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Early pregnancy loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771194/preconception-antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-risk-of-subsequent-early-pregnancy-loss
#1
K J Gibbins, S L Mumford, L A Sjaarda, D W Branch, N J Perkins, A Ye, E F Schisterman, R M Silver
Objectives To prospectively estimate the association of preconception antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) with subsequent pregnancy loss using a cohort design. aPL have been associated with recurrent early pregnancy loss (EPL) prior to 10 weeks in previous case-control studies. Prospective ascertainment of pregnancy loss is challenging, as most women do not seek care prior to EPL. Methods Secondary analysis of the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial of preconception low-dose aspirin. Preconception anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I (a-β2-I) were assessed in 1208 women with one or two prior pregnancy losses and no more than two prior live births...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768662/immersion-in-water-during-labour-and-birth
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Cluett, Ethel Burns, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Water immersion during labour and birth is increasingly popular and is becoming widely accepted across many countries, and particularly in midwifery-led care settings. However, there are concerns around neonatal water inhalation, increased requirement for admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), maternal and/or neonatal infection, and obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). This is an update of a review last published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of water immersion during labour and/or birth (first, second and third stage of labour) on women and their infants...
May 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760680/disruption-in-thyroid-signaling-pathway-a-mechanism-for-the-effect-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-child-neurodevelopment
#3
REVIEW
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755409/glial-cells-missing-1-regulates-equine-chorionic-gonadotrophin-beta-subunit-via-binding-to-the-proximal-promoter
#4
Jordan E Read, Victoria Cabrera-Sharp, Phoebe Kitscha, Judith E Cartwright, Peter J King, Robert C Fowkes, Amanda M de Mestre
Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is a placental glycoprotein critical for early equine pregnancy and used therapeutically in a number of species to support reproductive activity. The factors in trophoblast that transcriptionally regulate eCGβ-subunit ( LHB ), the gene which confers the hormones specificity for the receptor, are not known. The aim of this study was to determine if glial cells missing 1 regulates LHB promoter activity. Here, studies of the LHB proximal promoter identified four binding sites for glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) and western blot analysis confirmed GCM1 was expressed in equine chorionic girdle (ChG) and surrounding tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753006/course-dose-and-stage-dependent-toxic-effects-of-prenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-long-bone-development-in-fetal-mice
#5
Ze Chen, Xin Zhao, Yunzepeng Li, Rui Zhang, Zaihui Nie, Xiang Cheng, Xianrong Zhang, Hui Wang
Dexamethasone is routinely used for treating those mothers at risk for preterm delivery. However, overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids induces bone loss in offspring, and the "critical window" and safe dose of this treatment are largely unknown. In this study, we found that femoral length, and the length of the primary ossification center were significantly reduced in fetal mice after repeated prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE). Compared with single-course exposure on gestational day (GD)15, newborn mice with repeated PDE (3 times, from GD15 to 17) showed a significant decrease in femoral trabecular bone mass with decreased trabecular number and thickness...
May 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752389/pregnancy-in-women-with-a-fontan-circulation-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Alvaro Garcia Ropero, Shankar Baskar, Jolien W Roos Hesselink, Andrea Girnius, Dominica Zentner, Lorna Swan, Magalie Ladouceur, Nicole Brown, Gruschen R Veldtman
BACKGROUND: The Fontan operation has provided life-saving palliation and adult survival for individuals born with single ventricle physiology. Many now seek advice about safe pregnancy. Little data are, however, available, consisting mainly of anecdotal experience and small series. This article seeks to review the published literature and identify lessons learnt from this collective experience. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in women with a Fontan circulation...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748248/bromodomain-protein-brd4-is-increased-in-human-placentas-from-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia
#7
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preeclampsia affects 5% of all pregnancies and is a serious disorder of pregnancy, characterised by high maternal blood pressure, placental hypoxia, fluid retention (oedema) and proteinuria. Women with preeclampsia are associated with exaggerated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). Studies in non-gestational tissues have described the bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal family of proteins, in particular BRD4 to play a critical role in propagating inflammation and is currently a therapeutic target for treating cancer, lung inflammation and asthma...
June 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744644/an-epigenetic-association-of-malformations-adverse-reproductive-outcomes-and-fetal-origins
#8
Mark Lubinsky
VACTERL, the prototype for associated congenital anomalies, also has connections with functional issues such as pregnancy losses, prematurity, growth delays, perinatal difficulties, and parental subfertility. This segues into a broader association with similar connections even in the absence of malformations. DNA methylation disturbances in the ovum are a likely cause, with epigenetic links to individual components and to folate effects before conception, explaining diverse fetal and placental findings and providing a link to fetal origin hypothesis-related effects...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737906/early-pregnancy-losses-review-of-nomenclature-histopathology-and-possible-etiologies
#9
M Halit Pinar, Karen Gibbins, Mai He, Stefan Kostadinov, Robert Silver
Miscarriage is a frequent complication of human pregnancy: ∼50% to 70% of spontaneous conceptions are lost prior to the second trimester. Etiology of miscarriage includes genetic abnormalities, infections, immunological and implantation disorders, uterine and endocrine abnormalities, and lifestyle factors. Given such variability, knowledge regarding causes, pathophysiological mechanisms, and morphologies of primary early pregnancy loss has significant gaps; often, pregnancy losses remain unexplained. Pathologic evaluation of miscarriage tissue is an untapped source of knowledge...
May 8, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730079/hysteroscopic-management-of-cervical-pregnancy-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Vasilios Tanos, Sayed ElAkhras, Baris Kaya
PURPOSE: To evaluate the hysteroscopic management on cervical pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case series report and literature review on patients with early first trimester cervical pregnancy (CP) treated by hysteroscopy. The symptoms upon admission, β-hCG levels, hysteroscopy technique, blood loss and operation outcomes were presented. RESULTS: Four patients with early CP between 5-7 weeks were successfully managed with operative hysteroscopy...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728153/maternal-bleeding-complications-following-early-versus-delayed-umbilical-cord-clamping-in-multiple-pregnancies
#11
Chayatat Ruangkit, Matthew Leon, Kasim Hassen, Katherine Baker, Debra Poeltler, Anup Katheria
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended delayed umbilical cord clamping for at least 30-60 s for all infants. However, there is limited data regarding the maternal safety of delayed cord clamping in multiple pregnancies. We aimed to compare the maternal bleeding complications following early cord clamping (ECC) versus of delayed cord clamping (DCC) in multiple pregnancies. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with multiples who delivered live-born infants at Sharp Healthcare Hospitals in San Diego, CA, USA during January 1st, 2016 - September 30th, 2017...
May 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717225/experimental-zika-virus-infection-in-the-pregnant-common-marmoset-induces-spontaneous-fetal-loss-and-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities
#12
Maxim Seferovic, Claudia Sánchez-San Martín, Suzette D Tardif, Julienne Rutherford, Eumenia C C Castro, Tony Li, Vida L Hodara, Laura M Parodi, Luis Giavedoni, Donna Layne-Colon, Manasi Tamhankar, Shigeo Yagi, Calla Martyn, Kevin Reyes, Melissa A Suter, Kjersti M Aagaard, Charles Y Chiu, Jean L Patterson
During its most recent outbreak across the Americas, Zika virus (ZIKV) was surprisingly shown to cause fetal loss and congenital malformations in acutely and chronically infected pregnant women. However, understanding the underlying pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital disease has been hampered by a lack of relevant in vivo experimental models. Here we present a candidate New World monkey model of ZIKV infection in pregnant marmosets that faithfully recapitulates human disease. ZIKV inoculation at the human-equivalent of early gestation caused an asymptomatic seroconversion, induction of type I/II interferon-associated genes and proinflammatory cytokines, and persistent viremia and viruria...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716774/dengue-vaccination-during-pregnancy-an-overview-of-clinical-trials-data
#13
Anna Skipetrova, Tram Anh Wartel, Sophia Gailhardou
BACKGROUND: The live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed in several endemic countries and contraindicated during pregnancy. Inadvertent vaccination during pregnancy may occur during clinical trials that include women of childbearing age. The potential risk associated with dengue vaccination in pregnancy remains unknown. We describe pregnancy outcomes following inadvertent dengue vaccination in pregnancy from CYD-TDV trial data. METHODS: Data were collected from trials conducted as part of the CYD-TDV clinical development...
April 28, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702248/fertility-in-male-rats-disentangling-adverse-effects-of-arsenic-compounds
#14
Graziela Domingues de Almeida Lima, Marcela Nascimento Sertorio, Ana Cláudia Ferreira Souza, Tatiana Prata Menezes, Viviane Gorete Silveira Mouro, Nayara Magalhães, Jerusa Maria de Oliveira, Marc Henry, Mariana Machado-Neves
Arsenic impairs male reproductive functions. However, it is not clear whether different arsenic compounds similarly affect fertility. In this study, we compared the impact of sodium arsenite and arsenate on sperm quality and fertility. After 56 d exposure, male Wistar rats were mated and pregnant females were evaluated by fertility indexes. Clearly, exposure to 10 mg/L arsenite reduced daily sperm production via H2 O2 overproduction and germ cells loss. Animals from this group also showed a decrease in epididymal sperm counts and percentage of sperm with intact membranes...
April 24, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700097/prostaglandin-e2-receptor-3-ep3-signaling-is-induced-in-placentas-with-unexplained-recurrent-pregnancy-losses-urpl
#15
Yao Ye, Aurelia Vattai, Nina Ditsch, Christina Kuhn, Martina Rahmeh, Sven Mahner, Myriam Ripphahn, Roland Immler, Markus Sperandio, Udo Jeschke, Viktoria von Schoenfeldt
Although an inflammatory microenvironment is required for successful implantation, an inflammatory overreaction is one of the causes of unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses (uRPL). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a pivotal role in regulating immune balance during early pregnancy and it can stimulate inflammatory reactions via EP3. However, the role of PGE2 receptor signaling in the uRPL remains unknown. We aimed to investigate whether prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) signaling is involved in the mechanism of uRPL...
April 26, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693651/biallelic-padi6-variants-linking-infertility-miscarriages-and-hydatidiform-moles
#16
JianHua Qian, Ngoc Minh Phuong Nguyen, Maryam Rezaei, Bo Huang, YongLing Tao, XiaoFei Zhang, Qi Cheng, HanJin Yang, Ao Asangla, Jacek Majewski, Rima Slim
Recurrent hydatidiform moles (RHM) are aberrant human pregnancies characterized by absence of, or abnormal, embryonic development, hydropic degeneration of chorionic villi, and hyperproliferation of the trophoblast. Biallelic mutations in two maternal-effect genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, underlie the causation of RHM in 60% of patients. We performed exome sequencing on a patient with six pregnancy losses, two miscarriages and four HM, and found no variants that affect the functions of the known genes. We found biallelic missense variants that affect conserved amino acids in PADI6 and segregate with the disease phenotype in the family...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688390/tripolar-chromosome-segregation-drives-the-association-between-maternal-genotype-at-variants-spanning-plk4-and-aneuploidy-in-human-preimplantation-embryos
#17
Rajiv C McCoy, Louise J Newnham, Christian S Ottolini, Eva R Hoffmann, Katerina Chatzimeletiou, Omar E Cornejo, Qiansheng Zhan, Nikica Zaninovic, Zev Rosenwaks, Dmitri A Petrov, Zachary P Demko, Styrmir Sigurjonsson, Alan H Handyside
Aneuploidy is prevalent in human embryos and is the leading cause of pregnancy loss. Many aneuploidies arise during oogenesis, increasing with maternal age. Superimposed on these meiotic aneuploidies are frequent errors occurring during early mitotic divisions, contributing to widespread chromosomal mosaicism. Here we reanalyzed a published dataset comprising preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in 24,653 blastomere biopsies from day-3 cleavage-stage embryos, as well as 17,051 trophectoderm biopsies from day-5 blastocysts...
April 24, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685706/pregnancy-and-mid-term-abortion-rates-in-farmed-red-deer-in-new-zealand
#18
Kandarp Khodidas Patel, Laryssa Howe, Cord Heuer, Geoffery William Asher, Peter Raymond Wilson
This paper describes pregnancy and mid-term abortion rate data from an investigation of sub-optimal reproductive performance in New Zealand farmed red deer. For 2 years, 87 yearling (YL) and 71 mixed-age adult (MA) herds from 85 farms were observed with 15 YL and seven MA herds observed both years. Hinds were pregnancy diagnosed using ultrasonography in the late autumn-early winter (PD1) and again late winter-early spring (PD2) and mid-term daily abortion rates (DAR) were calculated. Overall, 85.8% of 22,130YL (range, 7...
April 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684126/when-does-germ-cell-loss-and-fibrosis-occur-in-patients-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#19
D Van Saen, V Vloeberghs, I Gies, I Mateizel, K Sermon, Jean De Schepper, H Tournaye, E Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: When does germ cell loss and fibrosis occur in patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In KS, germ cell loss is not observed in testicular tissue from fetuses in the second semester of pregnancy but present at a prepubertal age when the testicular architecture is still normal, while fibrosis is highly present at an adolescent age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Most KS patients are azoospermic at adult age because of a massive germ cell loss...
April 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672838/efficacy-feasibility-and-patient-acceptability-of-ultrasound-guided-manual-vacuum-aspiration-for-treating-early-pregnancy-loss
#20
Jacqueline Pui Wah Chung, Cathy Hoi Sze Chung, Jennifer Sze Man Mak, Tin Chiu Li, Grace Wing Shan Kong
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided manual vacuum aspiration (USG-MVA) is an effective but underutilised alternative to medical or surgical evacuation of the uterus following first trimester miscarriage. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy, feasibility and patient acceptability of USG-MVA for treating early pregnancy loss. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We invited patients with early pregnancy losses to participate in this prospective cohort study. We reviewed the medical records of the participants and their visual analogue pain score during MVA...
April 19, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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