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Julie B Hébert, Sonja J Scheffer, David J Hawthorne
Evolutionary radiations have been well documented in plants and insects, and natural selection may often underly these radiations. If radiations are adaptive, the diversity of species could be due to ecological speciation in these lineages. Agromyzid flies exhibit patterns of repeated host-associated radiations. We investigated whether host-associated population divergence and evidence of divergent selection exist in the leaf miner Phytomyza glabricola on its sympatric host plants, the holly species, Ilex coriacea and I...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Elizabeth M Mudge, Ying Liu, Jensen A Lund, Paula N Brown
Suitably validated analytical methods that can be used to quantify medicinally active phytochemicals in natural health products are required by regulators, manufacturers, and consumers. Hawthorn (Crataegus) is a botanical ingredient in natural health products used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. A method for the quantitation of vitexin-2″-O- rhamnoside, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and hyperoside in hawthorn leaf and flower raw materials and finished products was optimized and validated according to AOAC International guidelines...
October 24, 2016: Planta Medica
Ying Peng, Li-Li Lou, Si-Fan Liu, Le Zhou, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Shao-Jiang Song
Seven new neolignans (1-2, 7-11) and five known compounds (3-6, 12) were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of hawthorn seeds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of all the isolates were investigated. Most of the isolates showed moderate radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay and significant activities in the ABTS and FRAP assays. Furthermore, compounds 7-12 exhibited marked nitric oxide (NO) inhibition and compounds 1-4 had a potent necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitory effect...
October 7, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ahmer M Hameed, Henry C Pleass, Germaine Wong, Wayne J Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: The two main options for renal allograft preservation are static cold storage (CS) and machine perfusion (MP). There has been considerably increased interest in MP preservation of kidneys, however conflicting evidence regarding its efficacy and associated costs have impacted its scale of clinical uptake. Additionally, there is no clear consensus regarding oxygenation, and hypo- or normothermia, in conjunction with MP, and its mechanisms of action are also debated. The primary aims of this article were to elucidate the benefits of MP preservation with and without oxygenation, and/or under normothermic conditions, when compared with CS prior to deceased donor kidney transplantation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Alper Gokbulut, F Sezer Senol
Plants have been always a fruitful source of active metabolites against many human disorders, where cardiovascular (CV) diseases have been one of the major health problems all over the world. There are some clinically proved medicinal plants with cardioprotective effects such as Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha (hawthorn) from Rosaceae. On the other hand, cardiac glycosides, present in a number of plant species, are well-known for their cardiotonic activity. However, we encountered such a fact that very less number of studies are available on the source plants; e...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
F Burger, M Walgenbach, P Göbel, S Parbs, E Neugebauer
Background: We investigated and evaluated the cost effectiveness of coding by health care economists in a centre for orthopaedics and trauma surgery in Germany, by quantifying and comparing the financial efficiency of physicians with basic knowledge of the DRG-system with the results of healthcare economists with in-depth knowledge (M.Sc.). In addition, a hospital survey was performed to establish how DRG-coding is being performed and the identity of the persons involved. Material and Methods: In a prospective and controlled study, 200 in-patients were coded by a healthcare economist (study group)...
October 7, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
S L Y Ma, Y M Lu
The Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.) is uniquely originated in northern China. The ecological and horticultural importance of Chinese hawthorn is considerable and some varieties are valued for their fruit or medicine extracts. Its taxonomy and phylogeny remain poorly understood. Apart from general plant morphological traits, pollen is an important trait for the classification of plants and their evolutionary origin. However, few studies have investigated the pollen of Chinese hawthorn...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
David Forbes, Meaghan O'Donnell, Rachel M Brand, Sam Korn, Mark Creamer, Alexander C McFarlane, Malcolm R Sim, Andrew B Forbes, Graeme Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health literature. AIMS: To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments. METHOD: In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community sample was used as a comparator...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
Froylán Vargas-Martínez, Richard J Schanler, Steven A Abrams, Keli M Hawthorne, Susan Landers, José Guzman-Bárcenas, Onofre Muñoz, Tore Henriksen, Maria Petersson, Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada
Hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease and stroke, leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), caused by an excess of glucocorticoid exposure to the fetus, produces an imbalance in oxidative stress altering many biochemical and epigenetic gene transcription processes exposing the fetus and neonate to the 'thrifty' phenotype and pervasive polymorphisms appearance damaging health, cognitive, and behavioral processes in later life. OT is a major regulator of oxidative stress radicals that plays a major role in neonatal maturation of the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues expressing oxytocin/oxytocin-receptor (OT/OTR) system in the early postnatal period...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
D J Gould, S Creedon, A Jeanes, N S Drey, J Chudleigh, D Moralejo
The purpose of hand hygiene is to break the chain of healthcare-associated infection. In many countries hand hygiene is regularly audited as part of quality assurance based on recommendations from the World Health Organization. Direct observation is the recommended audit method but is associated with disadvantages, including potential for being observed to alter usual behaviour. The Hawthorne effect in relation to hand hygiene is analogous with productivity improvement by increasing the frequency with which hand hygiene is undertaken...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Zhenzhi Wang, Dongxia Zhai, Danying Zhang, Lingling Bai, Ruipin Yao, Jin Yu, Wen Cheng, Chaoqin Yu
Insulin resistance (IR) is a clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Quercetin, derived from Chinese medicinal herbs such as hawthorn, has been proven practical in the management of IR in diabetes. However, whether quercetin could decrease IR in PCOS is unknown. This study aims to observe the therapeutic effect of quercetin on IR in a PCOS rat model and explore the underlying mechanism. An IR PCOS rat model was established by subcutaneous injection with dehydroepiandrosterone. The body weight, estrous cycle, and ovary morphology of the quercetin-treated rats were observed...
September 15, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Paulita Bennett-Martin, Christy C Visaggi, Timothy L Hawthorne
Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mariam M AlHilli, Marc A Becker, S John Weroha, Karen S Flatten, Rachel M Hurley, Maria I Harrell, Ann L Oberg, Matt J Maurer, Kieran M Hawthorne, Xiaonan Hou, Sean C Harrington, Sarah McKinstry, X Wei Meng, Keith M Wilcoxen, Kimberly R Kalli, Elizabeth M Swisher, Scott H Kaufmann, Paul Haluska
OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have yielded encouraging responses in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), but the optimal treatment setting remains unknown. We assessed the effect of niraparib on HGSOC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models as well as the relationship between certain markers of homologous recombination (HR) status, including BRCA1/2 mutations and formation of RAD51 foci after DNA damage, and response of these PDXs to niraparib in vivo...
September 7, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
John G Williams, M Fasih Alam, Laith Alrubaiy, Ian Arnott, Clare Clement, David Cohen, John N Gordon, A Barney Hawthorne, Mike Hilton, Hayley A Hutchings, Aida U Jawhari, Mirella Longo, John Mansfield, Jayne M Morgan, Frances Rapport, Anne C Seagrove, Shaji Sebastian, Ian Shaw, Simon P L Travis, Alan Watkins
BACKGROUND: Infliximab and ciclosporin are of similar efficacy in treating acute severe ulcerative colitis, but there has been no comparative evaluation of their relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: In this mixed methods, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial, we recruited consenting patients aged 18 years or older at 52 district general and teaching hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales who had been admitted, unscheduled, with severe ulcerative colitis and failed to respond to intravenous hydrocortisone within about 5 days...
September 2016: Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol
Zhan Sun, Bin Yan, Wen Yan Yu, Xueping Yao, Xiaojuan Ma, Geli Sheng, Qi Ma
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. However, its clinical use has been hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Vitexin, which is the active ingredient of hawthorn leaf extract, has various biological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The present study aimed to investigate whether vitexin was able to protect against DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in model rats and the mechanisms of this protective effect were assessed. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the control (saline only), model (DOX only) and vitexin-treated (DOX plus vitexin) groups...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wayne J Hawthorne, Lindy Williams, Yi Vee Chew
The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wayne J Hawthorne
For more than two decades we have been refining advances in islet cell transplantation as a clinical therapy for patients suffering from type 1 diabetes. A great deal of effort has gone to making this a viable therapy for a broader range of patients with type 1 diabetes. Clinical results have progressively improved, demonstrating clinical outcomes on par with other organ transplants, specifically in terms of insulin independence, graft and patient survival. We are now at the point where islet cell transplantation, in the form of allotransplantation, has become accepted as a clinical therapy in adult patients affected by type 1 diabetes, in particular those suffering from severe hypoglycaemic unawareness...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Abeer M Rababa'h, Salah E Altarabsheh, Osama Haddad, Salil V Deo, Yagthan Obeidat, Sayer Al-Azzam
OBJECTIVES: Hawthorn extract consumption is becoming more widespread among the Jordanian population with cardiovascular disorders. We conducted this prospective observational longitudinal study to determine the impact of hawthorn extract on bleeding risk in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed on 116 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the period between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (patients recently consumed hawthorn extract) and Group II (patients never consumed hawthorn extract)...
2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Rachel Huey, Susan Hawthorne
Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG), a 505 amino acid type-1 glycoprotein, is responsible for the neurotrophic nature of the rabies virus infection. Despite varying reports in the literature as to which receptor is ultimately responsible for interaction of RVG with the nervous system, there is a strong argument for major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) involvement. Peptide derivatives of RVG, such as rabies virus-derived peptide (RDP) and RVG-29 are emerging as promising targeting ligands for the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Gabriel Henrique Hawthorne, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci, Mariza Bortolanza, Vitor Tumas, Ana Carolina Issy, Elaine Del-Bel
Nanoparticles might be produced and manipulated to present a large spectrum of properties. The physicochemical features of the engineered nanomaterials confer to them different features, including the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The main objective of this review is to present the state-of-art research in nano manipulation concerning Parkinson's disease (PD). In the past few years, the association of drugs with nanoparticles solidly improved treatment outcomes. We systematically reviewed 28 studies, describing their potential contributions regarding the role of nanomedicine to increase the efficacy of known pharmacological strategies for PD treatment...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
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