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Peiyi Liu, Hongkun Lin, Yanyan Xu, Feng Zhou, Jing Wang, Jingjing Liu, Xinhong Zhu, Xiaoping Guo, Yuhan Tang, Ping Yao
SCOPE: Naturally occurring quercetin has been found to induce mitophagy and prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it still remains elusive whether frataxin upregulation by quercetin contributes to the beneficial effect through mitophagy or not. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male C57BL/J mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of energy from fat) with quercetin (100 mg/ or not for 10 weeks. Quercetin alleviated HFD-induced histopathological changes, disorders of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial damage...
June 23, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Suryakant Niture, Malathi Ramalinga, Habib Kedir, Dorrelyn Patacsil, Samiksha S Niture, James Li, Haresh Mani, Simeng Suy, Sean Collins, Deepak Kumar
Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is a TNF-α inducible anti-apoptotic protein with multiple roles in tumor growth and survival. Mechanisms of cell survival by TNFAIP8 remain elusive. We investigated the role of TNFAIP8 in the regulation of the cell cycle, autophagy, cell survival and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells. We showed that TNFAIP8 dysregulates cell-cycle-related proteins, in PC3 cells. Oncogenic cell survival, drug resistance and dysregulation of cell cycle-related proteins are often associated with autophagy...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Rumeesa Rais, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
PARP1 inhibitors are approved therapeutic agents in ovarian carcinomas, and have clinical activity in some breast cancers. As a single agent, niraparib killed ovarian and mammary tumor cells via an ATM-AMPK-ULK1 pathway which resulted in mTOR inactivation and the formation of autophagosomes, temporally followed by autolysosome formation. In parallel, niraparib activated a CD95-FADD-caspase 8 pathway, and collectively these signals caused tumor cell death that was suppressed by knock down of Beclin1, ATG5, CD95, FADD or AIF; or by expression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL or dominant negative caspase 9...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Hongliang Liu, Lingzhi Wang, Qiang Zeng, Liang Zhao, Yushan Cui, Changchun Hou, Bin Zhang, Zushan Zhang, Shun Zhang, Xuemin Chen, Aiguo Wang
Excessive iodide could induce intellectual damage in children, which has attracted broad attention. To investigate the neurotoxic effect of iodide and its mechanism, a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was treated with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI). The results showed that excessive iodide could decrease cell viability, reduce glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the degree of autophagy (by changing the cellular ultrastructure and raising the autophagy-related mRNA and protein expression of LC3, Beclin1, and p62), which were correlated with the immunofluorescence labeling...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Zhiyuan Feng, Chen Liang, Ram Kumar Manthari, Chong Wang, Jianhai Zhang
Fluoride had been reported to damage the structure and function of testicular tissues and reproductive cells; however, the mechanisms underlying its toxicity remained unclear. Autophagy plays a key role in reproductive function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fluoride on autophagy in Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells were exposed to 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mM NaF for 24 h. The results showed that fluoride exposure up-regulated Beclin1 and p62 mRNA and protein expression levels with concomitant down-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of LC3 and Atg5...
June 19, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Xiaolin Liu, Yintao Xu, Lu Zhang, Ting Liu, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignant tumor of the female reproductive system and is the leading cause of death of gynecological malignancies, but at present there is no effective and safe therapy. There is no previously published report on the anti-cancer effect of prucalopride, which is a high-affinity 5-HT4 receptor. The aim of the present study was to determine whether prucalopride can inhibit proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cell viability was detected by use of the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
June 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kyung-Tae Shin, Jing Guo, Ying-Jie Niu, Xiang-Shun Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of mycotoxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFB1 is considered as the most toxic mycotoxin owing to its toxic effect on health. In the present study, the toxic effect of AFB1 on early porcine embryonic development and its possible mechanism were investigated. Blastocyst formation was impaired with treatment of 1 nM AFB1 compared with control, 0.01, 0.1 group (40.13 ± 2.10%, 28.21 ± 1.62%, 32.34 ± 2.07% vs 19.01 ± 1.06%)...
June 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Wenjun Xiong, Jinghai Hua, Zuheng Liu, Wanqiang Cai, Yujia Bai, Qiong Zhan, Wenyan Lai, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial quality control is crucial to the development of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is rapidly degraded in normal mitochondria but accumulates in damaged mitochondria, triggering autophagy to protect cells. PINK1 mediates mitophagy in general, but whether PINK1 mediates AngII-induced mitophagy and the effects of PINK1 on AngII-induced injury are unknown. This study was designed to investigate the function of PINK1 in an AngII stimulation model and its regulation of AngII-induced mitophagy...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Alissa Piekarski, Gurueswar Nagarajan, Peter Ishola, Joshua Flees, Elizabeth S Greene, Wayne J Kuenzel, Takeshi Ohkubo, Helena Maier, Walter G Bottje, Mark A Cline, Sami Dridi
Autophagy, a highly conserved intracellular self-digestion process, plays an integral role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Although emerging evidence indicate that the endocrine system regulates autophagy in mammals, there is still a scarcity of information on autophagy in avian (non-mammalian) species. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leptin reduces feed intake, modulates the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides, activates leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Ob-Rb/STAT) pathway, and significantly increases the expression of autophagy-related proteins (Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, beclin1, and LC3B) in chicken hypothalamus, liver, and muscle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhaoguo Liu, Pingting Zhu, Lin Zhang, Biao Xiong, Jinhua Tao, Wei Guan, Chunling Li, Chang Chen, Jingya Gu, Jiaxin Duanmu, Wei Zhang
Autophagy has been regarded as an inflammation-associated defensive mechanism against chronic liver disease, which has been highlighted as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. We herein aimed to study the effects of catalpol on liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate the role of autophagy in catalpol-induced anti-inflammation. Catalpol protected the liver against CCl4 -induced injury, as evidenced by mitigated hepatic steatosis, necrosis, and fibrotic septa. Catalpol decreased the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin as well as the liver/body weight ratio...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jing Yu, Xue Li, Nathanael Matei, Devin McBride, Jiping Tang, Min Yan, John H Zhang
Autophagy activation exerts neuroprotective effects in the ischemic stroke model. Ezetimibe (Eze), a Niemann-Pick disease type C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) pharmacological inhibitor, has been reported to protect hepatocytes from apoptosis via autophagy activation. In this study, we explored whether Eze could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in the rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), specifically via activation of the AMPK/ULK1/autophagy pathway. Two hundred and one male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient MCAO followed by reperfusion...
May 28, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Yanan Cheng, Wenbai Zhang, Hui Fan, Pu Xu
Nacre (mother of pearl) is a bioactive material capable of facilitating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation; however, further investigation into the mechanism underlying the effects of nacre on the stimulation of bone differentiation is required. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of water‑soluble nano‑pearl powder (WSNNP) on osteoblast differentiation and to examine the underlying mechanisms. A MTT assay revealed that WSNNP (10, 25 and 50 µg/ml) may stimulate the viability of preosteoblastic MC3T3‑E1 cells and 50 µg/ml WSNNP exhibited the maximum stimulatory effect...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yunbo Ma, Yongxia Zhang, Yanyan Zhao, Xianhua Wang, Yuefu Lin, Aiguo Ma
The expression of autophagy-related genes in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and their clinical significance in patients with TBM was investigated. Sixty patients with TBM (observation group) and twenty healthy volunteers during the same period (control group) were selected and the cerebrospinal fluid was collected. The expression levels of p62, Beclin1 and LC3-II genes in cerebrospinal fluid were detected via semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and patients in observation group were divided into high expression and normal or low expression group on the basis of LC3-II expression levels...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Qinhong Xu, Yongjun Peng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the difference of clinical efficacy between " Tongdu Tiaoshen needles therapy" and conventional acupuncture in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and its relationship with autophagy. METHODS: Sixty patients with ACI were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases and 2 dropping) and a control group (30 cases and 3 dropping). Conventional drugs were applied in the two groups. In the observation group, acupuncture was applied at Dazhui (GV 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Qiangjian (GV 18), Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Yintang (GV 29), Shuigou (GV 26), Quchi (LI 11, affected side), Hegu (LI 4, affected side), Zusanli (ST 36, affected side), and EA was connected at Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29)...
May 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Daniel Eberli, Maya Horst, Ashkan Mortezavi, Karl-Erik Andersson, Rita Gobet, Tullio Sulser, Hans-Uwe Simon, Souzan Salemi
AIMS: To explore whether autophagy plays a role in the remodeling of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in children with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), we investigated the effect of autophagy in NLUTD in the paediatric population. METHODS: Bladder biopsies were taken from children with NLUTD and healthy donors as controls. Samples were labeled with the SMC markers calponin, smoothelin, and the autophagy proteins LC3, ATG5, and Beclin1. The contractile ability of bladder derived SMCs was investigated...
May 24, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Mei Kuang, Yanyan Cen, Rongxin Qin, Shenglan Shang, Zhaoxia Zhai, Chao Liu, Xichun Pan, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a critical role in excessive inflammatory cytokine production during sepsis. Previously, artesunate (AS) was reported to protect septic mice by reducing LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In the present study, the possible mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of AS was further investigated. METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect TNF-α and IL-6 release from macrophages. Specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to knockdown the mRNA expression of target genes...
May 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ting-Ting Du, Ying-Chuan Chen, Yong-Quan Lu, Fan-Gang Meng, Hui Yang, Jian-Guo Zhang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating disability in patients with moderate to severe Parkinson's disease (PD). Preclinical studies have shown that stimulation of the rat STN can protect against nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. To investigate the molecular basis of the neuroprotective effects of STN stimulation, a rat model of PD was established by unilaterally injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Hui-Ta Wu, Cheng-Rong Xie, Jie Lv, He-Qiang Qi, Fei Wang, Sheng Zhang, Qin-Liang Fang, Fu-Qiang Wang, Yu-Yan Lu, Zhen-Yu Yin
Downregulation of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is associated with poor prognosis of various cancers, but its functional mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of DLC1 in tumor progression and autophagy of HCC. We found that DLC1 was frequently downregulated in HCC tissues. Underexpression of DLC1 correlated with AFP level, vascular invasion, poor differentiation, and poor prognosis. In vitro assays revealed that DLC1 not only suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells, but also inhibited autophagy of HCC cells...
May 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Tiantian Cai, Chengzhe Zhang, Ziming Zhao, Siyi Li, Haobin Cai, Xiaodong Chen, Dake Cai, Wei Liu, Yan Yan, Kaifeng Xie, Huafeng Pan, Xiaohui Zeng
Gastric Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. And the occurrence of gastric carcinoma is an evolutionary histopathological stage. As a result, further research of GPL, which is a borderline of gastric cancer, is indispensable for preventing the formation and development of gastric carcinoma. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the expression of autophagy, apoptosis and Gastric cancer (GC). However, the effects of autophagy and apoptosis on human gastric cancer progression, particularly on gastric precancerous lesions (GPL), have not totally been investigated...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
B L Wan, T T Yan, Y J Zhang, X T Li
Objective: The aim of this study is to study the effect of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) on the autophagy and apoptosis of human laryngeal cancer Hep 2 cells induced by curcumin. Method: The proliferation of human laryngeal cancer Hep2 cells was observed by MTT assay. The autophagy level was detected by AO acridine orange staining. Annexin VFITC/PI double staining was used to detect the apoptosis of Hep2 cells. The expression of LC3, Beclin1, Bcl-2 and Bax protein were detected by Western blot. Result: MTT assay showed that curcumin inhibited the proliferation of Hep2 cells in a dose/time dependent manner...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
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