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Fanfan Yi, Yugui Hao, Xiaoyi Chong, Wei Zhong
The aim of the present study was to measure the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-506-3p in the peripheral blood of patients with hypertension and to determine the biological functions and mechanisms of action of miR-506-3p. A total of 61 patients with primary hypertension were included in the present study. Peripheral blood was collected from all patients, as well as 31 healthy subjects who were included in a control group. The expression of miR-506-3p in peripheral blood was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jinyu Chi, Lei Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, Yu Fu, Yue Liu, Wenjia Chen, Wenxiu Liu, Zhiyu Shi, Xinhua Yin
Cardiac fibrosis is one of the primary mechanisms of ventricular remodeling, and there is no effective method for reversal. Activation of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) has been reported to be involved in the development of myocardial fibrosis, but the molecular mechanism for CaSR activation has not yet been clarified and needs to be further explored. Here, we found that AngII induces cardiac fibroblast proliferation and phenotypic transformation in a dose-dependent manner with increased CaSR and autophagy related protein (Beclin1, LC3B) expression...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in-vitro co-culture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase BDNF and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (LDH levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
Xu-Jia Zeng, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Zhao, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Zi-Ai Zhao, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Recent studies have shown that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the number of autophagosomes is markedly increased in brain cells surrounding the wound; however, whether autophagy is enhanced or suppressed by TBI remains controversial. In our study, we used a controlled cortical impact system to establish models of mild, moderate and severe TBI. In the mild TBI model, the levels of autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin1) and autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12)-autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) conjugates were increased, indicating the enhanced initiation of autophagy...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Tongwang Yang, Tao Wu, Liping Lv, Zhiqiang Zhang, Dongjie Liu, Jianji Xu, Dexi Chen, Gang Wu
Nanoparticles were used as ideal carrier for its passive and active targeting property. Unfortunately, many of them were failed for its biotoxicology. Thus, find a safe and targeted drug delivery was the new goal of pharmaceutical industries. Here, A549 and H1299 cells were exposed to ceria oxide nanoparticles, silicon oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles for 12 h to induce autophagy and late apoptosis. Rats were exposed to ceria oxide nanoparticles (20 mg/kg · bw) for 1, 7, 14 or 28 days to induce lung injury and cytokines change...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ewa Toton, Aleksandra Romaniuk, Natalia Konieczna, Johann Hofmann, Jan Barciszewski, Maria Rybczynska
BACKGROUND: Several efforts have been focused on identification of pathways involved in malignancy, progression, and response to treatment in Glioblastoma (GB). Overexpression of PKCε was detected in histological samples from GB, anaplastic astrocytoma, and gliosarcoma and is considered an important marker of negative disease outcome. In multiple studies on GB, autophagy has been shown as a survival mechanism during cellular stress, contributing to resistance against anti-cancer agents...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Luqiao Huang, Yingjian Jiang, Zhenqing Sun, Zhengyu Gao, Jiang Wang, Dianliang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction can be caused by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). It is normally associated with changes to mucosal autophagy and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between autophagy and oxidative stress on the intestinal mucosal barrier of SAP rat model. METHODS: SAP was induced by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate (5%) into the biliopancreatic duct...
February 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Wenhua Sun, Yingying Lin, Liling Chen, Rong Ma, Jiayu Cao, Jing Yao, Kaihong Chen, Jieqing Wan
OBJECTIVE: Autophagy plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of plaques formation and progression of atherosclerosis (AS). The cysteine protease legumain is known to participate in atherogenesis, but its function and underlying mechanism in AS macrophages remain unclear. METHODS: The expressions of legumain in plaques isolated from AS patients and in macrophages stimulated with oxLDL were examined. Moreover, we effectively altered legumain expression in macrophages to characterize the effect of legumain on oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis...
February 4, 2018: Gene
Weiwei Chen, Zili Zhang, Zhen Yao, Ling Wang, Feng Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Liver fibrosis is a reversible pathophysiological process correlated with intense repair and cicatrization mechanisms, and its end-stage cirrhosis is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Interestingly, the use of natural products as a realistic option for the treatment of liver fibrosis has broadly been accepted. Oroxylin A, a safe and natural product, shows a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor properties. However, the effects of Oroxylin A on liver fibrosis remain poorly understood...
January 24, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Yun Zhang, Saiyu Li, Juanjuan Li, Liwen Han, Qiuxia He, Rongchun Wang, Ximin Wang, Kechun Liu
The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and provide a more thorough understanding of the toxicity of PM2.5 in an ecological environment. Zebrafish embryos at 4 h post-fertilization were exposed to PM2.5 at doses of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 μg/mL for 120 h. The mortality, hatching rate, morphology score, body length, locomotor capacity, histological changes, antioxidant defense system, leukocyte migration, inflammation-related gene mRNA expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and autophagy were evaluated to study PM2...
January 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Peter Samuel, Francesca Avogadri-Connors, Richard E Cutler, Alshad S Lalani, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has been shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET, PDGFRα and mutant RAS proteins via autophagic degradation. Neratinib interacted in an additive to synergistic fashion with the approved PARP1 inhibitor niraparib to kill ovarian cancer cells. Neratinib and niraparib caused the ATM-dependent activation of AMPK which in turn was required to cause mTOR inactivation, ULK-1 activation and ATG13 phosphorylation. The drug combination initially increased autophagosome levels followed later by autolysosome levels...
February 6, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Frédéric Schlemmer, Laurent Boyer, Thibaud Soumagne, Audrey Ridoux, Christos Chouaid, Bernard Maitre, Sophie Lanone, Serge Adnot, Etienne Audureau, Jorge Boczkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ming-Wei Liu, Rui Wei, Mei-Xian Su, Hui Li, Tian-Wen Fang, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: In China, Panax notoginseng has been used to treat oxidative stress-related diseases for a long time. Panax notoginseng saponins is an extract from Panax notoginseng Ledeb. Its therapeutic potential is related to antioxidant activity, but related mechanisms are still unclear. The study aims to assess the protection effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in the taurocholate-induced rat model of acute pancreatitis (AP) and explore underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was established in rats induced with taurocholate...
February 5, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Rui Zhong, Bing Liang, Rui Xin, Xuanji Zhu, Zhuo Liu, Qiao Chen, Yufei Hou, Zhao Jin, Mu Qi, Shumei Ma, Xiaodong Liu
Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a rate limiting enzyme critical for the phosphorylation of endogenous deoxynucleosides and for the anti‑tumor activity of many nucleoside analogs. dCK is activated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and it is required for the G2/M checkpoint induced by IR. However, whether dCK plays a role in radiation-induced autophagy and apoptosis is less clear. In this study, we reported that dCK decreased IR-induced total cell death and apoptosis, and increased IR-induced autophagy in SKBR3 and MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cell lines...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Wanlin Liu, Zhenqun Zhao, Yuyan Na, Chenyang Meng, Jianzhong Wang, Rui Bai
Apoptosis of osteoblasts, triggered by prolonged or excessive use of glucocorticoids (GCs), has been identified as a dominant contributor to the development of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GC‑induced apoptosis are multifaceted and remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the correlation between dexamethasone (DEX)‑induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy and apoptosis in MC3T3‑E1 osteoblast‑like cells. Cell viability was assessed using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, and flow cytometry was performed to assess cellular apoptosis, cell cycle and ROS production...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Juan P Liuzzi, Vijaya Narayanan, Huong Doan, Changwon Yoo
Autophagy is a conserved mechanism that plays a housekeeping role by eliminating protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Recent studies have demonstrated that acute ethanol intoxication induces hepatic autophagy in mice. The effect of dietary zinc intake on hepatic autophagic flux during ethanol intoxication has not been evaluated using animal models. Herein, we investigated whether zinc deficiency and excess can affect autophagic flux in the liver in mice and in human hepatoma cells acutely exposed to ethanol...
February 1, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Yu-Xue Xu, Caoxin Huang, Minyi Liu, Ningning Chen, Wenting Chen, Chen Yang, Yan Zhao, Xuejun Li, Junguo Duan, Suhuan Liu, Shuyu Yang
Diabetic vascular complications are often defined by vascular endothelial lesions. However, as a plastic cell type, whether endothelial cells could transit from quiescence to hyper-active status and hamper vascular stability upon hyperglycemia stimulation and whether this process is involved in diabetic vascular complications remain obscure. Survivin has been identified as an anti-apoptotic protein in tumor or epithelial cells by either promoting proliferation or inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the effects of hyperglycemia on endothelial cell status and the potential involvement of survivin...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Mehdi Khateri, Asghar Abdoli, Fatemeh Motevalli, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Azam Bolhassani, Arash Arashkia, Ehsan Ollah Jazaeri, Sepideh Shahbazi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Hamed Naziri, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains a serious threat to life and productivity in developing world. Vaccine seems to be an effective, safe, and affordable approach to address HEV disease burden. The HEV genome consists of three open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, ORF2 encodes a single structural protein (pORF2) for the HEV capsid which has been studied extensively as vaccine candidates. Recently, it has been recognized that autophagy plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity defense against intracellular pathogens...
January 25, 2018: IUBMB Life
Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Guy Berchem, Bassam Janji
Solid tumors are able to establish and sustain an immune suppressive microenvironment, which prevents the infiltration of cytotoxic effector immune cells into the tumor bed. We showed that genetic targeting of the macroautophagy/autophagy gene Becn1/Beclin1 in B16-F10 tumors inhibits their growth by inducing a massive infiltration of functional natural killer (NK) cells into the tumor bed. Such infiltration is primarily due to the ability of BECN1-defective tumor cells to overexpress and release CCL5 cytokine in the tumor microenvironment by a mechanism involving the activation of the MAPK8/JNK-JUN/c-Jun signaling pathway...
January 25, 2018: Autophagy
Katharina B Beer, Jennifer Rivas-Castillo, Kenneth Kuhn, Gholamreza Fazeli, Birgit Karmann, Jeremy F Nance, Christian Stigloher, Ann M Wehman
Cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mediate intercellular communication and repair damaged membranes. Despite the pleiotropic functions of EVs in vitro, their in vivo function is debated, largely because it is unclear how to induce or inhibit their formation. In particular, the mechanisms of EV release by plasma membrane budding or ectocytosis are poorly understood. We previously showed that TAT-5 phospholipid flippase activity maintains the asymmetric localization of the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the plasma membrane and inhibits EV budding by ectocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans However, no proteins that inhibit ectocytosis upstream of TAT-5 were known...
January 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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