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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922811/a-programme-to-create-short-course-chemotherapy-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease-based-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-mathematical-forecasting
#1
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prevalence is on the rise worldwide. The average therapy duration is 1.5 years, which is associated with poor cure rates. Our objective was to develop a programme to design a combination therapy regimen for pulmonary MAC to be administered for 6 months or less with efficacy in > 90% of patients. Methods: We performed a literature search for the following MeSH headings 'Mycobacterium avium' AND 'pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics' in PubMed up to 2016...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922805/failure-of-the-azithromycin-and-ethambutol-combination-regimen-in-the-hollow-fibre-system-model-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-infection-is-due-to-acquired-resistance
#2
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To investigate the performance of the two backbone drugs in the standard combination therapy regimen in the hollow-fibre system (HFS) model of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. Methods: Six HFS were inoculated with human-derived monocytes infected with MAC, and treated with 15 mg/kg of ethambutol and 500 mg of azithromycin daily for 28 days to recapitulate the concentration-time profiles seen in the lungs of humans treated with these drugs and doses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922791/targeting-hypoxia-to-improve-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-outcome
#3
Ahmed Salem, Marie-Claude Asselin, Bart Reymen, Alan Jackson, Philippe Lambin, Catharine M L West, James P B O'Connor, Corinne Faivre-Finn
Oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important factor in treatment resistance and poor survival. Hypoxia is an attractive therapeutic target, particularly in the context of radiotherapy, which is delivered to more than half of NSCLC patients. However, NSCLC hypoxia-targeted therapy trials have not yet translated into patient benefit. Recently, early termination of promising evofosfamide and tarloxotinib bromide studies due to futility highlighted the need for a paradigm shift in our approach to avoid disappointments in future trials...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922589/higher-baseline-proinflammatory-cytokines-mark-poor-antidepressant-response-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
Francesco Benedetti, Sara Poletti, Thomas A Hoogenboezem, Clara Locatelli, Harm de Wit, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Cristina Colombo, Hemmo A Drexhage
BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of raised levels of circulating cytokines in bipolar disorder is still unclear. Cytokines influence neurotransmitters, neuroplasticity, and white matter integrity. An inconsistent literature suggests that higher cytokine levels could hamper antidepressant response. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) and light therapy (LT) prompt a rapid antidepressant response and can provide a model treatment to study predictors of response. METHODS: We studied at baseline 15 immune-regulating compounds in 37 consecutively admitted inpatients with a major depressive episode in the course of bipolar disorder (DSM-5 criteria) and in 24 controls...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#5
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921911/update-of-antitubercular-prodrugs-in-a-molecular-perspective-mechanisms-of-action-bioactivation-pathways-and-associated-resistances
#6
Vania Bernardes Genisson, Julie Laborde, Céline Deraeve
The place of prodrugs in the current antitubercular therapeutic arsenal is preponderant, since two of the four first-line antitubercular agents, isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), need to be activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis before exerting their activity. In addition, six other prodrugs can be found in the second- and third-line therapeutic regimens, namely ethionamide (ETH), prothionamide (PTH), p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), thiacetazone (TAC), isoxyl (ISO) and the recently approved delamanid. The emergence of mycobacterial strains resistant to one or several antitubercular agents is one of the main issues of the antitubercular therapy...
September 16, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921749/functional-specific-t-cell-expansion-after-first-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-predicts-viremia-control-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#7
Miriam Ciáurriz, Lorea Beloki, Amaya Zabalza, Eva Bandrés, Cristina Mansilla, Estela Pérez-Valderrama, Mercedes Lachén, Mercedes Rodríguez-Calvillo, Natalia Ramírez, Eduardo Olavarría
BACKGROUND: The use of preemptive antiviral therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients might result in over-treatment, inducing drug-related toxicity and viral resistance. A search for predictive markers is needed, to determine requirement for antiviral therapy. Clinical follow-up, in combination with the use of streptamers (STs) and cytokine-intracellular staining, could help to identify patients at high risk for CMV reactivations...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921723/effect-of-prophylactic-cefalexin-treatment-on-the-development-of-bacterial-infection-in-acute-radiation-induced-dermatitis-in-dogs-a-blinded-randomized-controlled-prospective-clinical-trial
#8
Michele A Keyerleber, Lluís Ferrer
BACKGROUND: Acute radiation-induced dermatitis (ARID) is a common sequela of radiation therapy and carries the risk of secondary bacterial skin infection. No standard of care exists for managing canine ARID and evidence-based guidelines are lacking; however, prophylactic use of antibiotics is common. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of prophylactic cefalexin on the prevalence and severity of bacterial infection in canine ARID. ANIMALS: Seventeen dogs treated with definitive-intent radiotherapy...
September 18, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921458/pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-in-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis
#9
REVIEW
María C Ovejero-Benito, Ester Muñoz-Aceituno, Alejandra Reolid, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Francisco Abad-Santos, Esteban Daudén
Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence related to drug response. Moreover, the evolution of biotechnology and the sequencing of human DNA have allowed the creation of pharmacogenomics, a branch of genetics that analyzes human genes, the RNAs and proteins encoded by them, and the inter-and intra-individual variations in expression and function in relation to drug response. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are being used to search for biomarkers that can predict response to systemic treatments, including those for moderate-to-severe psoriasis...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921034/does-nasal-congestion-have-a-role-in-decreased-resistance-to-regular-cpap-usage
#10
Ayşe İriz, Mehmet Düzlü, Oğuz Köktürk, Yusuf Kemal Kemaloğlu, Fakih Cihat Eravcı, Mehmet Ekrem Zorlu, Recep Karamert
Nasal obstruction is known to cause resistance to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this paper, short- and long-term nasal congestion in OSAS patients receiving CPAP treatment were evaluated with acoustic rhinometry (AR). A total of 36 patients with moderate-to-severe OSAS, diagnosed with polysomnography were included in the study. Ten healthy subjects without OSAS constituted the control group. Pre-treatment nasal patency were measured with AR in all participants...
September 18, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920959/targeting-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-eradicates-therapy-resistant-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cells
#11
Elodie M Kuntz, Pablo Baquero, Alison M Michie, Karen Dunn, Saverio Tardito, Tessa L Holyoake, G Vignir Helgason, Eyal Gottlieb
Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with imatinib mesylate and other second- and/or third-generation c-Abl-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has substantially extended patient survival. However, TKIs primarily target differentiated cells and do not eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Therefore, targeting minimal residual disease to prevent acquired resistance and/or disease relapse requires identification of new LSC-selective target(s) that can be exploited therapeutically. Considering that malignant transformation involves cellular metabolic changes, which may in turn render the transformed cells susceptible to specific assaults in a selective manner, we searched for such vulnerabilities in CML LSCs...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920717/-targeted-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-treatment-caused-side-effects-and-side-effect-management
#12
Krisztián Nagyiványi, Lajos Géczi
Until the past decade, therapeutic options for unresectable and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma were limited. Renal cell carcinoma is generally resistant to conventional chemotherapy, and only a small percentage of patients with renal cell carcinoma benefit from cytokine treatment. Since 2005, the advances in target-based therapy and immunotherapy modalities have created a paradigm shift in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we review the most up-to-date practices and emerging therapies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and focus on the threrapy caused side-effects and side-effect management...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920521/implementing-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-psychosocial-care-units-caps-in-brazil
#13
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Nilson R da Silva, Marta Rd Campos, Helena F Moura, Gustavo Zabert, Beatriz M Champagne, Katherine E Kemper, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among mental health and addiction (MHA) patients is 3 times higher than it is in the general population, yet this patient population has received little help to combat smoking. Considering this, psychosocial care centers (CAPS - Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) are strategic locations for integrating tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) into existing treatment activities. METHODS: Our team provided an 8-hour training package to the staff of CAPS that have not been providing specialized TDT for smokers...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920157/mechanisms-of-cancer-cell-killing-by-sea-cucumber-derived-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Widodo
The aim of cancer therapy is to specifically eradicate tumor cells while causing minimal damage to normal tissues and minimal side-effects. Because of this, the use of natural substances with low toxicity is a good option. Sea cucumbers are one of many potential marine animals that contain valuable nutrients and medicinal properties. The medicinal value of sea cucumbers is attributed to the presence of bioactive agents with promising biological and pharmacological properties that include cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor growth, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties, and inhibition of drug resistance...
September 18, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920153/optimizing-somatostatin-analog-use-in-well-or-moderately-differentiated-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Paula Jiménez-Fonseca, Ana Custodio, Enrique Grande, Jaume Capdevila, Carlos López, Alex Teule, Rocío Garcia-Carbonero
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogues, aiming to control tumor secretion or growth, constitute the most attractive therapeutic option for patients with well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art knowledge gaps and potential opportunities for future development and optimization of this therapeutic modality. METHOD: A contextualized systematic review with a narrative component was conducted using PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar...
September 18, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920078/notch1-activation-depletes-the-pool-of-side-population-stem-cells-in-atl
#16
Xue Tao Bai, Chien-Hung Yeh, Christophe Nicot
BACKGROUND: HTLV-I infection is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a malignancy characterized by a high rate of disease relapse and poor survival. Previous studies reported the existence of side population (SP) cells in HTLV-I Tax transgenic mouse models. These studies showed that these ATL-like derived SP cells have both self-renewal and leukemia renewal capacity and represent Cancer Stem Cells (CSC)/Leukemia-Initiating Cells (LIC). Since CSC/LIC are resistant to conventional therapies, a better characterization is needed...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919792/clinical-outcomes-and-nephrotoxicity-of-colistin-loading-dose-for-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-cancer-patients
#17
Wasan Katip, Suriyon Uitrakul, Peninnah Oberdorfer
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a last-line defense therapy against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Despite a loading dose of colistin being applied in many clinical practices, studies evaluating the effect of the loading dose of colistin in cancer patients remain limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cancer patients who received either a loading or non-loading dose of colistin for treatment of XDR-AB was conducted. For each group, the clinical response, bacteriological eradication and serum creatinine were recorded...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919768/ictal-heart-rate-changes-and-the-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#18
Wei Chen, Fan-Gang Meng
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) shows long-term efficiency worldwide in most pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy; however, there are still a small number of patients who are non-responders to VNS therapy. It has been shown that VNS treatment outcomes for drug-resistant epilepsy may be predicted by preoperative heart-rate variability measurements and that patients with epilepsy with ictal tachycardia (IT) during seizures have good responses to VNS. However, few studies have reported the efficacy of VNS in patients with epilepsy with ictal bradycardia (IB) or normal heart rate (HR), and none have explored the possible mechanisms of VNS efficacy based on different HR types...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919756/polymeric-mixed-micelles-loaded-mitoxantrone-for-overcoming-multidrug-resistance-in-breast-cancer-via-photodynamic-therapy
#19
Zeyong Li, Yuee Cai, Yiqiao Zhao, Hua Yu, Haiyu Zhou, Meiwan Chen
Mitoxantrone (MIT) is an anticancer agent with photosensitive properties that is commonly used in various cancers. Multidrug resistance (MDR) effect has been an obstacle to using MIT for cancer therapy. Photochemical internalization, on account of photodynamic therapy, has been applied to improve the therapeutic effect of cancers with MDR effect. In this study, an MIT-poly(ε-caprolactone)-pluronic F68-poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (MIT-PFP/PPP) mixed micelles system was applied to reverse the effect of MDR in MCF-7/ADR cells via photochemical reaction when exposed to near-infrared light...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919720/text-messaging-to-decrease-tuberculosis-treatment-attrition-in-tb-hiv-coinfection-in-uganda
#20
Sabine M Hermans, Sawsan Elbireer, Harriet Tibakabikoba, Bas J Hoefman, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: Low tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion rates in sub-Saharan Africa are an important driver of multidrug resistance. Mobile technology-based interventions have been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to test the effect of a short-message service (SMS) intervention on loss to follow-up (LFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, all adult, literate, HIV-infected patients with mobile phone access diagnosed with TB between November 2010 and October 2011 in an urban clinic in Uganda were eligible to receive adherence and appointment reminders and educational quizzes during the first 8 weeks of TB treatment...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
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