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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042668/signalling-mechanisms-in-paf-induced-intestinal-failure
#1
Ingmar Lautenschläger, Yuk Lung Wong, Jürgen Sarau, Torsten Goldmann, Karina Zitta, Martin Albrecht, Inéz Frerichs, Norbert Weiler, Stefan Uhlig
Capillary leakage syndrome, vasomotor disturbances and gut atony are common clinical problems in intensive care medicine. Various inflammatory mediators and signalling pathways are involved in these pathophysiological alterations among them platelet-activating factor (PAF). The related signalling mechanisms of the PAF-induced dysfunctions are only poorly understood. Here we used the model of the isolated perfused rat small intestine to analyse the role of calcium (using calcium deprivation, IP-receptor blockade (2-APB)), cAMP (PDE-inhibition plus AC activator), myosin light chain kinase (inhibitor ML-7) and Rho-kinase (inhibitor Y27632) in the following PAF-induced malfunctions: vasoconstriction, capillary and mucosal leakage, oedema formation, malabsorption and atony...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042424/angiotensin-ii-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-sacubitril-valsartan-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#2
Takunori Seki, Kenichi Goto, Yasuo Kansui, Toshio Ohtsubo, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Takanari Kitazono
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that antihypertensive treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors restores the impaired endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Herein, we investigated whether the angiotensin II receptor-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) would improve reduced EDH-mediated responses and whether LCZ696 would exert additional effects on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation compared with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker alone during hypertension...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039146/estrogen-based-hormone-therapy-in-women-with-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-a-systematic-review
#3
Nydia Burgos, Dahima Cintron, Paula Latortue-Albino, Valentina Serrano, Rene Rodriguez Gutierrez, Stephanie Faubion, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Patricia J Erwin, Mohammad Hassan Murad
PURPOSE: Sex hormones play a role in bone density, cardiovascular health, and wellbeing throughout reproductive lifespan. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) have lower estrogen levels requiring hormone therapy (HT) to manage symptoms and to protect against adverse long-term health outcomes. Yet, the effectiveness of HT in preventing adverse outcomes has not been systematically assessed. We summarize the evidence regarding effects of HT on bone and cardiovascular health in women with POI...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032136/a-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-efficacy%C3%A2-and-safety-of-the-oral-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-the-victoria-trial
#4
REVIEW
Paul W Armstrong, Lothar Roessig, Mahesh J Patel, Kevin J Anstrom, Javed Butler, Adriaan A Voors, Carolyn S P Lam, Piotr Ponikowski, Tracy Temple, Burkert Pieske, Justin Ezekowitz, Adrian F Hernandez, Joerg Koglin, Christopher M O'Connor
This trial sought to evaluate whether vericiguat, a novel oral soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, was superior to placebo, on a background of standard of care, in increasing the time to the first occurrence of the composite endpoints of cardiovascular (CV) death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Deficiency in sGC-derived cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) causes both myocardial dysfunction and impaired endothelium-dependent vasomotor regulation that includes the myocardial microcirculation...
October 4, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030424/stable-coronary-syndromes-pathophysiology-diagnostic-advances-and-therapeutic-need
#5
REVIEW
Thomas J Ford, David Corcoran, Colin Berry
The diagnostic management of patients with angina pectoris typically centres on the detection of obstructive epicardial CAD, which aligns with evidence-based treatment options that include medical therapy and myocardial revascularisation. This clinical paradigm fails to account for the considerable proportion (approximately one-third) of patients with angina in whom obstructive CAD is excluded. This common scenario presents a diagnostic conundrum whereby angina occurs but there is no obstructive CAD (ischaemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease-INOCA)...
October 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027807/annals-express-biochemistry-of-the-menopause
#6
John W Honour
The life of a human female is characterised from teenage years by monthly menstruation which ceases (the menopause) typically between the age of 40 and 60 years. The potential for reproduction declines and ceases as the ovaries become depleted of follicles. A transition period in mid-life, for 2 to 10 years, when menstruation is less regular is called the peri-menopause. The menopause is associated with a significant decline in plasma concentrations of sex hormones, an increase in the concentrations of the gonadotrophins and changes in other hormones such as the inhibins...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026001/understanding-a-role-for-hypoxia-in-lesion-formation-and-location-in-the-deep-and-periventricular-white-matter-in-small-vessel-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Santiago Martinez Sosa, Kenneth J Smith
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020717/ulnar-nerve-injury-on-removal-of-a-contraceptive-implant
#8
Eva E O'Grady, Dominic M Power
The close proximity of contraceptive implant placement to the course of the ulnar nerve can result in injury. Several factors have been implicated in this complication including: low BMI, erroneous placement of the implant, implantation over the brachial groove, and migration of the implant from its original insertion. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the vulnerable neurovascular structures in the area and refer promptly to a specialist if any neurological symptoms develop during placement or removal of these devices...
December 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018924/rapid-volumetric-photoacoustic-tomographic-imaging-with-a-fabry-perot-ultrasound-sensor-depicts-peripheral-arteries-and-microvascular-vasomotor-responses-to-thermal-stimuli
#9
Andrew A Plumb, Nam Trung Huynh, Jamie Guggenheim, Edward Zhang, Paul Beard
PURPOSE: To determine if a new photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system successfully depicts (1) peripheral arteries and (2) microvascular circulatory changes in response to thermal stimuli. METHODS: Following ethical permission, 8 consenting subjects underwent PAI of the dorsalis pedis (DP) artery, and 13 completed PAI of the index fingertip. Finger images were obtained after immersion in warm (30-35 °C) or cold (10-15 °C) water to promote vasodilation or vasoconstriction...
October 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994639/migraine-menopause-and-hormone-replacement-therapy
#10
E Anne MacGregor
Perimenopause marks a period of increased migraine prevalence in women and many women also report troublesome vasomotor symptoms. Migraine is affected by fluctuating estrogen levels with evidence to support estrogen 'withdrawal' as a trigger of menstrual attacks of migraine without aura, while high estrogen levels can trigger migraine aura. Maintaining a stable estrogen environment with estrogen replacement can benefit estrogen-withdrawal migraine particularly in women who would also benefit from relief of vasomotor symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Post Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991052/somatostatin-2-receptor-activation-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-does-not-mediate-the-decompensatory-phase-of-haemorrhage
#11
Phillip Bokiniec, Peter Gr Burke, Anita J Turner, Simon McMullan, Ann K Goodchild
Decompensation, a critical phase in the response to haemorrhage, is characterized by profound sympathoinhibition and the overriding of baroreflex mediated compensation. As sympathoexcitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintain vasomotor tone and are essential for sympathetic baroreceptor reflex function, the RVLM is the likely mediator. However, how decompensation occurs is a mystery. Our previous work demonstrated that the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin (SST), evokes potent sympathoinhibition (1)...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984162/acid-base-regulation-and-sensing-accelerators-and-brakes-in-metabolic-regulation-of-cerebrovascular-tone
#12
Ebbe Boedtkjer
Metabolic regulation of cerebrovascular tone directs blood flow to areas of increased neuronal activity and during disease states partially compensates for insufficient perfusion by enhancing blood flow in collateral blood vessels. Acid-base disturbances frequently occur as result of enhanced metabolism or insufficient blood supply, but despite definitive evidence that acid-base disturbances alter arterial tone, effects of individual acid-base equivalents and the underlying signaling mechanisms are still being debated...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983729/increased-casr-and-trpc6-pulmonary-vascular-expression-in-the-nitrofen-induced-model-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#13
Hiroki Nakamura, Julia Zimmer, Tristan Lim, Prem Puri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The high morbidity and mortality rates in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are attributed primarily to severe lung hypoplasia and/or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH). PPH in CDH is characterized by abnormal vascular remodeling with thickening of medial and adventitial layers and extension of smooth muscle into previously nonmuscularized arteries. Excessive proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is an important contributor to the concentric pulmonary arterial remodeling...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983659/cardiac-and-peripheral-vasomotor-autonomic-functions-in-late-onset-transthyretin-val30met-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy
#14
Haruki Koike, Tomohiko Nakamura, Atsushi Hashizume, Ryoji Nishi, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
The objective of this study was to systematically investigate cardiac and peripheral vasomotor autonomic functions in late-onset transthyretin Val30Met familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP ATTR Val30Met) patients from non-endemic areas. The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVR-R), responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt test with impedance cardiography, noradrenaline infusion test, and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy were assessed in eight patients. Although only four patients manifested orthostatic hypotension during the head-up tilt test, CVR-R, responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, and myocardial MIBG uptake indicated a higher prevalence of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982669/targeting-cx40-connexin-40-expression-or-function-reduces-angiogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-retina
#15
Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Florent Allagnat, Lauriane Hamard, Loïc Le Gal, Paolo Meda, Denise Nardelli Haefliger, Elisabeth Génot, Florian Alonso
OBJECTIVE: Cx40 (connexin 40) forms intercellular channels that coordinate the electric conduction in the heart and the vasomotor tone in large vessels. The protein was shown to regulate tumoral angiogenesis; however, whether Cx40 also contributes to physiological angiogenesis is still unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we show that Cx40 contributes to physiological angiogenesis. Genetic deletion of Cx40 leads to a reduction in vascular growth and capillary density in the neovascularization model of the mouse neonatal retina...
October 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982486/weight-gain-in-women-at-midlife-a-concise-review-of-the-pathophysiology-and-strategies-for-management
#16
REVIEW
Ekta Kapoor, Maria L Collazo-Clavell, Stephanie S Faubion
Weight gain accompanied by an increased tendency for central fat distribution is common among women in midlife. These changes are a result of aging, decreasing estrogen levels after menopause, and other unique influences in menopausal women that interfere with the adoption of healthy lifestyle measures. Central obesity, in particular, results in several adverse metabolic consequences, including dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Given that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, the importance of weight management in midlife cannot be overemphasized...
October 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982333/cerebral-artery-vasoconstriction-is-endothelin-1-dependent-requiring-neurogenic-and-adrenergic-crosstalk
#17
Roel H L Haeren, Sieuwke A Hartmans, Jo De Mey, Govert Hoogland, Jim Dings, Olaf E M G Schijns, Sander M J van Kuijk, Kim Rijkers, Paul Schiffers, Koo J van Overbeeke
BACKGROUND: The regulation of cerebral arterial vasomotor tone involves several mechanisms. The role of sympathetic nerves and the adrenergic neurotransmitter, noradrenaline (NA), has been subject of debate for decades. Moreover, the specific role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cerebral arterial vasoconstriction has not been elucidated to date. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of NA and ET-1 to cerebral artery vasoconstriction. METHODS: Arterial responses of rat middle cerebral arteries, and human pial cerebral arteries to cumulative concentrations of NA and ET-1, and to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were evaluated...
October 5, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980489/fsh-to-estradiol-ratio-can-be-used-as-screening-method-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
A Hestiantoro, M Wiwie, A Shadrina, N Ibrahim, J S Purba
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of anthropometric measurement, menopausal symptoms and biochemical marker changes as screening methods for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in postmenopausal women Methods: A cross-sectional study included 282 postmenopausal women in Jakarta, further classified into two groups, with and without MCI. Some related variables such as age, body mass index (BMI), duration of menopause, vasomotor symptoms, hormone levels such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, leptin, estradiol, and cognitive status, were assessed and analyzed...
October 5, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977533/altered-nocturnal-cardiovascular-control-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#19
Fatima El-Hamad, Sarah Immanuel, Xiao Liu, Yvonne Pamula, Anna Kontos, James Martin, Declan Kennedy, Mark Kohler, Alberto Porta, Mathias Baumert
Study objectives: To assess cardiovascular control during sleep in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and the effect of adenotonsillectomy in comparison to healthy nonsnoring children. Methods: Cardiorespiratory signals obtained from overnight polysomnographic recordings of 28 children with SDB and 34 healthy nonsnoring children were analyzed. We employed an autoregressive closed-loop model with heart period (RR) and pulse transit time (PTT) as outputs and respiration as an external input to obtain estimates of respiratory gain and baroreflex gain...
July 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972129/camkii-regulates-synaptic-nmda-receptor-activity-of-hypothalamic-presympathetic-neurons-and-sympathetic-outflow-in-hypertension
#20
De-Pei Li, Jing-Jing Zhou, Jixiang Zhang, Hui-Lin Pan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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