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Paraquat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640126/prolonged-methylprednisolone-therapy-after-the-pulse-treatment-for-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-paraquat-poisoning-a-retrospective-analysis
#1
Jie Gao, ShunYi Feng, Jian Wang, SiYuan Yang, Yong Li
This retrospective study aims to evaluate the effect of prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) therapy on the mortality of patients with moderate-to-severe paraquat (PQ) poisoning after the pulse treatment.We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with acute moderate-to-severe PQ poisoning that were admitted to the emergency department from May 2012 to August 2016. Out of 138 patients, 60 were treated with pulse treatment (15 mg kg day MP for 3 days) and 78 were treated with prolonged MP therapy after pulse treatment (15 mg kg day MP for 3 days; afterward, the dosage was reduced in half every 2 days, and the MP therapy was terminated until 0...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627340/-experimental-study-on-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-human-peripheral-blood-induced-by-paraquat-in-vitro
#2
Wei Jin, Jian Lu, Hui Xie, Yiqun Jiang, Xiaoxiao Meng, Yong Zhu, Ruilan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether paraquat (PQ) can induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in human peripheral blood. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy human peripheral blood, and the cells were identified by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) strain. The cells were treated with different concentrations of PQ [0 (as control), 200, 400, 600, 800, 1 000 and 1 200 μmol/L], and the cell viability was measured by cell proliferation and CCK-8 cytotoxicity detection kit, and the median lethal concentration of PQ was selected...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627339/-evaluation-of-adsorption-effect-of-activated-charcoal-on-oral-paraquat-poisoning-an-experimental-study-on-large-animal
#3
Baisheng Sun, Yuezhong He, Yuhao Pei, Cong Zhang, Xigang Zhang, Zhan Yang
OBJECTIVE: To study the adsorption effect of activated charcoal suspension on paraquat (PQ) in gastrointestinal tract of beagles exposed to PQ. METHODS: Twenty healthy male beagles were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 6 beagles in each group. 20% PQ solution (a dose of 30 mg/kg) was prescribed through stomach for beagles in both groups. After exposure to PQ for 30 minutes, the beagles in experimental group were given activated charcoal suspension (1...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624451/rapamycin-protects-against-paraquat-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-activation-of-nrf2-signaling-pathway
#4
Yiheng Xu, Wenlin Tai, Xiaoyuan Qu, Wenjuan Wu, ZhenKun Li, Shuhao Deng, Chanthasone Vongphouttha, Zhaoxing Dong
Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide indeveloping countries worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity especially how to treat PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis is still largely unknown. In animal model of pulmonary fibrosis, we used HE staining, western blotting assay and Real-time PCR assay to analyze the effects of rapamycin on the PQ-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that PQ induced the pulmonary fibrosis using HE staining and Masson's staining, and up-regulated the activity of HYP and the mRNA expressions of Collagen I and III (COL-1and COL-3) in pulmonary tissues...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620826/individual-amino-acid-supplementation-can-improve-energy-metabolism-and-decrease-ros-production-in-neuronal-cells-overexpressing-alpha-synuclein
#5
Vedad Delic, Jeddidiah W D Griffin, Sandra Zivkovic, Yumeng Zhang, Tam-Anh Phan, Henry Gong, Dale Chaput, Christian Reynes, Vinh B Dinh, Josean Cruz, Eni Cvitkovic, Devon Placides, Ernide Frederic, Hamed Mirzaei, Stanley M Stevens, Umesh Jinwal, Daniel C Lee, Patrick C Bradshaw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels...
June 15, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619522/integrated-analysis-of-paraquat-induced-micrornas-mrnas-changes-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#6
Mengling Yan, Tingting Dou, Wen Lv, Xinjin Wang, Lina Zhao, Xiuli Chang, Zhijun Zhou
Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used fast-acting and non-selective herbicides in the world is believed to act as a neurotoxicant, which increases the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) by selectively impairing dopaminergic neurons. However, the mechanism of PQ on neural progenitor cells remains unclear. As regulator of mRNA expression, miRNA play a crucial role in neurotoxicity. Based on our previous study, we chose 10μM PQ, which induced ROS production and inhibited proliferation but not reduced the cell viability...
June 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614921/-the-study-of-using-cordyceps-astragalus-salvia-miltiorrhiza-to-treat-acute-lung-injury-induced-by-paraquat-poisoning-in-rats
#7
Q L Li, J L Liu, J R Wang, X D Jian, B T Kan, Z C Zhang
Objective: To study the therapy of cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza in treating acute lung injury and pulmonary interstitial fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning. Methods: All 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups, the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastric administration paraquat 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning) , the cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza therapy group (rats were given cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza 90 mg/kg body weight intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was given, then the same dose was given once a day) ; control group (rats were intragastric administration with physiological saline) ...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611801/melatonin-improves-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-in-pea-leaves-stressed-by-paraquat-via-chlorophyll-breakdown-regulation-and-its-accelerated-de-novo-synthesis
#8
Katarzyna Szafrańska, Russel J Reiter, Małgorzata M Posmyk
The positive effect of melatonin on the function of the photosynthetic apparatus is known, but little is known about the specific mechanisms of melatonin's action in plants. The influence of melatonin on chlorophyll metabolism of 24-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings during paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress was investigated in this study. Seeds were hydro-primed with water (H), 50 and 200 μM melatonin/water solutions (H-MEL50, H-MEL200), while non-primed seeds were used as controls (C). Increases in chlorophyllase activity (key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation) and 5-aminolevulinic acid contents (the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway) were observed in H-MEL50 and H-MEL200 leaf disks...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611370/peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescent-reaction-as-a-tool-for-elimination-of-tumour-cells-under-oxidative-stress
#9
Andrey V Romanyuk, Irina D Grozdova, Alexander A Ezhov, Nickolay S Melik-Nubarov
The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is an inherent feature of some tumour cells and inflamed tissues. We took advantage of this peculiarity to eliminate cells using chemiluminescent peroxyoxalate reaction. We designed dispersions containing polyoxalate and tetramethylhematoporhyrin (TMHP) in dimethylphthalate droplets stabilized with Pluronic L64. The porphyrin plays the dual role. On the one hand, it serves as an activator of the peroxyoxalate reaction of polyoxalate with intracellular hydrogen peroxide and experiences excitation as a result of the reaction...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609698/clinical-screening-of-paraquat-in-plasma-samples-using-capillary-electrophoresis-with-contactless-conductivity-detection-towards-rapid-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-treatment-of-acute-paraquat-poisoning-in-vietnam
#10
Anh Phuong Vu, Thi Ngan Nguyen, Thi Trang Do, Thu Ha Doan, Tran Hung Ha, Thi Thao Ta, Hung Long Nguyen, Peter C Hauser, Thi Anh Huong Nguyen, Thanh Duc Mai
The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602540/deficiencies-in-mitochondrial-dynamics-sensitize-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-arsenite-and-other-mitochondrial-toxicants-by-reducing-mitochondrial-adaptability
#11
Anthony L Luz, Tewodros R Godebo, Latasha L Smith, Tess C Leuthner, Laura L Maurer, Joel N Meyer
Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and mitophagy are interlinked processes that regulate mitochondrial shape, number, and size, as well as metabolic activity and stress response. The fundamental importance of these processes is evident in the fact that mutations in fission (DRP1), fusion (MFN2, OPA1), and mitophagy (PINK1, PARK2) genes can cause human disease (collectively >1/10,000). Interestingly, however, the age of onset and severity of clinical manifestations varies greatly between patients with these diseases (even those harboring identical mutations), suggesting a role for environmental factors in the development and progression of certain mitochondrial diseases...
June 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600744/interleukin-17a-plays-the-same-role-on-mice-acute-lung-injury-respectively-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-paraquat
#12
Hong-Wei Song, Chen Yang, Wei Liu, Xiao-Wei Liu, Zhi Liu, Feng Gao
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is involved in multiple inflammatory diseases. Our study was to investigate the role of IL-17A on acute lung injury (ALI) respectively induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and paraquat (PQ) on mice. We built ALI mouse models respectively by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with LPS or single gavage with PQ liquid. Two hours after the models were established, a dosage of neutralizing antibody was used to blockade IL-17A by i.p. injection. At 8, 24, and 48 h, the lung wet-to-dry ratio (W/D) was calculated and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured; hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe lung tissue pathological changes; inflammatory cells in BALF were recorded with a hemocytometer; cytokines were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits; immunohistochemistry examined the expression of IL-17A and activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65); and qPCR determined the expression of IL-17A mRNA...
June 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592157/correlation-between-nasal-epithelial-injury-and-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-using-a-series-of-small-molecule-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitors-investigated-for-reversal-of-leptin-resistance-in-obesity
#13
Alan P Brown, Chandrassegar Saravanan, Patrick Devine, Maria Magnifico, Jiaping Gao, Valerie Beaulieu, Fupeng Ma, Kayo Yasoshima, David Barnes-Seeman, Ken Yamada
This research provides a cautionary example when evaluating changes in behavioral end points with respect to postulated pharmacologic activity. Various small molecule substrate mimetic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors were investigated as pharmacologic agents for decreasing food consumption using intranasal (IN) dosing as a means for direct nose-to-brain delivery along the olfactory/trigeminal nerve pathways. Although food consumption was decreased in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, nasal discharge was observed...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591706/predictors-of-acute-kidney-injury-after-paraquat-intoxication
#14
Cheng-Hao Weng, Hui-Hsiang Chen, Ching-Chih Hu, Wen-Hung Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu, Jen-Fen Fu, Wey-Ran Lin, I-Kwan Wang, Tzung-Hai Yen
Paraquat intoxication is characterized by multi-organ failure, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. Many paraquat patients experience acute kidney injury (AKI), sometimes requiring hemodialysis. We observed 222 paraquat-intoxicated patients between 2000 and 2012, and divided them into AKI (n = 103) and non-AKI (n = 119) groups. The mortality rate was higher for AKI than non-AKI patients (70.1% vs. 40.0%, P < 0.001). Patients with AKI had a longer time to hospital arrival (P = 0.003), lower PaO2 (P = 0...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579570/a-charge-transfer-salt-composed-of-methyl-viologen-and-hexacyanidoferrate-ii
#15
Rikako Tanaka, Nobuyuki Matsushita
The methyl viologen dication, used under the name Paraquat as an agricultural reagent, is a well-known electron-acceptor species that can participate in charge-transfer (CT) interactions. The determination of the crystal structure of this species is important for accessing the CT interaction and CT-based properties. The title hydrated salt, bis(1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine-1,1'-diium) hexacyanidoferrate(II) octahydrate, (C12H14N2)2[Fe(CN)6]·8H2O or (MV)2[Fe(CN)6]·8H2O [MV(2+) is the 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine-1,1'-diium (methyl viologen) dication], crystallizes in the space group P21/c with one MV(2+) cation, half of an [Fe(CN)6](4-) anion and four water molecules in the asymmetric unit...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576469/the-toxic-influence-of-paraquat-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-adult-mice
#16
Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Jinhua Jiang, Jiutao Wang, Jiongfang Xie, Xinde Hu, Yingxue Huang, Lingzhen Song, Mengmeng Liu, Leiming Cai, Liezhong Chen, Shanting Zhao
Paraquat, a fast-acting non-selective contact herbicide, is considered an etiological factor related to Parkinson's disease. This study investigated its effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in adult mice as well as possible mechanisms for the effects. We administered paraquat (1.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) and an equal volume of normal saline for 3 weeks to adult male C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory was significantly impaired in paraquat-treated mice...
May 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571752/insights-into-the-differential-toxicological-and-antioxidant-effects-of-4-phenylchalcogenil-7-chloroquinolines-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Willian G Salgueiro, Bruna S Goldani, Tanara V Peres, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Michael Aschner, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Diego Alves, Daiana S Ávila
Organic selenium and tellurium compounds are known for their broad-spectrum effects in a variety of experimental disease models. However, these compounds commonly display high toxicity and the molecular mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects have yet to be elucidated. Thus, the need for an animal model that is inexpensive, amenable to high-throughput analyses, and feasible for molecular studies is highly desirable to improve organochalcogen pharmacological and toxicological characterization. Herein, we use Caenorhabdtis elegans (C...
May 30, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571054/ocular-exposure-to-paraquat-resulting-in-keratopathy-pseudomembranous-conjunctivitis-and-symblepharon
#18
Benjamin R LaHood, Neil Avery, Albert Covello, Daniel Allbon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561222/cromolyn-sodium-attenuates-paraquat-induced-lung-injury-by-modulation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#19
Amir Larki Harchegani, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi, Borhan Darabi, Somayeh Shabib
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Cromolyn Sodium (CS) on proinflammatory cytokines in Paraquat (PQ)-induced lung damage in rat. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 and 2 received nebulized vehicle and CS (8 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively. Group 3 was treated with single oral dose of PQ (40 mg/kg). Groups 4 and 5 were PQ groups which received nebulized CS (6 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively) from 1 week before to 2 weeks after PQ administration. Finally, the animals were scarified and the changes of hydroxyproline (HP) and histology were evaluated in lung tissue...
May 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553488/radically-promoted-formation-of-a-molecular-lasso
#20
Yuping Wang, Junling Sun, Zhichang Liu, Majed S Nassar, Youssry Y Botros, J Fraser Stoddart
Two potential viologen-based molecular lasso precursors-both composed of a 4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY(2+)) unit as part of a rope appended to a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)) loop-that have been designed to mimic the threading/unthreading motion of lasso peptides, have been synthesised and characterised. Solution and solid-state experiments reveal that, when the BIPY(2+) unit in the rope and the CBPQT(4+) loop are connected by a bulky linker, no lasso-like conformational transformation is observed between the different redox states on account of steric effects...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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