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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817531/bias-confounding-and-interaction-lions-and-tigers-and-bears-oh-my
#1
Thomas R Vetter, Edward J Mascha
Epidemiologists seek to make a valid inference about the causal effect between an exposure and a disease in a specific population, using representative sample data from a specific population. Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specific population, based upon their randomly collected, representative sample data. Both do so by using the available data about the sample variable to make a valid estimate about its corresponding or underlying, but unknown population parameter...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814758/targeted-insertion-of-an-anti-cd2-monoclonal-antibody-transgene-into-the-ggta1-locus-in-pigs-using-foki-dcas9
#2
Mark B Nottle, Evelyn J Salvaris, Nella Fisicaro, Stephen McIlfatrick, Ivan Vassiliev, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Jamie L Brady, Andrew M Lew, Peter J Cowan
Xenotransplantation from pigs has been advocated as a solution to the perennial shortage of donated human organs and tissues. CRISPR/Cas9 has facilitated the silencing of genes in donor pigs that contribute to xenograft rejection. However, the generation of modified pigs using second-generation nucleases with much lower off-target mutation rates than Cas9, such as FokI-dCas9, has not been reported. Furthermore, there have been no reports on the use of CRISPR to knock protective transgenes into detrimental porcine genes...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811582/a-new-class-of-hybrid-secretion-system-is-employed-in-pseudomonas-amyloid-biogenesis
#3
Sarah L Rouse, William J Hawthorne, Jamie-Lee Berry, Dror S Chorev, Sandra A Ionescu, Sebastian Lambert, Fisentzos Stylianou, Wiebke Ewert, Uma Mackie, R Marc L Morgan, Daniel Otzen, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Per H Nielsen, Morten Dueholm, Hagan Bayley, Carol V Robinson, Stephen Hare, Stephen Matthews
Gram-negative bacteria possess specialised biogenesis machineries that facilitate the export of amyloid subunits for construction of a biofilm matrix. The secretion of bacterial functional amyloid requires a bespoke outer-membrane protein channel through which unfolded amyloid substrates are translocated. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography, native mass spectrometry, single-channel electrical recording, molecular simulations and circular dichroism measurements to provide high-resolution structural insight into the functional amyloid transporter from Pseudomonas, FapF...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795335/encouraging-mindfulness-in-medical-house-staff-via-smartphone-app-a-pilot-study
#4
Louise Wen, Timothy E Sweeney, Lindsay Welton, Mickey Trockel, Laurence Katznelson
BACKGROUND: Stress and burnout are increasingly recognized as urgent issues among resident physicians, especially given the concerning implications of burnout on physician well-being and patient care outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed how a mindfulness and meditation practice among residents, supported via a self-guided, smartphone-based mindfulness app, affects wellness as measured by prevalidated surveys. METHODS: Residents in the departments of general surgery, anesthesia, and obstetrics and gynecology were recruited for participation in this survey-based, four-week, single-arm study...
August 9, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782814/comparative-study-of-the-influence-of-hawthorn-crataegus-monogyna-berries-ethanolic-extract-and-butylated-hydroxylanisole-bha-on-lipid-peroxidation-myoglobin-oxidation-consistency-and-firmness-of-minced-pork-during-refrigeration
#5
Camelia Papuc, Corina Nicoleta Predescu, Liliana Tudoreanu, Valentin Nicorescu, Iuliana Gajaila
BACKGROUND: Following public concern on the use of synthetic food antioxidants, there is an increasing demand for the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to maintain meat produces quality during storage. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hawthorn berries' ethanolic extract compared to butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), on lipid peroxidation, myoglobin oxidation, protein electrophoresis pattern, consistency and firmness of minced pork during refrigeration at 4 °C and to identify the relationship between chemical modifications and consistency variation...
August 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771838/human-regulatory-macrophages-are-potent-in-suppression-of-the-xenoimmune-response-via-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-involved-mechanism-s
#6
Fei Guo, Min Hu, Dandan Huang, Yuanfei Zhao, Benjamin Heng, Gilles Guillemin, Chai K Lim, Wayne J Hawthorne, Shounan Yi
BACKGROUND: For xenotransplantation to truly succeed, we must develop immunomodulatory strategies to suppress the xenoimmune response but by minimizing immunosuppression over the long term. Regulatory macrophages (Mreg) have been shown to suppress polyclonal T-cell proliferation in vitro and prolong allograft survival in vivo. However, the question of whether they are capable of suppressing xenoimmune responses remains unknown. This study assessed the potential of human Mreg to be used as an effective immunomodulatory method in xenotransplantation...
August 2, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763237/changing-shape-evolving-an-outsourced-bioanalytical-strategy-to-support-the-changing-needs-of-drug-development
#7
Craig Stovold, Fiona Milligan, Glen Hawthorne, Colin Pattison, Amanda Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755008/biochar-influences-on-soil-co2-and-ch4-fluxes-in-response-to-wetting-and-drying-cycles-for-a-forest-soil
#8
Mark S Johnson, Cameron Webster, Rachhpal S Jassal, Iain Hawthorne, T Andrew Black
Biochar has been the focus of significant research efforts in agriculture, but little research has been conducted in forested ecosystems. Here, we assess CO2 and CH4 fluxes from a forest soil in response to biochar additions using a before-after-control-intervention experimental design. Soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured over a series of wetting cycles by coupling soil mesocosms equipped with auto-chambers to a laser-based spectrometer for high-frequency measurements of gas fluxes and related soil processes...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752911/the-hawthorne-effect-in-direct-observation-research-with-physicians-and-patients
#9
Meredith A Goodwin, Kurt C Stange, Stephen J Zyzanski, Benjamin F Crabtree, Elaine A Borawski, Susan A Flocke
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: This study examines the degree to which a "Hawthorne effect" alters outpatient-visit content. METHODS: Trained research nurses directly observed 4454 visits to 138 family physicians. Multiple data sources were used to examine the Hawthorne effect including differences in medical record documentation for observed visits and the prior visit by the same patient, time use during visits on the first versus the second observation day of each physician, and report by the patient, physician, and observer of the effect of observation...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737658/regulation-of-clinical-xenotransplantation-time-for-a-reappraisal
#10
David K C Cooper, Richard N Pierson, Bernhard J Hering, Muhammad M Mohiuddin, Jay A Fishman, Joachim Denner, Curie Ahn, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Leo H Buhler, Peter J Cowan, Wayne J Hawthorne, Takaaki Kobayashi, David H Sachs
The continual critical shortage of organs and cells from deceased human donors has stimulated research in the field of cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), with the pig selected as the most suitable potential source of organs. Since the US Food and Drug Administration concluded a comprehensive review of xenotransplantation in 2003, considerable progress has been made in the experimental laboratory to improve cell and organ xenograft survival in several pig-to-nonhuman primate systems that offer the best available models to predict clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735354/transplantation-sites-for-human-and-murine-islets
#11
Rebecca A Stokes, Kim Cheng, Amit Lalwani, Michael M Swarbrick, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Tom W Kay, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Jenny E Gunton
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell replacement is a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. In humans, islet transplants are currently infused into the liver via the portal vein, although this site has disadvantages. Here, we investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and murine islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. METHODS: Murine islets were isolated from C57BL6/J mice and transplanted into syngeneic recipients...
July 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734125/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cold-in-situ-perfusion-and-preservation-of-the-hepatic-allograft-working-towards-a-unified-approach
#12
REVIEW
Ahmer M Hameed, Jerome M Laurence, Vincent W T Lam, Henry C Pleass, Wayne J Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of cold in situ perfusion and static storage of the liver is one possible determinant of transplantation outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence to substantiate a preference for a particular perfusion route (aortic or dual) or perfusion/preservation solution in donation after brain-death (DBD) liver transplantation. METHODS: The Embase, Medline and Cochrane databases were utilized (1980-2017). Random effects modeling was used to estimate effects on transplantation outcomes based upon (i) aortic or dual in situ perfusion, and (ii) the use of University of Wisconsin (UW), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), Celsior and/or Institut Georges Lopez-1 (IGL-1) for perfusion/preservation...
July 22, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730558/transplantation-sites-for-porcine-islets
#13
Rebecca A Stokes, Denbigh M Simond, Heather Burns, Anita T Patel, Philip J O'Connell, Jenny E Gunton, Wayne J Hawthorne
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Xenotransplantation has great potential to provide beta cell replacement and thereby provide a cure for large numbers of people with type 1 diabetes. Crucial to the success of xenotransplantation is establishment of the most viable sites for transplantation. METHODS: We compared porcine islet tissue transplanted into kidney, liver and spleen in pig recipients as assessed by blood glucose levels and IVGTT. RESULTS: Kidney was the superior site for porcine islet tissue transplantation, followed by liver then spleen...
July 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716486/the-impact-of-a-peer-support-group-for-children-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-uganda
#14
Amy Scheel, Andrea Beaton, Emmy Okello, Chris T Longenecker, Isaac Omara Otim, Peter Lwabi, Craig Sable, Allison R Webel, Twalib Aliku
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a peer-support group on knowledge, quality of life, and social support for children with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). METHODS: Children diagnosed with RHD and receiving 4-weekly injectable penicillin were invited to participate in a monthly support group for 6 months. Pre- and post-intervention assessments included a baseline RHD knowledge assessment, a measure of health related quality of life (HRQOL) (PedsQLTM4.0), and a measure of social support (Hawthorne Friendship Scale)...
July 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710433/high-density-genetic-linkage-map-construction-and-quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-for-hawthorn-crataegus-pinnatifida-bunge
#15
Yuhui Zhao, Kai Su, Gang Wang, Liping Zhang, Jijun Zhang, Junpeng Li, Yinshan Guo
Genetic linkage maps are an important tool in genetic and genomic research. In this study, two hawthorn cultivars, Qiujinxing and Damianqiu, and 107 progenies from a cross between them were used for constructing a high-density genetic linkage map using the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing method, as well as for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flavonoid content. In total, 206,411,693 single-end reads were obtained, with an average sequencing depth of 57× in the parents and 23× in the progeny...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686738/correction-assessment-of-chronic-sublethal-effects-of-imidacloprid-on-honey-bee-colony-health
#16
Galen P Dively, Michael S Embrey, Alaa Kamel, David J Hawthorne, Jeffery S Pettis
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118748.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685913/could-phase-3-medicine-trials-be-tagged-as-pragmatic-a-case-study-the-salford-copd-trial
#17
Rafael Dal-Ré
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) can be classified as explanatory or pragmatic. Currently, explanatory and pragmatic are considered to be the extremes of a continuum: Many trials have some features of both explanatory and pragmatic RCTs. The Salford Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease (COPD) trial was an open-label phase 3 RCT assessing an experimental product (fluticasone furoate-vilanterol) vs usual care. The Salford investigators labelled it as "the world's first phase 3 pragmatic RCT" in COPD patients...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683435/validation-and-comparison-of-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-mediated-by-boron-rich-liposomes-in-multiple-murine-tumor-models
#18
Charles A Maitz, Aslam A Khan, Peter J Kueffer, John D Brockman, Jonathan Dixson, Satish S Jalisatgi, David W Nigg, Thomas A Everett, M Frederick Hawthorne
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. Mice were implanted with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na3[1-(2`-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] within the liposomal core...
August 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674384/impact-of-climate-and-host-availability-on-future-distribution-of-colorado-potato-beetle
#19
Cong Wang, David Hawthorne, Yujia Qin, Xubin Pan, Zhihong Li, Shuifang Zhu
Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB) is a devastating invasive pest of potato both in its native North America and now across Eurasia. It also damages eggplant, tomato and feeds on several wild species in the Solanaceae, such as S. eleagnifolium and S. rostratum Dunal (SR). Since first categorized as a pest in 1864, CPB has spread rapidly across North America, Europe and Asia. In light of its invasiveness and economic importance, it is necessary to study how climate change and host availability may alter the distribution of the CPB...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670982/meeting-the-demand-of-the-future-a-curriculum-to-stimulate-interest-in-careers-in-primary-care-internal-medicine
#20
Mary R Hawthorne, An Dinh
BACKGROUND: There is a growing need for primary care physicians, but only a small percentage of graduating medical students enter careers in primary care. PURPOSE: To assess whether a Primary Care Intraclerkship within the Medicine clerkship can significantly improve students' attitudes by analyzing scores on pre- and post-tests. METHODS: Students on the Medicine clerkship at the University of Massachusetts Medical School participated in full-day 'intraclerkships',to demonstrate the importance of primary care and the management of chronic illness in various primary care settings...
2017: Medical Education Online
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