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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149094/genomic-analysis-of-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-dairy-cow-manure
#1
Muhammad Attiq Rehman, Xianhua Yin, Dion Lepp, Chad Laing, Kim Ziebell, Guylaine Talbot, Edward Topp, Moussa Sory Diarra
The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to new derivatives of β-lactams is a major public health threat if present in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize ceftiofur (TIO)- or cefotaxime (FOX)-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cow manure. Twenty-four manure samples were collected from four farms and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 20 weeks at 4 °C or at 25 °C. A total of 37 TIO- or FOX-resistant E. coli were isolated from two of the four farms to determine their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics...
November 17, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143455/understanding-the-functional-role-of-microrna-214-3p-in-atherosclerosis-for-the-identification-of-novel-targeted-therapies-to-prevent-or-reverse-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-and-stimulate-autophagy
#2
EDITORIAL
Adriana Georgescu
The original article by Jing Wang and collaborators, entitled "MicroRNA-214-3p: A Link between Autophagy and Endothelial Cell Dysfunction in Atherosclerosis", brings new data concerning molecular mechanisms linking decreased autophagy to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, the authors concluded that microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) controls oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced autophagy in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by regulating intracellular levels of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), and may have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
November 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131246/study-on-the-distribution-of-cd8-memory-t-cell-subsets-and-ifn-%C3%AE-level-during-the-spontaneous-clearance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#3
X-J Ma, X-F Chen, W-L Chen, R Chen, J Huang, X-D Luo, J-Y Liao, X-P Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the alteration of CD8+ memory T cell subsets under different immune statuses during the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Chinese patients with chronic HBV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed Chinese patients with chronic HBV infection including 10 patients with Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) spontaneous seroconversion, 25 patients with Hepatitis B virus e Antigen (HBeAg) spontaneous seroconversion, 25 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 25 chronic HBV carriers...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126659/phases-of-match-play-in-professional-australian-football-descriptive-analysis-and-reliability-assessment
#4
Michael J Rennie, Mark L Watsford, Robert W Spurrs, Stephen J Kelly, Matthew J Pine
OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency and time spent in the phases of Australian Football (AF) match-play and to assess the intra-assessor reliability of coding these phases of match-play. DESIGN: Observational, intra-reliability assessment. METHODS: Video footage of 10 random quarters of AF match-play were coded by a single researcher. Phases of offence, defence, contested play, umpire stoppage, set shot and goal reset were coded using a set of operational definitions...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062302/genetic-background-and-expression-of-the-new-qepa4-gene-variant-recovered-in-clinical-tem-1-and-cmy-2-producing-escherichia-coli
#5
Vera Manageiro, David Félix, Daniela Jones-Dias, Daniel A Sampaio, Luís Vieira, Luísa Sancho, Eugénia Ferreira, Manuela Caniça
A new QepA4 variant was detected in an O86:H28 ST156-fimH38 Escherichia coli, showing a multidrug-resistance phenotype. PAβN inhibition of qepA4-harboring transconjugant resulted in increase of nalidixic acid accumulation. The qepA4 and catA1 genes were clustered in a 26.0-kp contig matching an IncF-type plasmid, and containing a Tn21-type transposon with multiple mobile genetic elements. This QepA variant is worrisome because these determinants might facilitate the selection of higher-level resistance mutants, playing a role in the development of resistance, and/or confer higher-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in association with chromosomal mutations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060672/design-and-construction-of-a-synthetic-e-coli-protease-inhibitor-detecting-biomachine
#6
P Boonyalekha, A Meechai, C Tayapiwatana, K Kitidee, D Waraho-Zhmayev
Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been used to treat various types of symptoms or diseases. However, current PIs block the protease activity by targeting the protease active site which has been shown to be sensitive to the off-target effect due to crossreactivity with protease homologues. An alternative approach to inhibiting protease activity is to target the substrate, specifically by blocking the substrate cleavage site. We propose to employ synthetic biology approach to create a synthetic E. coli to be used as a protease inhibitor detecting biomachine that can effectively isolate intrabodies, a new generation of protease inhibitor drug...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971872/kinetics-of-sulbactam-hydrolysis-by-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-their-inhibition
#7
Adam B Shapiro
Sulbactam is one of 4 β-lactamase inhibitors in current clinical use to counteract drug resistance caused by degradation of β-lactam antibiotics by these bacterial enzymes. As a β-lactam itself, sulbactam is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamases. We investigated the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of sulbactam hydrolysis by 14 β-lactamases representing clinically widespread groups within all 4 Ambler classes: CTX-M-15, KPC-2, SHV-5, and TEM-1 for class A; IMP-1, NDM-1, and VIM-1 for class B; Acinetobacter baumannii ADC-7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC and Enterobacter cloacae P99 for class C; and OXA-10, OXA-23, OXA-24, and OXA-48 for class D...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968012/-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile-in-urinary-pathogens-causing-community-acquired-infections-in-diabetic-patients-in-colombia
#8
Laura Cristina Nocua-Báez, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Aura Lucía Leal, Gerson Fitzgerald Arias, María Victoria Ovalle-Guerro, Sandra Yamile Saavedra-Rojas, Giancarlo Buitrago, Javier Antonio Escobar-Pérez, Betsy Castro-Cardozo
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is the most common pathology in diabetic patients, and an important determinant of morbidity and mortality among them. The increasing resistance of uropathogens acquired in the community to commonly used antibiotics is alarming. OBJECTIVE: To identify the profile of antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens responsible for communityacquired infections among diabetic patients in hospitals in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study in a subgroup of diabetic patients in the framework of a larger study in adults with urinary tract infection acquired in the community...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947474/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-cb-618-in-combination-with-cefepime-ceftazidime-ceftolozane-and-meropenem-the-pharmacological-basis-for-a-stand-alone-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor
#9
Paul G Ambrose, Brian D VanScoy, Michael Trang, Jennifer McCauley-Miller, Haley Conde, Sujata M Bhavnani, Dylan C Alexander, Lawrence V Friedrich
A major challenge in treating patients is the selection of the "right" antibiotic regimen. Given that the optimal β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor pair is dependent upon the spectrum of β-lactamase enzymes produced and the frequency of resistance to the β-lactamase inhibitor, it might be useful if a stand-alone were available for the clinician to pair with the "right" β-lactam rather than only in a fixed combination. In this communication, we describe a one-compartment in vitro infection model studies conducted to identify the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) index for a β-lactamase inhibitor, CB-618, that would restore the activity of four β-lactam partner agents (cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftolozane, and meropenem) with varying dose (1 or 2 g) and dosing intervals (8 or 12 h)...
September 25, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912880/spectroscopic-analysis-and-docking-simulation-on-the-recognition-and-binding-of-tem-1-%C3%AE-lactamase-with-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#10
Jianting Yang, Qian Li, Liujiao Bian
The interaction between TEM-1 β-lactamase and antibiotics is very important in the hydrolysis of antibiotics. In the present study, the recognition and binding of TEM-1 β-lactamase with three β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillin G, cefalexin and cefoxitin, was investigated by fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra in combination with molecular docking in the temperature range of 278-288 K and under simulated physiological conditions. The results demonstrated that the fluorescence emissions of TEM-1 β-lactamase were extinguished by static quenching and the energy of TEM-1 β-lactamase was transferred in a non-radioactive manner...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887772/fortuitous-detection-of-cmy-2-and-dha-1-from-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-in-senegal
#11
S Lo, F Robin, A Ba-Diallo, O F Diallo, M L Dia, R Beyrouthy, A Gaye-Diallo, A I Sow, R Bonnet
Cephalosporinases, which are naturally present in some enterobacterial species, can be mobilized by transposons, migrate to plasmids, and spread into other species such as Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize genes responsible for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in E. coli isolates from urinary origin isolated in two hospitals in Senegal. Thus, a fortuitous discovery of plasmidic cephalosporinase in two isolates was noted. One of the isolates produced dha-1 associated with ESBL CTX-M-14, the other produced cmy-2, ESBL CTXM-15, tem-1 penicillinase, and oxa-1...
October 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835096/reversibility-of-covalent-broad-spectrum-serine-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibition-by-the-diazabicyclooctenone-etx2514
#12
Adam B Shapiro, Ning Gao, Haris Jahić, Nicole M Carter, April Chen, Alita A Miller
ETX2514 is a non-β-lactam serine β-lactamase inhibitor in clinical development that has greater potency and broader spectrum of β-lactamase inhibition than the related diazabicyclooctanone avibactam. Despite opening of its cyclic urea ring upon acylation, avibactam can recyclize and dissociate intact from certain β-lactamases. We investigated reversibility of ETX2514 acylation of 10 serine β-lactamases representing Ambler classes A, C, and D. Dissociation rate constants varied widely between enzymes and were lowest for class D...
August 28, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812563/multicopy-plasmids-potentiate-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria
#13
Alvaro San Millan, Jose Antonio Escudero, Danna R Gifford, Didier Mazel, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids are thought to play a key role in bacterial evolution by acting as vehicles for horizontal gene transfer, but the role of plasmids as catalysts of gene evolution remains unexplored. We challenged populations of Escherichia coli carrying the blaTEM-1 β-lactamase gene on either the chromosome or a multicopy plasmid (19 copies per cell) with increasing concentrations of ceftazidime. The plasmid accelerated resistance evolution by increasing the rate of appearance of novel TEM-1 mutations, thereby conferring resistance to ceftazidime, and then by amplifying the effect of TEM-1 mutations due to the increased gene dosage...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725038/genomic-characterization-of-novel-incfii-type-multidrug-resistant-plasmids-p0716-kpc-and-p12181-kpc-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#14
Jiao Feng, Zhe Yin, Qiangyuan Zhao, Yachao Zhao, Defu Zhang, Xiaoyuan Jiang, Weili Wu, Weijun Chen, Hui Wang, Yajun Song, Yigang Tong, Jinglin Wang, Yanjun Li, Dongsheng Zhou
This study aimed to genetically characterize two fully-sequenced novel IncFII-type multidrug resistant (MDR) plasmids, p0716-KPC and p12181-KPC, recovered from two different clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. p0716-KPC and p12181-KPC had a very similar genomic content. The backbones of p0716-KPC/p12181-KPC contained two different replicons (belonging to a novel IncFII subtype and the Rep_3 family), the IncFIIK and IncFIIY maintenance regions, and conjugal transfer gene sets from IncFIIK-type plasmids and unknown origins...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699625/mutation-supply-and-the-repeatability-of-selection-for-antibiotic-resistance
#15
Thomas van Dijk, Sungmin Hwang, Joachim Krug, Arjan Gm de Visser, Mark Peter Zwart
Whether evolution can be predicted is a key question in evolutionary biology. Here we set out to better understand the repeatability of evolution, which is a necessary condition for predictability. We explored experimentally the effect of mutation supply and the strength of selective pressure on the repeatability of selection from standing genetic variation. Different sizes of mutant libraries of antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 β-lactamase in Escherichia coli, generated by error-prone PCR, were subjected to different antibiotic concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687975/prevalence-and-drug-resistance-characteristics-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-hangzhou-china
#16
Yan Yang, Jian Chen, Di Lin, Xujian Xu, Jun Cheng, Changgui Sun
With the abuse of antimicrobial agents in developing countries, increasing number of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) attracted considerable public concern. A retrospective study was conducted based on 242 CRE strains from a tertiary hospital in Hangzhou, China to investigate prevalence and drug resistance characteristics of CRE in southeast China. Bacterial species were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by broth microdilution method or epsilometer test. Resistant β-lactamase genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
July 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687066/genomic-characterization-of-a-large-plasmid-containing-a-bla-ndm-1-gene-carried-on-salmonella-enterica-serovar-indiana-c629-isolate-from-china
#17
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Zixin Peng, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Séamus Fanning, Fengqin Li
BACKGROUND: The bla NDM-1 gene in Salmonella species is mostly reported in clinical cases, but is rarely isolated from red and white meat in China. METHODS: A Salmonella Indiana (S. Indiana) isolate was cultured from a chicken carcass procured from a slaughterhouse in China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against a panel of agents. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolate was carried out and data was analyzed. RESULTS: A large plasmid, denoted as plasmid pC629 (210,106 bp), containing a composite cassette, consisting of IS26-bla NDM-1-ble MBL -△trpF-tat-cutA-ISCR1-sul1-qacE△1-aadA2-dfrA12-intI1-IS26 was identified...
July 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667632/monitoring-effector-translocation-using-the-tem-1-beta-lactamase-reporter-system
#18
Julie Allombert, Anne Vianney, Xavier Charpentier
Among the bacterial secretion systems, the Type III, IV, and VI secretion systems enable bacteria to secrete proteins directly into a target cell. This specific form of secretion, referred to as translocation, is essential for a number of pathogens to alter or kill targeted cells. The translocated proteins, called effector proteins, can directly interfere with the normal processes of the targeted cells, preventing elimination of pathogens and promoting their multiplication. The function of effector proteins varies greatly depending on the considered pathogen and the targeted cell...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643490/characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-of-shigella-flexneri-isolates-with-fosfomycin-resistance-from-patients-in-china
#19
Yanyan Liu, Yue Cheng, Haifei Yang, Lifen Hu, Jun Cheng, Ying Ye, Jiabin Li
BACKGROUND: The emergence of fosfomycin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes is a serious threat to public health and a new challenge in shigellosis treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify fosfomycin resistance and characterize β-lactamase genes in fos-carrying isolates of Shigella flexneri from patients in China. METHODS: A total of 263 S. flexneri isolates were collected from 34 hospitals in the Anhui Province of China during September 2012-September 2015 and screened for fosA3, fosA, and fosC2 by PCR amplification and sequencing...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631253/portal-branch-ligation-does-not-counteract-the-inhibiting-effect-of-temsirolimus-on-extrahepatic-colorectal-metastatic-growth
#20
Sebastian Senger, Jens Sperling, Barbara Oberkircher, Martin K Schilling, Otto Kollmar, Michael D Menger, Christian Ziemann
The mTor-inhibitor temsirolimus (TEM) has potent anti-tumor activities on extrahepatic colorectal metastases. Treatment of patients with advanced disease may require portal branch ligation (PBL). While PBL can induce intrahepatic tumor growth, the effect of PBL on extrahepatic metastases under TEM treatment is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of TEM treatment on extrahepatic metastases during PBL-associated liver regeneration. GFP-transfected CT26.WT colorectal cancer cells were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of BALB/c-mice...
June 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
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