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Cristian Pezzato, Minh T Nguyen, Dong Jun Kim, Ommid Anamimoghadam, Lorenzo Mosca, Fraser Stoddart
Artificial molecular machines can be operated using either physical or chemical inputs. Light-powered motors display clean and autonomous operations, whereas chemically-driven machines generate waste products and are intermittent in their motions. Herein, we show that controlled changes in applied electrochemical potentials can drive the operation of artificial molecular pumps in a semi-autonomous manner - that is, without the need for consecutive additions of chemical fuel(s). The electroanalytical approach described in this communication promotes the assembly of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings along a positively charged oligomeric chain, providing easy access to the formation of multiple mechanical bonds by means of a controlled supply of electricity...
May 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Masahito Asada, Hassan Hakimi, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent probes have allowed a dramatic advancement in time-lapse imaging, enabling this imaging modality to be used to investigate intracellular events in several apicomplexan parasite species. In this study, we constructed a plasmid vector to stably express a genetically encoded H2 O2 sensor probe called HyPer in Babesia bovis. The HyPer-transfected parasite population was successfully developed and subjected to a time-lapse imaging analysis under in vitro culture conditions...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Prakshit Niraula, Saurav Ghimire, Hanna Lee, Man Su Kim
Aging is a complex process resulting in: i) a decline in body functions and capacity to withstand environmental stress and ii) an increased susceptibility to diseases including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer and dementia. Among a number of herbal products used to alleviate symptoms associated with aging is Ilex paraguariensis (IP). This product has been reported to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, its effect on an organisms' longevity has not been thoroughly studied to date...
May 14, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Hongcui Liu, Qiong Wu, Tianyi Chu, Yinyuan Mo, Shuyang Cai, Mengli Chen, Guonian Zhu
The exact toxicological mechanisms of paraquat (PQ) poisoning are not entirely clear, especially on the high-level acute exposure. To assess the health risk of PQ, especially to suicidal individuals, accidental ingestion eaters, occupational groups, and special multitude, firstly we explored the acute toxic effect and the possible mechanisms of high-level exposure of PQ using zebrafish. The mainly target organs of PQ were swim bladder which is the homolog of the mammalian lung, followed by gastrointestinal tract and liver...
April 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Alexander Lam, Priyanka Karekar, Kajol Shah, Girija Hariharan, Michelle Fleyshman, Harmehak Kaur, Harpreet Singh, Shubha Gururaja Rao
Ion channels maintain numerous physiological functions and regulate signaling pathways. They are the key targets for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), acting as signaling switches between ROS and ionic homeostasis. We have carried out a paraquat (PQ) screen in Drosophila to identify ion channels regulating the ROS handling and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Our screen has revealed that α1-subunits (D-type, T-type, and cacophony) of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) handle PQ-mediated ROS stress differentially in a gender-based manner...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yee-Wen Ng, Yee-How Say
Background: Obesity-related central nervous system (CNS) pathologies like neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis are associated with high-fat diet (HFD) related elevation of saturated fatty acids like palmitic acid (PA) in neurons and astrocytes of the brain. Methods: Human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y (as a neuronal model) and human glioblastoma cells T98G (as an astrocytic model), were treated with 100-500 µM PA, oleic acid (OA) or lauric acid (LA) for 24 h or 48 h, and their cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
2018: PeerJ
Gui-Ping Li, Hao Yang, Shao-Bo Zong, Qiu Liu, Liang Li, Zhi-Liang Xu, Jun Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) on paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Male SD rats were challenged by PQ (20?mg/kg, i.p.) with or without either DGMI (1.25, 2.5, 5?mg/kg, i.p.) or Edaravone (EDA, 6?mg/kg, i.p.) posttreatment 2?h after PQ administration. Lung tissues were removed for biochemical analyses and pathological examinations on day 1, day 3, day 7, day 14 and day 21. Results showed that the administration of DGMI significantly increased the survival of PQ-challenged rats...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hanting Fan, Huijie Huang, Li Hu, Wenjia Zhu, Yanfang Yu, Jiaqian Lou, Lingli Hu, Feng Chen
Calcium signaling and oxidative stress are tightly linked to cell cycle and cell death in response to a number of stress conditions. Recent study indicated that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor. However, the regulatory mechanisms and the role of STIM1 in paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung intoxication remain elusive. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms of PQ induced acute intoxication in the lung, and further determine whether calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in the regulatory mechanism...
April 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Morgan G Stykel, Kayla Humphries, Mathew P Kirby, Chris Czaniecki, Tinya Wang, Tammy Ryan, Vladimir Bamm, Scott D Ryan
Neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with aberrant mitochondrial function in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. An association has been reported between PD onset and exposure to mitochondrial toxins, including the agrochemicals paraquat (PQ), maneb (MB), and rotenone (Rot). Here, with the use of a patient-derived stem cell model of PD, allowing comparison of DA neurons harboring a mutation in the α-synuclein (α-syn) gene ( SNCA-A53T) against isogenic, mutation-corrected controls, we describe a novel mechanism whereby NO, generated from SNCA-A53T mutant neurons exposed to Rot or PQ/MB, inhibits anterograde mitochondrial transport through nitration of α-tubulin (α-Tub)...
April 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zheng Li, Jing Zheng, Xiao-Feng Zhang
Paraquat (PQ) exposure is known as a risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are implicated and affected in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries, so it is suspected that PQ may impose detrimental effects on astrocytes function. Here, we present a study of the effects of PQ on synaptic function of astrocytes. Human astrocytes (HA1800) were separately treated with PQ at 200, 400, and 800 µmol/L for 12, 24, and 48 hours, respectively. The concentrations of membrane cholesterol, intracellular glutamate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were assessed by measuring changes with Kits after PQ treatment...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Yahui Tang, Lufeng Hu, Guangliang Hong, Dahai Zhong, Jiaxing Song, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most extensively used tests in clinical practice. In order to determine the diagnostic value of the CBC in paraquat (PQ) and organophosphorus (OPPs) poisoning, the CBC indices of PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were investigated in this study. A total of 96 PQ poisoning patients, 90 OPPs poisoning patients, and 188 healthy subjects were included in this study. The PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were divided into different groups according to their clinical symptoms. All CBC indices were analyzed by Fisher discriminant, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), variance analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jie Gao, Zongxun Cao, Shunyi Feng, Yangying Song, Wenjing Bai, Shumin Zhao, Suli Zhang, Yong Li
Lung dysfunction is an important characteristic of injury induced by paraquat (PQ). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of prolonged low-dose methylprednisolone (MP) treatment on lung function in patients with mild PQ poisoning. We analyzed the results of lung function testing in all patients with mild PQ poisoning admitted to Cangzhou Central Hospital between January 2012 and August 2017. Patients were grouped according to short-term treatment (3 mg/kg/day MP for 3 days) or prolonged treatment (3 mg/kg/day MP for 3 days, followed by dosage reduction by half every 3 days, with treatment terminated when a dosage of 0...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniel A Martinez-Perez, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyhydroxyphenol constituent of green tea (e.g., Camellia sinensis) with known antioxidant properties. Due to these properties, others have proposed it as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that EGCG prolonged the lifespan and locomotor activity in wild-type Canton-S flies exposed to the neurotoxicant paraquat (PQ), suggesting neuroprotective properties. Both gene mutations and environmental neurotoxicants (e...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Niveditha S, T Shivanandappa
Neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) are believed to be caused by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exposure to environmental agents such as pesticides has been implicated in the etiology of sporadic PD. Paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide, induces PD symptoms in laboratory animals including Drosophila. PQ acts as a free radical generator and induces oxidative damage, which is implicated in neuronal cell death. Drosophila model of PQ-induced PD offers a convenient tool for mechanistic studies and, to assess the neuroprotective potential of natural antioxidants...
April 10, 2018: Neurotoxicology
JinJin Liu, Ye Xiong, Mengmeng Jiang
Although paraquat (PQ) concentrations are the most reliable prognosis predictors of PQ poisoning, these laboratory tests are not readily available in all hospitals. In this study, we proposed an imaging related parameter, that is, the ratio of injured lung volume fraction, for the prognosis evaluation of acute PQ poisoning based on the correlation between disease progress and lung imaging features. An artificial neural network was trained and then used to classify the injured and normal lung regions. The ratio of injured lung volume fraction was calculated from the injured lung volume fractions in the first and second CT scans after three-dimensional reconstruction...
2018: BioMed Research International
Zainor Hafisah Che Idris, Aisamuddin Ardi Zainal Abidin, Atiqah Subki, Zetty Norhana Balia Yusof
Thiamine is known to be an important compound in human diet and it is a cofactor required for vital metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, Krebs and Calvin cycle. Besides that, thiamine has been shown to be involved in plant protection against stress. In this study, the level of expression of THIC and THI1/THI4, the genes for the first two enzymes in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway were observed when oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) was subjected to oxidative stress. Primers were designed based on the consensus sequence of thiamine biosynthesis genes obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana , Zea mays , Oryza sativa , and Alnus glutinosa ...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Lijin Wang, Hongyu Yang, Qingqing Wang, Qiaohui Zhang, Zhangjing Wang, Qunwei Zhang, Siying Wu, Huangyuan Li
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related degenerative disease of the central nervous system caused mainly by hereditary, pesticides, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide, causes PD. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are nonprotein-coding transcripts, expressed in the brain and play irreplaceable roles in neurodegenerative diseases. NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is an important genetic transcription regulator in oxidative stress. We aimed to discover novel PQ or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-Nrf2-related lncRNAs and explore their association with PD...
April 5, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Qun-Ying Lin, Liang-Kun Long, Zi-Heng Zhuang, Liang-Liang Wu, Shu-Ling Wu, Wei-Ming Zhang
This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Cordyceps sobolifera in mycelial biomass production via liquid culture and to assay the safety and determine the antioxidative and antiaging activities of Caenorhabditis elegans. A C. sobolifera isolate was cultured using the one-factor-at-a-time method to illustrate its carbon and nitrogen requirements. To assess safety, we determined the lethality, locomotion behavior, and reproduction of C. elegans cultured on a mycelial water extract (MWE) containing nematode growth medium (NGM)...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Chanthasone Vongphouttha, Jie Zhu, Shuhao Deng, Wenlin Tai, Wenjuan Wu, Zhenkun Li, Wen Lei, Yin Wang, Zhaoxing Dong, Tao Zhang
Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide that is widely used in developing countries, and pulmonary fibrosisis one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism underlying PQ toxicity is largely unknown, which makes it difficult to treat. In the present study, western blot analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent immunostaining were used to analyze the effects of rapamycin on PQ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 and MRC-5 cells...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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