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K Isoda, T Nozawa, Y Taira, I Taira, Y Shimizu, I Ishida
Recently, with the advancement of nanotechnology, various nanoparticles have been developed and used in fields such as electronics, cosmetics, and foods. However, the toxicity of nanoparticles has yet to be fully investigated. In particular, the interactions between nanoparticles and therapeutic drugs require further study. We previously reported that unmodified polystyrene nanoparticles with a particle size of 50 nm (NPP50) co-administered with paraquat (PQ) or cisplatin (CDDP) induce hepatic and kidney injury...
March 5, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Lal Sangpuii, Sunil Kumar Dixit, Manoj Kumawat, Shekhar Apoorva, Mukesh Kumar, Deepthi Kappala, Tapas Kumar Goswami, Manish Mahawar
By assisting in the proteolysis, disaggregation and refolding of the aggregated proteins, Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) enhance the cellular survival under stress conditions. In the current study, comparative roles of two such Clps, ClpA (involved in proteolysis) and ClpB (involved in protein disaggregation and refolding) in the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) under different stresses and in virulence have been investigated. clpA and clpB gene deletion mutant strains (∆clpA and ∆clpB) of S...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naho Hirayama, Toshihiko Aki, Takeshi Funakoshi, Kanako Noritake, Kana Unuma, Koichi Uemura
Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide that was once used worldwide, but is now prohibited in many nations due to its high toxicity to humans. However, there are still rare cases of the fetal intoxication of PQ, which was purchased prior to the prohibition in Japan. In this study, several cell death pathways, the mitochondrial stress response, and autophagy were examined in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to PQ. The results reveal the decrease of a mitochondrial stress sensitive-BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3) protein, the suppression of autophagic flux, and the lack of apoptosis as well as other regulated forms of necrosis, such as necroptosis and ferroptosis...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Paraquat is considered to be the main pesticide involved in accidental and intentional poisoning, and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of paraquat intoxication-related research. METHODS: Data was retrieved in March 2017 from the Scopus database. An overview of the research on paraquat intoxication was presented alongside the information related to several bibliometric indicators, such as research trends, countries with their h-index, collaboration, hot issues, top-cited publications, journals, and institutions...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Nick T Harre, Haozhen Nie, Yiwei Jiang, Bryan G Young
BACKGROUND: The giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) rapid response (RR) biotype exhibits a sacrificial form of glyphosate resistance whereby an oxidative burst in mature leaves results in foliage loss, while juvenile leaves remain uninjured. This work investigates the safening capacity of antioxidant enzymes in RR juvenile leaves following glyphosate treatment and examines cross tolerance to paraquat. RESULTS: Basal antioxidant enzyme activities were similar between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and RR biotypes...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Bingji Jin, Hong Jin
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have been reported to be associated with the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). Oxymatrine (OMT) alone or combined with other drugs can ameliorate paraquat- or oleic acid-induced lung injury. However, the effect of OMT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether OMT can attenuate LPS-induced ALI through regulation of the ENaC and MAPK pathway using an ALI mouse model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yin-Hui Leong, Adilah Mohamed Ariff, Halilol Rahman Mohamed Khan, Noor Afiza Abdul Rani, Mohamed Isa Abdul Majid
This study analyses the incidences and patterns of paraquat poisoning from calls received at the Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) since 2004 following the ban of the herbicide (2004-2006) and subsequent restriction up to year 2015. Related reported cases to the centre over twelve years (2004-2015) were retrieved and studied in respect to socio-demographic characteristics, mode and type of poisonings, exposure routes and location of incident. Ages of poisoned victims range from 10 months old to 98 years with males being intoxicated more frequently than females (ratio male to female = 2...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Md Mahabub Alam, M H M Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Hirosuke Oku, Masayuki Fujita
To investigate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-induced paraquat (PQ) tolerance in plants, we pretreated a set of 10-day-old Brassica napus seedlings with 500 μM sodium nitroprusside (SNP - a NO donor) for 24 h. Then, three doses of PQ (62.5, 125 and 250 μM) were applied separately, as well as to SNP-pretreated seedlings, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for an additional 48 h. The seedlings treated with PQ showed clear, dose-dependent signs of oxidative stress, with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, malondialdehyde), H2 O2 and O2 - generation, and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Alex Yen-Yu Chen, Tim Tully
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The complexity of disease etiology includes both genetic and environmental factors. No effective drug that can modify disease progression and protect dopamine neurons from degeneration is presently available. Human α-Synuclein A30P (A30P) is a mutant gene identified in early onset PD and showed to result selective dopamine neuron loss in transgenic A30P flies and mice...
March 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Junbo Zhu, Yongtao Yu, Hongbo Li, Fenshuang Zheng, Ruyun Lin, Chun'ai Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of sucralfate on cytokines in rats with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. METHODS: Seventy-two healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into PQ model group, sodium bicarbonate intervention group (SB group) and sucralfate suspension gel group (LTL group), with 24 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by one-time intragastric administration of PQ solution 25 mg/kg. The rats in SB group and LTL group were intragastricly administrated with 5 mL×kg-1 ×d-1 of 100 g/L sodium bicarbonate or 200 g/L sucralfate at 2 hours after exposing to PQ, and the rats in PQ model group were given the same amount of sterile saline...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Sylvain Losdat, Jonathan D Blount, Viviana Marri, Lea Maronde, Heinz Richner, Fabrice Helfenstein
1.Early-life stressful conditions can shape individual phenotypes and ultimately influence fitness. Oxidative stress is a pervasive threat that affects many fitness-related traits and can modulate life-history trade-offs. Yet, the extent to which exposure to oxidative stress during early life can have long-lasting effects on key fitness-related traits remains to be elucidated, particularly in natural populations of vertebrates. 2.Using a wild population of great tits Parus major, we experimentally dosed 11 day-old birds with paraquat, a pro-oxidant molecule, aiming at increasing oxidative stress...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Xiuxian Wan, Chunyu Zhou, Xin Kang, Dayong Hu, Wen Xue, Xinhua Li, Hui Bao, Ai Peng
BACKGROUND Paraquat is a major cause of fatal poisoning after ingestion in many parts of Asia and the Pacific nations. However, optimal prognostic indicators to evaluate patient mortality have not been unequivocally established. Following acute paraquat poisoning, a number of amino acids (AA), are abnormally expressed in metabolic pathways. However, the alterations in AA metabolite levels after paraquat poisoning remain unknown in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, 40 patients were enrolled, of whom 16 survived and 24 died...
March 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Terry Leon Price, Harry William Gibson
Five new bis(dibenzo-30-crown-10-based cryptand)s were synthesized, two of which (16 and 17) had long flexible spacers that led to cooperative complexation of dibenzyl paraquat TFSI (Kave = 4.36 x 105 M-1 for 172b). Self-assembly of 16 and 17 with bisparaquats with similar spacers (18, 21 and 23) led to high molecular weight supramolecular pseudorotaxane polymers in solution. Continuous, flexible fibers were drawn from concentrated solutions. 17 with C10-linked bisparaquat 23 in DCM produced a log-log viscosity vs...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Liyan Hou, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Qingshan Wang
Beyond nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons are also degenerated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We previously reported that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to LC/NE neurodegeneration. The purpose of this study is aimed to test whether taurine, an endogenous amino acid, could be able to protect LC/NE neurons through inhibition of microglial activation using paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model...
March 5, 2018: Amino Acids
Eun Hye Koh, ChaeWon Mun, Chun Tae Kim, Sung-Gyu Park, Eun Jung Choi, Sun Ho Kim, Jaejeung Dang, Jaebum Choo, Jin-Woo Oh, Dong-Ho Kim, Ho Sang Jung
A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor comprising silver nanowires (AgNWs) and genetically engineered M13 bacteriophages expressing a tryptophan-histidine-tryptophan (WHW) peptide sequence (BPWHW) was fabricated by simple mixing of BPWHW and AgNW solutions, followed by vacuum filtration onto a glass-fiber filter paper (GFFP) membrane. The AgNWs stacked on the GFFP formed a high density of SERS-active hot spots at the points of nanowire intersections, and the surface-coated BPWHW functioned as a bioreceptor for selective pesticide detection...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Fateixa, M Raposo, H I S Nogueira, T Trindade
An important feature in the fabrication of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms is, together with the high efficiency, to allow the rapid collection and analysis of a vestigial analyte. Conventional substrates based on rigid solid materials or metal hydrosols are not suitable for sample extraction, limiting their application in areas such as water quality monitoring. Herein, we have developed a strategy to fabricate SERS active substrates (Ag/LCP) based on liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) textile fibers decorated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs)...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Rihua Wang, Xue Zhao, Jin Xu, Yifan Wen, Aiping Li, Ming Lu, Jianwei Zhou
Astrocytic JWA exerts neuroprotective roles by alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms of how astrocytic JWA is involved in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that astrocyte-specific JWA knockout mice (JWA CKO) exacerbated dopamine (DA) neuronal loss and motor dysfunction, and reduced the levels of DA and its metabolites in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced PD model...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Junguo Ma, Yuanyuan Li, Mengli Wu, Can Zhang, Yuqing Che, Weiguo Li, Xiaoyu Li
Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide used worldwide, and it was shown to be a high-risk compound to aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of PQ on traditional serum parameters and circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in common carp to further elucidate the mechanism of PQ toxicity in fish. In the current study, a subacute toxicity test of common carp exposed to PQ at 1.596 and 3.192 mg/L for 7 d was conducted under laboratory conditions. The results showed that PQ exposure generally reduced the levels of T-AOC, SOD, CAT, and GST, but significantly increased MDA levels in the serum, indicating that PQ exposure induces oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the fish...
February 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Haifeng Li, Linnan Su, Sheng Chen, Libin Zhao, Hongyu Wang, Fei Ding, Hong Chen, Ruona Shi, Yulan Wang, Zebo Huang
Nostoc colonies have been used as food and medicine for centuries, and their main supporting matrix is polysaccharides, which help Nostoc cells resist various environmental stresses including oxidative stress. Here we isolated a polysaccharide, nostoglycan, from cultured Nostoc sphaeroides colonies and determined its physicochemical properties, which revealed a characteristic infrared absorption spectrum typical of polysaccharides and an amorphous morphology with rough surfaces. We also show that nostoglycan has strong moisture absorption and retention capacities and a high relative viscosity...
February 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
L J Yu, X D Jian, Z C Zhang, Y L Ren, Q Ning, K Wang, B J Gao, J E Jia
Objective: To investigate the causes of peripheral vascular thrombosis in patients with paraquat poisoning. Methods: The patients with paraquat poisoning who were admitted to our department in recent two years were observed to screen out the patients with large vessel thrombosis. The data on toxic exposure history, clinical features, and treatment were collected to analyze the causes of thrombosis in the patients with paraquat poisoning. Results: Three patients had typical lower limb thrombosis. There was one case of right common femoral vein thrombosis, one case of bilateral calf muscle vein thrombosis, and one case of right calf superficial vein thrombosis and right calf muscle vein thrombosis...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
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