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Early pregnancy loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108842/genetic-analysis-of-the-m2-anxa5-haplotype-as-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-predisposition-in-the-malay-population
#1
Kai-Cheen Ang, Sushilnathan Kathirgamanathan, Ewe Seng Ch'ng, Yan-Yeow Lee, Anna-Liza Roslani, Bavanandan Naidu, Krishna Kumar, Ridzuan Abdullah, Siti-Nadiah Abdul Kadir, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Wan Zaidah Abdullah, Nadja Bogdanova, Peter Wieacker, Arseni Markoff, Thean-Hock Tang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new predisposition factor, M2/ANXA5 (RPRGL3), in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients of Malay origin, since it was previously known that the prevalence of this condition is relatively high among the Malay population of Malaysia, where conventional hereditary thrombophilia factors have been generally ruled out. METHODS: A total of 232 women who had experienced ≥2 unexplained RPL and 141 available male partners were recruited, with 360 healthy Malay and 166 parous female controls...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099717/maternal-serum-amyloid-a-level-as-a-novel-marker-of-primary-unexplained-recurrent-early-pregnancy-loss
#2
Moustafa I Ibrahim, Ahmed R Ramy, Ahmed S Abdelhamid, Mohamed I Ellaithy, Amna Omar, Rany M Harara, Hayam Fathy, Ashraf S Abolouz
OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal serum amyloid A (SAA) levels among women with primary unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among women with missed spontaneous abortion in the first trimester at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, between January 21 and December 25, 2014. Women with at least two consecutive primary unexplained REPLs and no previous live births were enrolled. A control group was formed of women with no history of REPL who had at least one previous uneventful pregnancy with no adverse outcomes...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097444/obstetric-outcome-of-vanishing-twins-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Ling Sun, Ling X Jiang, Heng Z Chen
PURPOSE: Due to the high number of multiple embryo transfers into the uterus performed in assisted reproductive technology treatment (ART), the incidences of twin pregnancy and of vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) are correspondingly high. A number of studies have described the obstetric outcomes of the remaining fetus produced after the other twin had vanished compared with a singleton at the start following ART, but the results are mixed and contradictory. We performed a systematic review of the existing studies to explore the actual obstetric outcome of VTS to allow physicians to adequately advise their patients...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086827/mothers-accounts-of-the-impact-on-emotional-wellbeing-of-organised-peer-support-in-pregnancy-and-early-parenthood-a-qualitative-study
#4
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076382/deregulated-expression-of-mitochondrial-proteins-mfn2-and-bcnl3l-in-placentae-from-sheep-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-scnt-conceptuses
#5
Marta Czernik, Paola Toschi, Federica Zacchini, Domenico Iuso, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073797/physical-and-cultural-determinants-of-postpartum-pelvic-floor-support-and-symptoms-following-vaginal-delivery-a-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Ingrid E Nygaard, Erin Clark, Lauren Clark, Marlene J Egger, Robert Hitchcock, Yvonne Hsu, Peggy Norton, Ana Sanchez-Birkhead, Janet Shaw, Xiaoming Sheng, Michael Varner
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), stress and urgency urinary incontinence, and faecal incontinence, are common and arise from loss of pelvic support. Although severe disease often does not occur until women become older, pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for PFDs, especially POP. We understand little about modifiable factors that impact pelvic floor function recovery after vaginal birth. This National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Program Project, 'Bridging physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery', uses mixed-methods research to study the influences of intra-abdominal pressure, physical activity, body habitus and muscle fitness on pelvic floor support and symptoms as well as the cultural context in which women experience those changes...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056994/hexokinase-2-drives-glycogen-accumulation-in-equine-endometrium-at-day-12-of-diestrus-and-pregnancy
#7
Sarah A Bramer, Alysson Macedo, Claudia Klein
BACKGROUND: Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy...
January 5, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056905/determinants-of-chronic-otitis-media-with-effusion-in-preschool-children-a-case-control-study
#8
Rebecca E Walker, Jim Bartley, David Flint, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is a prevalent upper airway infection resulting in hearing loss. The aim of this research was to determine risk factors for COME in preschool children. METHODS: A case-control design was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand from May 2011 until November 2013. The cases were children aged 3 and 4 years referred for tympanostomy tube placement due to a diagnosis of COME (n = 178). The controls were a random sample of healthy children aged 3 and 4 years from primary care practices (n = 209)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054230/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-pregnancy-focus-on-biologics-an-updated-and-comprehensive-review
#9
REVIEW
Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Enrique Esteve-Valverde, Raquel Ferrer-Oliveras, Elisa Llurba, Josep Maria Gris
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-α antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-α plays a major pathogenic role. TNF-α has also been associated with inflammatory mechanisms related to implantation, placentation, and pregnancy outcome. TNF-α is secreted by immune cells and works by binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 cell receptors. TNF-α is also related to JAK/STAT pathways, which opens up hypothetical new targets for modifying. The accurate balance between Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF-α, Th17, and Th2, particularly IL-10 is essential to achieve good obstetric outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050333/placenta-percreta-and-incomplete-uterine-rupture-after-endometrial-ablation-and-tubal-occlusion
#10
Jaden R Kohn, Edwina Popek, Concepcion R Diaz-Arrastia, Xiaoming Guan, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Michael A Belfort, Karin A Fox
Endometrial ablation offers symptomatic relief for menorrhagia. Pregnancy after ablation is rare but is often complicated due to pregnancy loss, growth restriction, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery, and morbidly adherent placentation, a dangerous complication that can result in hemorrhage, intensive care unit admission, and cesarean hysterectomy. We report a case of pregnancy conceived contemporaneously with endometrial ablation and tubal occlusion. Diagnosis of pregnancy was delayed due to low suspicion...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049832/forkhead-box-a2-foxa2-is-essential-for-uterine-function-and-fertility
#11
Andrew M Kelleher, Wang Peng, James K Pru, Cindy A Pru, Francesco J DeMayo, Thomas E Spencer
Establishment of pregnancy is a critical event, and failure of embryo implantation and stromal decidualization in the uterus contribute to significant numbers of pregnancy losses in women. Glands of the uterus are essential for establishment of pregnancy in mice and likely in humans. Forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the glands of the uterus and is a critical regulator of postnatal uterine gland differentiation in mice. In this study, we conditionally deleted FOXA2 in the adult mouse uterus using the lactotransferrin Cre (Ltf-Cre) model and in the neonatal mouse uterus using the progesterone receptor Cre (Pgr-Cre) model...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045712/exploring-the-experiences-of-women-and-health-care-workers-in-the-context-of-pmtct-option-b-plus-in-malawi
#12
Fabian Cataldo, Levison Chiwaula, Misheck Nkhata, Monique van Lettow, Florence Kasende, Nora E Rosenberg, Hannock Tweya, Veena Sampathkumar, Mina Hosseinipour, Erik Schouten, Atupele Kapito-Tembo, Michael Eliya, Frank Chimbwandira, Sam Phiri
INTRODUCTION: Malawi has embarked on a 'test-and-treat' approach to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), known as 'Option B+', offering all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) regardless of CD4-count or clinical stage. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study to explore early experiences surrounding 'Option B+' for patients and health care workers (HCWs) in Malawi. METHODS: Study participants were purposively selected across six health facilities in three regional health zones in Malawi...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043340/using-real-time-pcr-to-identify-pregnancy-associated-glycoprotein-2-pag-2-in-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-blood-in-early-pregnancy
#13
O Barbato, G Guelfi, V L Barile, L Menchetti, C Tortiello, C Canali, G Brecchia, G Traina, J F Beckers, N Melo de Sousa
This study investigates for the first time mRNA pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (PAG-2) expression in blood cells during early pregnancy in water buffalo. The PAGs constitute a large family of glycoproteins expressed in the outer epithelial layer of the placenta in eutherian species. All PAGs are not concomitantly expressed throughout pregnancy; some of them are expressed in the earlier phases, whereas others appear later and are expressed over a shorter period. Twenty-one lactating buffaloes were analyzed-17 females were synchronized with PRID and artificially inseminated (AI), whereas four females were synchronized but not inseminated (control group)...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029178/exercise-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-overweight-and-obese-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Elena Rita Magro-Malosso, Gabriele Saccone, Daniele Di Mascio, Mariarosaria Di Tommaso, Vincenzo Berghella
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of overweight and obesity in pregnancy has risen significantly in the last decades. Overweight and obesity have been shown to increase the risk for some adverse obstetric outcome. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet, physical activity and behavior changes, may reduce these risks promoting weight loss and/or preventing excessive weight gain. The possible impact of exercise on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in overweight or obese women is controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on the risk of PTB in overweight or obese pregnant women...
December 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027278/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-among-pregnant-women-in-delhi-india
#15
Manu Chaudhary, Marcia A Rench, Carol J Baker, Pushpa Singh, Charoo Hans, Morven S Edwards
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. METHODS: Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth™ and subcultured onto GBS Detect™ plates...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011331/multi-drug-resistant-female-genital-tuberculosis-a-preliminary-report
#16
J B Sharma, Alka Kriplani, Eshani Sharma, Sangeeta Sharma, Sona Dharmendra, Sunesh Kumar, P Vanamail, S K Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of 6 patients presenting with tubo-ovarian mass or infertility with multi drug resistant (MDR) female genital tuberculosis (FGTB). STUDY DESIGN: It was an observational study in a tertiary referral centre, India on subjects with MDR FGTB on clinical examination and investigations. All patients were given category IV drugs using kanamycin (intramuscular), levofloxacin, pyrazinamide, cycloserine, ethionamide and ethambutol (or para aminosalicylic acid [PAS] for ethambutol resistant cases) for 6 months intensive phase followed by oral levofloxacin, cycloserine, ethionamide and ethambutol (or PAS for ethambutol resistant cases) for 18 months continuation phase...
December 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007693/pad4-deficiency-decreases-inflammation-and-susceptibility-to-pregnancy-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Luise Erpenbeck, Chanchal Sur Chowdhury, Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér, Maureen Gallant, Suzanne D Burke, Stephen Cifuni, Sinuhe Hahn, Denisa D Wagner, S Ananth Karumanchi
Inflammation is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of placentation disorders such as recurrent miscarriages, growth restriction, and preeclampsia. Recently, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have emerged as a potential mechanism for promoting inflammation in both infectious and noninfectious disorders. To investigate a pathogenic role for NETs in placentation disorders, we studied a model of antiangiogenic factor-mediated pregnancy loss in wild-type (WT) mice and in mice deficient in peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (Padi4(-/-)) that are unable to form NETs...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990376/management-of-glaucoma-in-pregnancy-risks-or-choices-a-dilemma
#18
REVIEW
Harinder Singh Sethi, Mayuresh Naik, Vishnu Swarup Gupta
The treatment of glaucoma in and around pregnancy offers the unique challenge of balancing the risk of vision loss to the mother as against the potential harm to the fetus or newborn. Most anti-glaucoma drugs (i.e. beta-blockers, prostaglandin analogues, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors topical and systemic, cholinergics, anticholinesterases, and apraclonidine) are considered category C agents and ophthalmologists are usually limited to treating patients with the category B drugs of brimonidine and dipivefrin...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980237/prediction-of-blastocyst-development-and-implantation-potential-in-utero-based-on-the-third-cleavage-and-compaction-times-in-mouse-pre-implantation-embryos
#19
Jihyun Kim, Seok Hyun Kim, Jin Hyun Jun
Cytokinesis and cell division during pre-implantation embryonic development occur as an orchestrated spatiotemporal program. Cleavage, compaction, and blastulation in pre-implantation embryos are essential for successful implantation and pregnancy. Their alteration is associated with chromosomal imbalance and loss of developmental competence. In this study, we evaluated the time of cleavage and compaction as predictors for in vitro pre- and peri-implantation development and in utero implantation potential by time-lapse monitoring...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960197/birth-defects-among-fetuses-and-infants-of-us-women-with-evidence-of-possible-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy
#20
Margaret A Honein, April L Dawson, Emily E Petersen, Abbey M Jones, Ellen H Lee, Mahsa M Yazdy, Nina Ahmad, Jennifer Macdonald, Nicole Evert, Andrea Bingham, Sascha R Ellington, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Titilope Oduyebo, Anne D Fine, Catherine M Brown, Jamie N Sommer, Jyoti Gupta, Philip Cavicchia, Sally Slavinski, Jennifer L White, S Michele Owen, Lyle R Petersen, Coleen Boyle, Dana Meaney-Delman, Denise J Jamieson
Importance: Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. Objective: To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments...
3, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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