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Early pregnancy loss

Rola F Turki, Mourad Assidi, Huda A Banni, Hanan A Zahed, Sajjad Karim, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Osama Bajouh, Hassan S Jamal, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Adel M Abuzenadah
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent spontaneous abortion is an obstetric complication that affects couples at reproductive age. Previous reports documented a clear relationship between parents with chromosomal abnormalities and both recurrent miscarriages and infertility. However, limited data is available from the Arabian Peninsula which is known by higher rates of consanguineous marriages. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and thrombophilic polymorphisms, and to correlate them with RPL and consanguinity in Saudi Arabia...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
N Aleksandrova, E Shubina, A Ekimov, T Kodyleva, I Mukosey, N Makarova, E Kulakova, L Levkov, D Trofimov, G Sukhikh
Chromosomal aneuploidies are known for being the main cause of abnormal development of embryos with normal morphology, their implantation failure and early reproductive losses in IVF treatments. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) allows selecting embryos with normal chromosomal content and increases IVF treatment efficiency due to higher implantation rates and less frequent early pregnancy losses. New technologies used for PGS allow making genome-wide analysis of the presence of all chromosomes in embryos...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Kerstin Eckhoff, Thilo Wedel, Marcus Both, Kayhan Bas, Nicolai Maass, Ibrahim Alkatout
BACKGROUND: Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare clinical diagnosis, particularly in pregnancy. Due to unspecific symptoms, misdiagnosis is likely and could potentially endanger a patient as well as her fetus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old white woman presented with mild right-sided abdominal pain, which increased during palpation and movement, at 26 + 3 weeks' gestational age. Ultrasound imaging initially showed a round and well-demarcated structure, which appeared to be in contact with her uterine wall, leading to a suspected diagnosis of an infarcted leiomyoma...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jessica H Knight, Penelope P Howards, Jessica B Spencer, Katina C Tsagaris, Sam S Lim
OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
Tonghua Wu, Biao Yin, Yuanchang Zhu, Guangui Li, Lijun Ye, Chunmei Chen, Yong Zeng, Desheng Liang
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SA) is the most common complication of pregnancy, and chromosome aberrations are the principal cause of the first trimester abortuses in natural conception (NC) The increasing use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has raised concern about chromosome abnormalities in ART-initiated pregnancies. Up to date, the literature on the risk of aneuploidy in failed pregnancies among various ART factors remain limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to explore the genetic etiology of pregnancy loss conceived from varying ART procedures...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
C L Roberts, C S Algert, J B Ford, T A Nippita, J M Morris
STUDY QUESTION: After an initial midtrimester loss, is the interval to the next conception associated with the risk of a recurrent loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who had a pregnancy loss at 14-19 weeks gestation, conception at least 3 months after this initial loss was associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been thought to increase risk but recent studies of pregnancy after a loss have found no effect; however, these studies have been based almost entirely on an initial first trimester (<14 weeks) loss...
October 14, 2016: Human Reproduction
Ran Svirsky, Ron Maymon, Yaakov Melcer, Esther Klog, Howard Cuckle
OBJECTIVE: To investigate maternal serum inhibin as a marker of pre-eclampsia in twins. METHODS: 143 twins and 109 unaffected singleton pregnancies were recruited in the first trimester from the same institution. Blood samples were stored at recruitment and in the second trimester, retrospectively tested for inhibin and values expressed in multiples of the gestation-specific median (MoMs) in singletons, adjusted for maternal weight, as appropriate. RESULTS: The median inhibin level in unaffected twins was 2...
October 12, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Manuel Luis Wolfson, Julieta Aisemberg, Fernando Correa, Ana María Franchi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maternal infections with Gram-negative bacteria are associated with miscarriage and are one of the most common complications during pregnancy. Previous studies from our group have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) into decidual tissue play an important role on the establishment of a local inflammatory process that result in embryo cytotoxicity and early embryo resorption. Moreover, we have also shown that an increased endocannabinoid tone mediates LPS-induced deleterious effects during early pregnancy loss...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Luke E Grzeskowiak, Brian Smith, Anil Roy, Gustaaf A Dekker, Vicki L Clifton
There exists a paucity of data for socially disadvantaged populations describing patterns and predictors of asthma control status and exacerbations during pregnancy, and their relationship to adverse perinatal outcomes. Asthmatic women (n=189) were followed prospectively during pregnancy, with visits at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Data on loss of control, recurrent uncontrolled asthma and moderate/severe exacerbations were collected at each visit and their relationship to perinatal outcomes examined following stratification for fetal sex...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Daniele Mandrioli, Fiorella Belpoggi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Melissa J Perry
Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. It has been well documented that aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Aneuploidies in oocytes and spermatozoa contribute to infertility, pregnancy loss and a number of congenital abnormalities, and sperm aneuploidy is associated with testicular cancer. It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Teresa A Burns
Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Camilla M Whittington, Kevin Danastas, Georges E Grau, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
Vascular endothelial growth factor A is a major mediator of angiogenesis, a critically important process in vertebrate growth and development as well as pregnancy. Here we report for the first time the expression of a rare and unusually potent splice variant, VEGF 111 , in vivo in mammals. This variant has previously only been found in mammals in cultured human cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Our discovery of VEGF 111 in the uterus of both a eutherian (rat) and a marsupial (fat-tailed dunnart) suggests that the splice variant may be common to all mammals...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Marc A Rodger, Jean-Christophe Gris, Johanna I P de Vries, Ida Martinelli, Évelyne Rey, Ekkehard Schleussner, Saskia Middeldorp, Risto Kaaja, Nicole J Langlois, Timothy Ramsay, Ranjeeta Mallick, Shannon M Bates, Carolien N H Abheiden, Annalisa Perna, David Petroff, Paulien de Jong, Marion E van Hoorn, P Dick Bezemer, Alain D Mayhew
BACKGROUND: Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate. These complications are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Affected women are at high risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies; however, effective strategies to prevent recurrence are absent. Findings from our previous study-level meta-analysis suggested that low-molecular-weight heparin reduced the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications...
October 6, 2016: Lancet
Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause, José A Castro-Rodríguez, Ricardo Uauy
Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated...
September 28, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
A L Ridler, R A Corner-Thomas, P R Kenyon, K J Griffiths
AIMS: To investigate associations between changes in liveweight and fetal loss in ewe lambs and to determine whether fetal loss was associated with concentrations of progesterone in early and mid-gestation. METHODS: Ewe lambs on two commercial sheep farms (Flock A; n=504 and Flock B; n=460) in the southern North Island of New Zealand were weighed, and body condition score was assessed, prior to breeding and throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken approximately 56 (PD1), 80 (PD2) and 110 (PD3) days after the start of breeding and fetal loss determined...
October 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Lin Foo, Carmel McEniery, Ian Wilkinson, Christoph Lees
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy has been postulated as a potential cause or consequence of early pregnancy loss. We sought to investigate pre- and early pregnancy cardiovascular function in women with a viable pregnancy beyond the first trimester, and those suffering a first trimester pregnancy loss. METHODS: We recruited healthy women trying for pregnancy without assisted reproductive technology into an observational pre-conception study, and recorded pregnancy loss as a clinical endpoint...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Cui-Lan Li, Li-Ping Song, Shi-Yan Tang, Lee Jaden Gil Yu-Kang Zhou, Hong He, Xue-Tang Mo, Yi-Ming Liao
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of low-dose mifepristone combined with self-administered misoprostol for ultra-early medical abortion. A total of 744 women with ultra-early pregnancy (amenorrhea ≤35 days) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Equal numbers of participants were allocated randomly to the hospital administration and self-administration groups. All participants took 75 mg mifepristone at the initial visit and 400 µg oral misoprostol 24 hours later in the hospital or by self-administration...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
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