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Seung Kyum Kim, Joshua J Avila, Michael P Massett
Understanding the genetic influence on vascular reactivity is important for identifying genes underlying impaired vascular function. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic contribution to intrinsic vascular function and to identify loci associated with phenotypic variation in vascular reactivity in mice. Concentration response curves to phenylephrine (PE), potassium chloride (KCl), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were generated in aortic rings from male mice (12-wk old) from 27 inbred mouse strains...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Joseph E Cruz, Zachariah Thomas, David Lee, David M Moskowitz, Jeff Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Generic price inflation has resulted in rising acquisition costs for sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an agent historically described as the drug of choice for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. PURPOSE: To describe the implementation and cost avoidance achieved by utilizing clevidipine as an alternative to SNP in cardiac surgery patients at a 520-bed community teaching hospital that performs more than 300 cardiac surgeries each year...
October 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Suellen C Coelho, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Stefan Offermanns, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) regulation by endothelin (ET)-1 produced by endothelial cells are complex and remain unclear. Recently, we developed a transgenic mouse with tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpression (ieET-1) using Cre/loxP technology. ieET-1 mice exhibited a BP increase after three weeks of induction in an ET type A receptor-dependent manner, in absence of evident vascular injury. It is unknown whether long-term exposure to ET-1 overexpression results in persistent BP elevation and vascular injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francisco J Rios, Katie Y Hood, A Karvey, Karla B Neves, Panagiota Anyfanti, Ryszard Nosalski, Livia L Camargo Ll, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: TRPM7 is cation channel with intrinsic kinase activity important for cellular Mg homeostasis. We recently showed that TRPM7-kinase plays a role in aldosterone-mediated vascular effects and inflammation. Here we explored the putative role of TRPM7-kinase in cardiac fibrosis and vascular function in aldosterone-induced hypertension in mice. DESIGN AND METHOD: Wild-type (WT) or heterozygote TRPM7-kinase domain (TRPM7+/-) mice were treated with infused aldosterone (600 μg/Kg/day) and NaCl 1% in drinking water (aldo/salt) for 4 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Sofiane Ouerd, Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Michelle Trindade, Suellen C Coelho, Karin A Jandeleit-Dahm, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of type-1 diabetes remains poor and is primarily related to the increased risk of vascular complications. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase (NOX) is believed to play an important role in diabetes-related vascular injury. NOX1 may play a role in the macrovascular disease, whereas NOX4 may have protective actions. Nevertheless, their role in diabetic microangiopathy is less well understood. We hypothesized that deletion of Nox1 would prevent diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling of small arteries whereas Nox4 would exaggerate vascular injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michal Behuliak, Michal Bencze, Anna Vavrinova, Ivana Vaneckova, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play an important role in two major abnormalities observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) - hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhanced Ca influx to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). α2δ subunit of VDCC, which promotes surface trafficking and modulates the biophysical properties of VDCC, was identified as a critical component of increased L-type VDCC calcium currents in arterial myocytes of SHR. On the other hand, N-type VDCCs control a neurotransmitter release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and play an important role in sympathetic hyperactivity in SHR...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nadine Lilla, Jasmin Hartmann, Stefan Koehler, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Thomas Westermaier
A lack of nitric oxide (NO) may be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of an acute decrease of cerebral blood flow (CBF) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with an NO-donor can improve CBF and offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH by the endovascular filament model and treated with 1.5μg/kg/min of intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or vehicle (n=10) starting 15min after induction of SAH until 180min thereafter...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Charlotte Iacobaeus, Ellika Andolf, Malin Thorsell, Katarina Bremme, Gun JÖrneskog, Eva Östlund, Thomas Kahan
OBJECTIVE: To examine alterations in maternal vascular structure and function during normal pregnancy. METHODS: We assessed brachial and central blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (by pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry), common carotid artery structure (by ultrasonography), and endothelial function in the brachial artery (by post-ischemic hyperemia induced flow mediated vasodilation and glyceryl nitrate) and in the forearm skin microcirculation (by laser Doppler perfusion imaging during iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside) in 52 healthy primiparous women at 14, 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, and nine months post partum...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rajendran Senthil Kumar, Chin-Hui Shen, Pei-Yin Wu, Subbiah Suresh Kumar, Moda Sang Hua, Kai-Wun Yeh
In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, 'pseudobulb with inflorescent bud' (PIB) and 'pseudobulb with axillary bud' (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jessica L Hurtubise, Wendie N Marks, Don A Davies, Jillian K Catton, Glen B Baker, John G Howland
RATIONALE: The cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia are not consistently alleviated by conventional antipsychotics. Following a recent pilot study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been identified as a promising adjunct treatment to reduce the working memory impairments experienced by schizophrenia patients. OBJECTIVE: The present experiments were designed to explore the effects of SNP on the highly translatable trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task in rats with and without acute MK-801 treatment...
October 10, 2016: Psychopharmacology
S A Coavoy-Sánchez, L Rodrigues, S A Teixeira, A G Soares, R Torregrossa, M E Wood, M Whiteman, S K P Costa, M N Muscará
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been highlighted as an endogenous signaling molecule and we have previously found that it can inhibit histamine-mediated itching. Pruritus is the most common symptom of cutaneous diseases and anti-histamines are the usual treatment; however, anti-histamine-resistant pruritus is common in some clinical settings. In this way, the involvement of mediators other than histamine in the context of pruritus requires new therapeutic targets. Considering that the activation of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is involved in pruritus both in rodents and humans, in this study we investigated the effect of H2S donors on the acute scratching behavior mediated by PAR-2 activation in mice, as well as some of the possible pharmacological mechanisms involved...
October 6, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Rachel M McQuade, Simona E Carbone, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ahmed Rahman, Rachel M Gwynne, Ainsley M Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Joel C Bornstein, Kulmira Nurgali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug used as a first-line therapy for colorectal cancer. However, its use is associated with severe gastrointestinal side-effects resulting in dose limitations and/or cessation of treatment. In this study, we tested whether oxidative stress, caused by chronic oxaliplatin treatment, induces enteric neuronal damage and colonic dysmotility EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg/d) was administered in vivo to Balb/c mice intraperitoneally three times a week...
October 7, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Andrea A E Méndez, Liliana B Pena, María P Benavides, Susana M Gallego
In the present study we evaluated the pre-treatment (priming) of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO-donor, as an interesting approach for improving plant tolerance to cadmium stress. We focused on the cell redox balance and on the methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSR) family as a key component of such response. MSR catalyse the reversible oxidation of MetSO residues back to Met. Five MSRA genes and nine MSRB genes have been identified in A. thaliana, coding for proteins with different subcellular locations...
October 1, 2016: Biochimie
Wafaa A Hewedy, Dalia K Mostafa
BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity is a challenging problem complicating its chronic use in a large array of autoimmune diseases, as well as in organ transplantation. A considerable body of evidence points to the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and its endogenous synthesis inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), in CsA-induced renal and cardiovascular adverse effects. In this study, the potential of the third generation β-blocker, nebivolol, to modify the NO/ADMA system is hypothesized to play a role in protection against CsA-induced renal injury and endothelial dysfunction...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Debrabata Chanda, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Arjun Singh, Hina Iqbal, Pankaj Yadav, Vladimir Snetkov, Philip I Aaronson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glabridin is a major flavonoid in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) root, a traditional Asian medicine. Glabridin is reported to have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nephritic properties; however its effects on vascular tone remain unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We examined the effect of glabridin on rat main mesenteric artery using isometric myography and also ELISA to measure cGMP levels. KEY RESULTS: Glabridin (30μM) relaxed arteries pre-constricted with the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (0...
September 26, 2016: Life Sciences
Melanie Wittwer, Yann York Chow, Gus Dekker, Vicki Clifton, Margaret Arstall
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder characterised by endothelial and microvascular dysfunction that develops in ∼10% of pregnancies. This study will characterise skin microvascular reactivity using laser Doppler flowmetry in women with preeclampsia compared to matched controls during pregnancy and early postpartum. METHODS: Women were recruited and studied on the diagnosis of preeclampsia and followed up for 6-months during postpartum period. Controls were matched for age, gestation and comorbidities...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Charlotte Iacobaeus, Ellika Andolf, Katarina Bremme, Gun Jörneskog, Eva Östlund, Malin Thorsell, Thomas Khan
AIM: This study aimed to examine alterations in maternal endothelial function during normal pregnancy. METHODS: We assessed endothelial function in the brachial artery (by post-ischemic hyperemia-induced flow-mediated vasodilation and glyceryl nitrate) and in the forearm skin microcirculation (by laser Doppler perfusion imaging and iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) in 53 healthy primiparous women at 14, 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, and nine months post-partum (non-pregnant state)...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Javier Palacios, Fredi Cifuentes, Jaime A Valderrama, Julio Benites, David Ríos, Constanza González, Mario Chiong, Benjamín Cartes-Saavedra, Carlos Lafourcade, Ursula Wyneken, Pamela González, Gareth I Owen, Fabián Pardo, Luis Sobrevia, Pedro Buc Calderon
The vascular endothelium plays an essential role in the control of the blood flow. Pharmacological agents like quinone (menadione) at various doses modulate this process in a variety of ways. In this study, Q7, a 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, significantly increased oxidative stress and induced vascular dysfunction at concentrations that were not cytotoxic to endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. Q7 reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels and endothelial vasodilation to acetylcholine in rat aorta...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Caitlin A Dow, Grace M Lincenberg, Jared J Greiner, Brian L Stauffer, Christopher A DeSouza
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) typically presents with obesity; however, obesity is not a requisite characteristic for MetS classification and related vascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that MetS, independent of excess adiposity, is associated with impaired endothelial vasodilator dysfunction. Thirty-two sedentary, middle-aged adults were studied: 11 normal weight (9 male and 2 female; body mass index (BMI), 24.0 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)); 11 normal weight with MetS (9 male and 2 female; BMI, 24.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)); and 10 obese without MetS (8 male and 2 female; BMI, 31...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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