Rausch, O R Bandapalli, E Orlova, G Scapinello, J C Sagi, M Stanulla, M Schrappe, G Cario, R Kirschner-Schwabe, C Eckert, V Benes, J O Korbel, M U Muckenthaler, A E Kulozik
In the search for genes that define critical steps of relapse in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and can serve as prognostic markers, we performed targeted sequencing of 313 leukemia-related genes in 214 patients: 67 samples collected at the time of relapse and 147 at initial diagnosis. As relapse-specific genetic events, we identified activating mutations in NT5C2 (P=0.0001, Fisher's exact test), inactivation of TP53 (P=0.0007, Fisher's exact test) and duplication of chr17:q11.2-24.3 (P=0...
February 3, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139055/associations-between-neurodevelopmental-genes-neuroanatomy-and-ultra-high-risk-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#8
Carlie A Thompson, Jason Karelis, Frank A Middleton, Karen Gentile, Ioana L Coman, Petya D Radoeva, Rashi Mehta, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Stephen V Faraone, Wendy R Kates
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder resulting in the deletion of over 40 genes. Up to 40% of individuals with 22q11.2DS develop schizophrenia, though little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that allelic variation in functional polymorphisms in seven genes unique to the deleted region would affect lobar brain volumes, which would predict risk for psychosis in youth with 22q11.2DS. Participants included 56 individuals (30 males) with 22q11.2DS. Anatomic MR images were collected and processed using Freesurfer...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129494/neuropsychological-test-performance-to-enhance-identification-of-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-to-be-most-promising-for-predictive-algorithms-for-conversion-to-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#9
Marta Hauser, Jian-Ping Zhang, Eva M Sheridan, Katherine E Burdick, Rachel Mogil, John M Kane, Andrea Auther, Ricardo E Carrión, Barbara A Cornblatt, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological performance in people at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR), healthy controls (HCs), or subjects with first-episode psychosis (FEP). DATA SOURCES: Systematic PubMed/MEDLINE search through January 2014, without language restrictions, using search terms prodrome OR clinical high-risk OR ultra-high risk AND cognition OR individual test names. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting neuropsychological data in CHR versus a HC or FEP groups or comparing CHR subjects who converted to psychosis (CHR-P) with CHR subjects who did not convert to psychosis (CHR-NP)...
2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126360/effects-of-omega-3-pufa-on-immune-markers-in-adolescent-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-vienna-omega-3-study
#10
Stefan Smesny, Berko Milleit, Miriam R Schaefer, Jana Hesse, Monika Schlögelhofer, Kerstin Langbein, Uta-Christina Hipler, Maximus Berger, David R Cotter, Heinrich Sauer, Patrick D McGorry, G Paul Amminger
Alterations of immune function have been reported in ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis patients causing expectations in terms of predictive meaningfulness and benefits of anti-inflammatory agents. According to a RCT in UHR-patients supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was effective in reducing transition to psychosis risk and to improve symptomatology. Based on preclinical findings, we now investigated state marker properties of and the influence of PUFA on immune markers in a RCT (clinical trials...
January 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117104/are-current-labeling-terms-suitable-for-people-who-are-at-risk-of-psychosis
#11
Sung-Wan Kim, Andrea Polari, Fritha Melville, Bridget Moller, Jae-Min Kim, Paul Amminger, Helen Herrman, Patrick McGorry, Barnaby Nelson
Inclusion of 'attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS)' in the DSM-5 has been hotly debated because of the concern about stigmatising young patients with a 'psychosis risk' label. This study aimed to investigate whether current labeling terms such as 'at risk mental state', 'ultra-high risk' (UHR) and 'APS' are suitable for people who are at risk of psychosis. This study included 105 subjects (55 patients aged 15-25years who used an early interventional service to prevent psychosis and 50 professionals who worked with them)...
January 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109917/assessment-of-collagen-quality-associated-with-non-enzymatic-cross-links-in-human-bone-using-fourier-transform-infrared-imaging
#12
F N Schmidt, E A Zimmermann, G M Campbell, G E Sroga, K Püschel, M Amling, S Y Tang, D Vashishth, B Busse
Aging and many disease conditions, most notably diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic cross-links in the bone matrix. The non-enzymatic cross-links, also known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), occur at the collagen tissue level, where they are associated with reduced plasticity and increased fracture risk. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was used to detect spectroscopic changes associated with the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone collagen...
January 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103519/do-cognitive-schema-mediate-the-association-between-childhood-trauma-and-being-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#13
E Appiah-Kusi, H L Fisher, N Petros, R Wilson, V Mondelli, P A Garety, P Mcguire, S Bhattacharyya
Exposure to childhood trauma has been associated with psychotic symptoms, being at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Negative self-beliefs have been shown to partially mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and paranoia and have been shown to be characteristic of patients with psychosis. However, whether the association between childhood trauma and being at high risk of developing psychosis (e.g., UHR) and paranoia symptoms is mediated by altered cognitive schema is unknown and warrants investigation to inform preventive interventions...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095334/predictors-and-mediators-of-trait-anger-across-the-psychosis-continuum-the-role-of-attachment-style-paranoia-and-social-cognition
#14
Hannah Darrell-Berry, Sandra Bucci, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Richard Emsley, Richard Drake, Katherine Berry
Anger in the context of psychosis has a significant impact on treatment outcomes and serious implications for risk management. Understanding mechanisms underlying anger will improve interventions and inform strategies for prevention. This study is the first to examine the relationships between anger and key theoretical drivers across different phases of the psychosis continuum. A battery including measures of theory of mind, attachment, hostile attribution bias, paranoia and anger was administered to 174 participants (14 ultra-high risk, 20 first-episode, 20 established psychosis, 120 non-clinical participants)...
January 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087371/use-of-the-heart-pathway-with-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponins-a-secondary-analysis
#15
Simon A Mahler, Jason P Stopyra, Fred S Apple, Robert F Riley, Gregory B Russell, Brian C Hiestand, James W Hoekstra, Cedric W Lefebvre, Bret A Nicks, David M Cline, Kim L Askew, David M Herrington, Gregory L Burke, Chadwick D Miller
OBJECTIVES: The HEART Pathway combines a decision aid and serial contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measures to achieve >99% sensitivity for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30days and early discharge rates >20%. However, the impact of integrating high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) measures into the HEART Pathway has yet to be determined. In this analysis we compare test characteristics of the HEART Pathway using hs-cTnI, hs-cTnT, or cTnI. DESIGN & METHODS: A secondary analysis of participants enrolled in the HEART Pathway RCT was conducted...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079061/progressive-decline-in-hippocampal-ca1-volume-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-who-do-not-remit-findings-from-the-longitudinal-youth-at-risk-study
#16
New Fei Ho, Daphne J Holt, Mike Cheung, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Alex Goh, Mingyuan Wang, Joseph Kw Lim, Joshua de Souza, Joann S Poh, Yuen Mei See, Alison R Adcock, Stephen J Wood, Michael Wl Chee, Jimmy Lee, Juan Zhou
Most individuals identified as ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis do not develop frank psychosis. They continue to exhibit subthreshold symptoms, or go on to fully remit. Prior work has shown that the volume of CA1, a subfield of the hippocampus, is selectively reduced in the early stages of schizophrenia. Here we aimed to determine whether patterns of volume change of CA1 are different in UHR individuals who do or do not achieve symptomatic remission. Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at 1-2 follow-up time points (at 12-month intervals) from 147 UHR and healthy control subjects...
February 1, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074977/-association-of-c-reactive-protein-levels-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-adults-a-population-based-study
#17
Patricia Bustos, Bernardita Rosas, Pablo Román, Juan Villagrán, Hugo Amigo
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among adults in Chile and represents a health risk. AIM: To determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with C reactive protein levels (CRP) as an inflammation marker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The population studied consisted of 736 individuals born in a hospital from Valparaíso Region, aged between 32-38 years at the time of the study. MetS was identified according to the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines and inflammation was measured using ultra-sensitive CRP...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068468/aggregation-kinetics-and-self-assembly-mechanisms-of-graphene-quantum-dots-in-aqueous-solutions-cooperative-effects-of-ph-and-electrolytes
#18
Qingqing Li, Baoliang Chen, Baoshan Xing
The cooperative effects of pH and electrolytes on the aggregation of GQDs and the aggregate morphologies are characterized. Because GQDs have an average size of 9 nm with abundant O-functionalized edges, their suspension was very stable even in a high electrolyte concentration and low pH solution. Divalent cations (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) excelled at aggregating the GQD nanoplates, while monovalent cations (Na(+) and K(+)) did not disturb the stability. For Na(+) and K(+), positive linear correlations were observed between the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) and pH levels...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058584/pyrethroid-insecticide-lambda-cyhalothrin-and-its-metabolites-induce-liver-injury-through-the-activation-of-oxidative-stress-and-proinflammatory-gene-expression-in-rats-following-acute-and-subchronic-exposure
#19
Bakhta Aouey, Mohamed Derbali, Yassine Chtourou, Michèle Bouchard, Abdelmajid Khabir, Hamadi Fetoui
Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) [α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propanecarboxylate] is a synthetic type II pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural areas. The potential hepatotoxicity of pyrethroids remains unclear and could easily be assessed by measuring common clinical indicators of liver disease. To understand more about the potential risks for humans associated with LTC exposure, male adult rats were orally exposed to 6.2 and 31.1 mg/kg bw of LTC for 7, 30, 45, and 60 days...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054132/course-of-clinical-high-risk-states-for-psychosis-beyond-conversion
#20
Chantal Michel, Stephan Ruhrmann, Benno G Schimmelmann, Joachim Klosterkötter, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
BACKGROUND: The main focus of research on clinical high-risk states for psychosis (CHR) has been the development of algorithms to predict psychosis. Consequently, other outcomes have been neglected, and little is known about the long-term diagnostic and functional outcome among those not converting to psychosis. METHODS: In a naturalistic study, incidence, persistence, and remission rates of CHR states according to symptomatic ultra-high risk or cognitive disturbances criteria were investigated in 160 of 246 outpatients of an early detection of psychoses service (21...
January 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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