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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724607/renal-hemodynamic-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-are-mediated-by-nitric-oxide-but-not-prostaglandin
#1
Scott Culver Thomson, Ali Kashkouli, Zhi Zhao Liu, Prabhleen Singh
The incretin hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is known for responding to dietary fat and carbohydrate. It elicits effects on pancreas, gut, and brain to stabilize blood glucose levels. We have previously reported that the GLP-1 agonist, exenatide, vasodilates the kidney and suppresses proximal reabsorption. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the renal effects of exenatide are mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and/or prostaglandins. Inulin clearance (GFR) and urine flow rate (UV) were measured in anesthetized rats before and during exenatide infusion (1 nmol/h iv)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719807/evaluation-of-a-novel-radiotracer-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Alan A Wilson, Oleg Sadovski, José N Nobrega, Roger J Raymond, Francis R Bambico, Mina G Nashed, Armando Garcia, Peter M Bloomfield, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Junchao Tong
INTRODUCTION: Few, if any, radiotracers are available for the in vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system. ROS play a critical role in normal cell processes such as signaling and homeostasis but overproduction of ROS is implicated in several disorders. We describe here the radiosynthesis and initial ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]hydromethidine ([(11)C]HM) as a radiotracer to image ROS using positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: [(11)C]HM and its deuterated isotopologue [(11)C](4) were produced using [(11)C]methyl triflate in a one-pot, two-step reaction and purified by high performance liquid chromatography...
June 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717838/the-triterpenoid-alpha-beta-amyrin-prevents-the-impaired-aortic-vascular-reactivity-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#3
Flávia Almeida Santos, Karine Maria Martins Bezerra Carvalho, Francisco José Batista-Lima, Paulo Iury Gomes Nunes, Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio Viana, Armenio André de Carvalho Almeida da Silva, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Mariana Helena Chaves, Vietla Satyanarayana Rao, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Teresinha Silva de Brito
To characterize the protective effects of the triterpenoid mixture alpha, beta-amyrin (AMY, 20 mg/kg, during 15 days) on the reactivity of isolated aorta of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male Swiss mice were fed with HFD or normal diet (ND) for 15 weeks. Contractions of thoracic aorta in response to KCl or phenylephrine (PHE) and relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were analyzed. HFD-fed mice developed hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and significant body weight gain, parameters prevented by AMY treatment...
July 17, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716819/effect-of-type-2-diabetes-surgical-incision-and-volatile-anesthesia-on-hemodynamics-in-the-rat
#4
Carol T Bussey, Regis R Lamberts
Diabetic patients have increased cardiac complications during surgery, possibly due to impaired autonomic regulation. Anesthesia lowers blood pressure and heart rate (HR), whereas surgical intervention has opposing effects. The interaction of anesthesia and surgical intervention on hemodynamics in diabetes is unknown, despite being a potential perioperative risk factor. We aimed to determine the effect of diabetes on the integrative interaction between hemodynamics, anesthesia, and surgical incision. Zucker type 2 diabetic rats (DM) and their nondiabetic littermates (ND) were implanted with an intravenous port for drug delivery, and a radiotelemeter to measure mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and derive HR (total n = 50)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715066/comparison-of-phenoxybenzamine-and-doxazosin-in-perioperative-management-of-patients-with-pheochromocytoma
#5
Klaudia Malec, Piotr Miśkiewicz, Agnieszka Witkowska, Ewa Krajewska, Sadegh Toutounchi, Zbigniew Gałązka, Mariusz Piotrowski, Agata Kącka, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Urszula Ambroziak
BACKGROUND: adrenalectomy with preoperative pharmacological preparation is strongly recommended in patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma in order to prevent perioperative complications. AIM: to compare phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin in terms of perioperative hemodynamic status in patients with pheochromocytoma prepared to adrenalectomy. METHODS: retrospective analysis of 44 patients with pheochromocytoma (aged 16-80 yr, female-29) who underwent adrenalectomy...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711961/heat-shock-protein-70-nitric-oxide-effect-on-stretched-tubular-epithelial-cells-linked-to-wt-1-cytoprotection-during-neonatal-obstructive-nephropathy
#6
Luciana Mazzei, Fernando Darío Cuello-Carrión, Neil Docherty, Walter Manucha
BACKGROUND: Mechanical stress is a key pathogenic driver of apoptosis in the tubular epithelium in obstructive nephropathy. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Wilms' tumor (WT-1) have been proposed to represent linked downstream effectors of the cytoprotective properties of NO. In the present study, we sought to evaluate whether the cytoprotective effects of L-arginine in neonatal obstructive nephropathy may be associated with NO-dependent increases in WT-1 and Hsp70 expression. METHODS: Neonatal Wistar-Kyoto rats were submitted to complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and treated thereafter with vehicle, L-NAME or L-arginine by daily gavage for 14 days to block or augment NO levels, respectively...
July 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700905/chronic-iron-overload-induces-functional-and-structural-vascular-changes-in-small-resistance-arteries-via-nadph-oxidase-dependent-o2-production
#7
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro, Vinicius Bermond Marques, Dieli Oliveira Nunes, Ivanita Stefanon, Leonardo Dos Santos
Iron overload leads to excessive free radical formation and induces cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, our aim was to investigate the structural and endothelial modulation of vascular tone induced by chronic iron overload in mesenteric arteries. Rats were divided into two groups: the control (vehicle) group and the group treated with iron dextran for 28days (100mg/kg, 5days a week). Chronic iron overload altered the following morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries: decreased lumen and external diameters; increased wall/lumen ratio and wall thickness; decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; and increased pulse wave velocity...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686356/relaxing-responses-to-hydrogen-peroxide-and-nitric-oxide-in-human-pericardial-resistance-arteries-stimulated-with-endothelin-1
#8
Thomas M Leurgans, Maria Bloksgaard, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Lars P Riber, Jo G R De Mey
In human pericardial resistance arteries, effects of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator bradykinin are mediated by NO during contraction induced by K(+) or the TxA2 analogue U46619 and by H2 O2 during contraction by endothelin-1 (ET-1), respectively. We tested the hypotheses that ET-1 reduces relaxing effects of NO and increases those of H2 O2 in resistance artery smooth muscle of patients with cardiovascular disease. Arterial segments, dissected from the parietal pericardium of 39 cardiothoracic surgery patients, were studied by myography during amplitude-matched contractions induced by K(+) , the TXA2 analogue U46619 or ET-1...
July 7, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681979/trpv1-channels-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-implications-for-vascular-function
#9
Stephen J Ives, Song Young Park, Oh Sung Kwon, Jayson R Gifford, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Russell S Richardson
To examine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 ) ion channel in the vascular function of human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) and if activation of this heat-sensitive receptor could be involved in modulating vascular function, SMFAs from 16 humans (63 ± 5, 41-89 yrs) were studied using wire myography with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) and without (control). Specifically, phenylephrine (PE, α1 -adrenergic receptor agonist), dexemedetomidine (DEX, α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration response curves (CRCs) were performed to assess the role of TRPV1 channels in α-receptor-mediated vasocontraction as well as endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxation, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671625/vitamin-c-deficiency-reduces-muscarinic-receptor-coronary-artery-vasoconstriction-and-plasma-tetrahydrobiopterin-concentration-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Gry Freja Skovsted, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Maiken Marie Lindblad, Stine Normann Hansen, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669696/clevidipine-versus-sodium-nitroprusside-in-acute-aortic-dissection-a-retrospective-chart-review
#11
Alexandru Ulici, Jon Jancik, Timothy S Lam, Shannon Reidt, Domenico Calcaterra, Jon B Cole
AIM: Intravenous vasodilators are often added to beta-blocking agents to reach blood pressure (BP) goals in aortic dissection. Control of BP using clevidipine has been described in hypertensive emergencies and cardiac surgery but not in aortic dissection. The aim of this study was to compare clevidipine versus sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as adjunct agents to esmolol for BP management in aortic dissection. METHODS: A single-center retrospective chart review evaluated patients diagnosed with aortic dissection...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665342/exogenous-feeding-of-fructose-and-phenylalanine-further-improves-betulin-production-in-suspended-betula-platyphylla-cells-under-nitric-oxide-treatment
#12
Guizhi Fan, Tingting Nie, Jin Sheng Fan, Yaguang Zhan
The aim of this study was to assay by NMR the metabolites which contribute to betulin production. 8-day-old suspended birch (Betula platyphylla) cells were treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment, an NO donor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), an NO-specific scavenger. The results showed that betulin production was increased by five times after SNP treatment, similar with that of the control under cPTIO treatment. Forty one metabolites were detected after SNP treatment or cPTIO treatment...
June 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662337/danshen-attenuates-osteoarthritis-related-cartilage-degeneration-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#13
Xilin Xu, Hang Lv, Xiaodong Li, Hui Su, Xiaofeng Zhang, Jun Yang
Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine herb that can alleviate osteoarthritis (Soder et al.) symptoms in animals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and require further investigation. In this study, rabbits with experimental OA were given intra-articular injection of Danshen (0.7 mL/day) for five weeks. In addition to attenuating the cartilage degeneration of OA rabbits, Danshen decreased the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13, whereas increased that of their natural inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2...
June 29, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651914/phenylsulfonylfuroxan-no-donor-phenols-synthesis-and-multifunctional-activities-evaluation
#14
Yundong Xie, Yaping Yang, Sen Li, Yanhong Xu, Wenfang Lu, Zizhang Chen, Guangde Yang, Yiping Li, Yongxiao Cao, Xiaoli Bian
Phenylsulfonyfuroxan nitric oxide (NO)-donor phenols were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The compounds were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and phenylsulfonylfuroxan NO-donor. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid compounds T2-T6 showed to be good in vivo. Compounds T4 and T6 revealed excellent yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and anti-glycosylation activity. All of the compounds exhibited strong NO releasing activity and significant anti-platelet aggregation activity...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648058/effect-of-exogenous-nitro-oxide-on-chilling-tolerance-polyamine-proline-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-in-bamboo-shoots-phyllostachys-praecox-f-prevernalis
#15
Di Wang, Li Li, Yanqun Xu, Jarukitt Limwachiranon, Dong Li, Zhaojun Ban, Zisheng Luo
The effects of exogenous nitro oxide (NO) on chilling resistance and the metabolism of polyamine, proline, and γ-aminobutyric acid of bamboo shoots were investigated. Bamboo shoots were dipped in 0.07 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and stored at 1 °C for 56 days. During the storage, the development of chilling injury of SNP treated bamboo shoots was inhibited with decreased accumulation of malonaldehyde and electrical leakage. At the end of storage, the chilling injury incidence of treated bamboo shoots decreased by 37...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643085/exogenous-application-of-nitric-oxide-modulates-osmolyte-metabolism-antioxidants-enzymes-of-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-and-promotes-growth-under-cadmium-stress-in-tomato
#16
Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohammed Abass Ahanger, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam
Experiments were carried out to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ameliorating the negative effects of cadmium stress in tomato seedlings. Plants treated with cadmium (CdCl2, 150 μM) showed reduced growth, biomass yield, pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange parameters. Exogenous application of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) with nutrient solution protected chlorophyll pigments, restored chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters, and caused significant enhancements in growth and biomass yield...
June 22, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638917/influence-of-sodium-nitroprusside-on-expressions-of-fbxl5-and-irp2-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#17
Jie Wei, Yong Li, Qian Jiao, Xi-Xun DU, Hong Jiang
Iron accumulation in the brain is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Misexpression of some iron transport and storage proteins is related to iron dyshomeostasis. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) including IRP1 and IRP2 are cytosolic proteins that play important roles in maintaining cellular iron homeostasis. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5) is involved in the regulation of iron metabolism by degrading IRP2 through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Nitric oxide (NO) enhances the binding activity of IRP1, but its effect on IRP2 is ambiguous...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635124/regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-endothelin-1-mediated-vasoconstrictor-tone-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#18
Caitlin A Dow, Brian L Stauffer, Danielle L Brunjes, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630432/down-regulation-of-kca2-3-channels-causes-erectile-dysfunction-in-mice
#19
Simon Comerma-Steffensen, Attila Kun, Elise R Hedegaard, Susie Mogensen, Christian Aalkjaer, Ralf Köhler, Birgitte Mønster Christensen, Ulf Simonsen
Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated K(+) channels has been proposed as an approach to restore arterial endothelial cell function in disease. We hypothesized that small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (KCa2.3 or SK3) contributes to erectile function. The research was performed in transgenic mice with overexpression (KCa2.3 (T/T(-Dox))) or down-regulation (KCa2.3 (T/T(+Dox))) of the KCa2.3 channels and wild-type C57BL/6-mice (WT). QPCR revealed that KCa2.3 and KCa1.1 channels were the most abundant in mouse corpus cavernosum...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629735/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-enhances-sympathetic-activities-associated-with-abnormality-of-baroreflex-function-in-conscious-normal-rats
#20
Ling-Zong Hong, Keh-Feng Huang, Siu-Wan Hung, Li-Te Kuo
Data regarding the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are a common type of antidepressants, on cardiovascular autonomic function are inconsistent. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic fluoxetine, an SSRI, on blood pressure, cardiac autonomic nervous activities and baroreflex control of heart rate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg day, p.o.) or saline for 14 weeks. Baroreflex function was determined by the sigmoid logistic method based on the heart rate responses to changes in blood pressure elicited by phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside infusions...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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