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Early pregnancy loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921728/undifferentiated-connective-tissue-diseases-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-an-undervalued-association
#1
REVIEW
Arsenio Spinillo, Fausta Beneventi, Roberto Caporali, Veronique Ramoni, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by symptoms and signs suggestive of systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD), but which do not fulfill all the established criteria for definite diagnosis of a condition. Although a third of UCTDs can progress to a definite ARD within months or years, most UCTDs can remain stable for years with minimal disease activity. The annual incidence of UCTD in the general population ranges from 14 to 140 per 100 000 people...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915160/current-insights-in-obstetric-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#2
Karen Schreiber, Massimo Radin, Savino Sciascia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). In this review, we will highlight the most important clinical presentations of APS with a focus on the obstetric morbidity, the current management strategies and the outlook for the future. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of aspirin and heparin has improved the pregnancy outcome in obstetric APS and approximately 70% of pregnant women with APS have a successful pregnancy outcome...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911214/growth-regulation-by-estrogen-in-breast-cancer-1-greb1-is-a-novel-progesterone-responsive-gene-required-for-human-endometrial-stromal-decidualization
#3
Alison J Camden, Maria M Szwarc, Sangappa B Chadchan, Francesco J DeMayo, Bert W O'Malley, John P Lydon, Ramakrishna Kommagani
STUDY QUESTION: Is Growth Regulation by Estrogen in Breast Cancer 1 (GREB1) required for progesterone-driven endometrial stromal cell decidualization? SUMMARY ANSWER: GREB1 is a novel progesterone-responsive gene required for progesterone-driven human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) decidualization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Successful establishment of pregnancy requires HESCs to transform from fibroblastic to epithelioid cells in a process called decidualization...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904069/disturbed-placental-imprinting-in-preeclampsia-leads-to-altered-expression-of-dlx5-a-human-specific-early-trophoblast-marker
#4
Julianna Zadora, Manvendra Singh, Florian Herse, Lukasz Przybyl, Nadine Haase, Michaela Golic, Hong Wa Yung, Berthold Huppertz, Judith E Cartwright, Guy S Whitley, Guro M Johnsen, Giovanni Levi, Annette Isbruch, Herbert Schulz, Friedrich C Luft, Dominik N Müller, Anne C Staff, Laurence D Hurst, Ralf Dechend, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
Background -Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human-specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in PE. Our study aims at investigating whether disturbed imprinting contributes to PE...
September 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903312/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#5
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Onzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-Sampedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890772/knowledge-and-cultural-beliefs-of-mothers-regarding-the-risk-factors-of-infant-hearing-loss-and-awareness-of-audiology-services
#6
Samantha M Govender, Nasim Banu Khan
The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887326/ifnt-and-fertility-in-ruminants
#7
Niamh Forde, Pat Lonergan
Establishment of pregnancy in domestic ruminants includes pregnancy recognition signaling by the conceptus, implantation, and placentation. Despite the high fertilisation success rate in ruminants, a significant amount of embryo loss occurs, primarily during early gestation. Interferon-tau (IFNT), a Type I interferon that is exclusively secreted by the cells of the trophectoderm of the ruminant conceptus, has been recognized as the primary agent for maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. It produces its antiluteolytic effect on the corpus luteum by inhibiting expression of oxytocin receptors in the uterine epithelial cells which prevents pulsatile, luteolytic secretion of prostaglandin F2α by the uterine endometrium...
September 8, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884524/hiv-transmission-and-retention-in-care-among-hiv-exposed-children-enrolled-in-malawi-s-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programme
#8
Andreas D Haas, Joep J van Oosterhout, Lyson Tenthani, Andreas Jahn, Marcel Zwahlen, Malango T Msukwa, Mary-Ann Davies, Kali Tal, Nozgechi Phiri, Adrian Spoerri, Frank Chimbwandira, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
INTRODUCTION: In Malawi, HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women are offered lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 count or clinical stage (Option B+). Their HIV-exposed children are enrolled in the national prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme, but many are lost to follow-up. We estimated the cumulative incidence of vertical HIV transmission, taking loss to follow-up into account. METHODS: We abstracted data from HIV-exposed children enrolled into care between September 2011 and June 2014 from patient records at 21 health facilities in central and southern Malawi...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874155/the-regulation-of-ovary-and-conceptus-on-the-uterine-natural-killer-cells-during-early-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Han Gong, Yilu Chen, Jingjie Xu, Xingxing Xie, Dainan Yu, Bei Yang, Haibin Kuang
Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are short-lived, terminally differentiated and the most abundant lymphocytes in the uterus which play a crucial role in the spiral arteriole modification and establishment of successful pregnancy. Dysregulation of uNK cells has been linked to gestational implications such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth retardation. There is evidence showing that progesterone and estrogen can regulate the recruitment, proliferation, differentiation and function of uNK cells via direct action on intracellular nuclear receptors or through intermediary cells in the uterus during early pregnancy...
September 6, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869276/amniocentesis-and-chorionic-villus-sampling-for-prenatal-diagnosis
#10
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Kate Navaratnam, Faris Mujezinovic
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, fetal cells suitable for genetic testing can be obtained from amniotic fluid by amniocentesis (AC), placental tissue by chorionic villus sampling (CVS), or fetal blood. A major disadvantage of second trimester amniocentesis is that the results are available relatively late in pregnancy (after 16 weeks' gestation). Earlier alternatives are chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and early amniocentesis, which can be performed in the first trimester of pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to compare the safety and accuracy of all types of AC (i...
September 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865538/removal-of-myomas-in-asymptomatic-patients-to-improve-fertility-and-or-reduce-miscarriage-rate-a-guideline
#11
(no author information available yet)
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate if uterine myomas impact the likelihood of pregnancy and pregnancy loss, and if myomectomy influences pregnancy outcomes in asymptomatic women. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the presence of myomas reduces the likelihood of achieving pregnancy. However, there is fair evidence that myomectomy (open or laparoscopic) for cavity-distorting myomas (intramural or intramural with a submucosal component) improves pregnancy rates and reduces the risk of early pregnancy loss...
September 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859278/the-transcriptome-of-the-endometrium-and-placenta-is-associated-with-pregnancy-development-but-not-lactation-status-in-dairy-cows
#12
Stephen G Moore, Matthew S McCabe, Jacob C Green, Emily M Newsom, Matthew C Lucy
Infertility in lactating dairy cows is explained partially by the metabolic state associated with high milk production. The hypothesis was that lactating and nonlactating cows would differ in endometrial and placental transcriptomes during early pregnancy (day 28 to 42) and this difference would explain the predisposition for lactating cows to have embryonic loss at that time. Cows were either milked or not milked after calving. Reproductive [endometrium (caruncular and intercaruncular) and placenta] and liver tissues were collected on day 28, 35, and 42 of pregnancy...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854581/unexplained-recurrent-miscarriages-are-associated-with-an-aberrant-sperm-protamine-mrna-content
#13
Nina Rogenhofer, Johannes Ott, Adrian Pilatz, Julia Wolf, Christian J Thaler, Lisa Windischbauer, Undraga Schagdarsurengin, Klaus Steger, Viktoria von Schönfeldt
STUDY QUESTION: Are unexplained recurrent miscarriages associated with abnormal protamine-1 and protamine-2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both protamine-1 and protamine-2 mRNA levels as well as the protamine-1 to protamine-2 mRNA ratio in spermatozoa from men whose female partners experienced two or more consecutive miscarriages were significantly different compared to those from both healthy control men and subfertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Aberrant sperm protamine ratios are known to be associated with male-factor infertility...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842426/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-critical-for-pregnancy-loss-in-sphingosine-kinase-deficient-mice-on-129sv-c57bl-6-background
#14
Kiyomi Mizugishi, Kouhei Yamashita
Exaggerated maternal immune responses must be strictly controlled to ensure a successful pregnancy. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated as a potential mechanism for promoting inflammation in pregnancy-related disorders. In this study, we demonstrated that NETs play a key role in the pathogenesis of sphingosine kinase (Sphk)-mediated pregnancy loss. Perturbing the sphingolipid pathway by disrupting Sphk genes during pregnancy led to excessive NET formation exclusively at the fetomaternal interface and early fetal death...
August 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841708/using-transrectal-ultrasound-to-examine-the-effect-of-exogenous-progesterone-on-early-embryonic-loss-in-sheep
#15
Jessica Paige Rickard, Gabrielle Ryan, Evelyn Hall, Simon Paul de Graaf, Robert Hermes
The financial impact of early embryonic loss in Australia may be as high as $137 million AUD/year. Embryos may be lost due to environmental conditions, or maternal factors such as nutrition or progesterone (P4) profiles. However, studies on the supplementation of P4 during early pregnancy have returned contradictory results, partly as a reliable method of detecting embryos in the early stages of gestation (<day 20) has yet be established. As such, Merino ewes (n = 62) were either not supplemented (control) or were given exogenous P4 at the time of insemination (day 0) or 3 days later (day 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830395/antenatal-depressive-symptoms-and-perinatal-complications-a-prospective-study-in-rural-ethiopia
#16
Tesera Bitew, Charlotte Hanlon, Eskinder Kebede, Simone Honikman, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depressive symptoms affect around 12.3% of women in in low and middle income countries (LMICs) and data are accumulating about associations with adverse outcomes for mother and child. Studies from rural, low-income country community samples are limited. This paper aims to investigate whether antenatal depressive symptoms predict perinatal complications in a rural Ethiopia setting. METHODS: A population-based prospective study was conducted in Sodo district, southern Ethiopia...
August 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826778/pregnancy-outcomes-of-women-with-a-congenital-unicornuate-uterus-after-ivf-embryo-transfer
#17
Xihong Li, Yan Ouyang, Yan Yi, Ge Lin, Guangxiu Lu, Fei Gong
Unicornuate uteri are caused by non-development of one Müllerian duct. The objective of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes of singleton and/or twin pregnancies in women with unicornuate uterus after IVF-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The study group comprised 238 patients with a unicornuate uterus and the control group 818 patients with normal uterus. Compared with pregnancies with normal uterine morphology, a unicornuate uterus was associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1...
August 3, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826369/literature-review-on-the-role-of-uterine-fibroids-in-endometrial-function
#18
Deborah E Ikhena, Serdar E Bulun
Uterine fibroids are benign uterine smooth muscle tumors that are present in up to 8 out of 10 women by the age of 50. Many of these women experience symptoms such as heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding, early pregnancy loss, and infertility. Traditionally believed to be inert masses, fibroids are now known to influence endometrial function at the molecular level. We present a comprehensive review of published studies on the effect of uterine fibroids on endometrial function. Our goal was to explore the current knowledge about how uterine fibroids interact with the endometrium and how these interactions influence clinical symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820414/-identification-of-causes-of-early-pregnancy-losses-according-to-hystomorphologic-features
#19
K Gotsiridze, N Kintraia, M Pailodze, T Gogia, F Tsaava
Retrospective analysis of the early spontaneous abortions has been conducted (486 cases). Histomorphologic analysis of the curettage material contents erveledinvolutive-regressive developmental chsnges in 108 (22,28%) cases, in 370 cases (77.78%) pathologic changes, like inflammatory changes of deciduas and chorionic villis in 302 cases (80.2%), pathologic prematurity of chorionic vili in 48 cases (12.6%), hydatidiform mole in 28 cases (7.4%). As most cases of pregnancy loss has been reported at 7-9 weeks /172 cases/, we compared histomorphologic data revealed at 7-8 (71 cases) weeks to 5-6 (135 cases) and 10-12 weeks of gestation...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820408/-thrombophilic-genetic-mutations-and-polymorphisms-in-women-with-infertility-and-failed-in-vitro-fertilization
#20
G Abrahamyan
Occurrence of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization depends of two components: functional adequacy of the embryo at the blastocyst stage and receptivity of endometrium, which, according to modern perception, are determinate in achieving optimal conditions of implantation. From the pregnancy occurrence point of view, as well as in regard to its further development , implantation is the most crucial phase of IVF/ICSI and ET. As the same time, this phase is also the most vulnerable. Multiple researches have proven the role of mother thrombophilia for genesis of gestation complications and early embryo losses, but in relation to this problem i the context of IVF there is still a lot to be detailed...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
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