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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105330/genetic-markers-associated-with-resistance-to-beta-lactam-and-quinolone-antimicrobials-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-isolates-from-humans-and-animals-in-central-ethiopia
#1
Tadesse Eguale, Josephine Birungi, Daniel Asrat, Moses N Njahira, Joyce Njuguna, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, John S Gunn, Appolinaire Djikeng, Ephrem Engidawork
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. METHODS: Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams (n = 43) were tested for genes encoding for beta-lactamase enzymes, and those resistant to quinolones (n = 29) for mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) as well as plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes using PCR and sequencing...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087769/enzyme-efficiency-but-not-thermostability-drives-cefotaxime-resistance-evolution-in-tem-1-%C3%AE-lactamase
#2
Jennifer Knies, Fei Cai, Daniel M Weinreich
A leading intellectual challenge in evolutionary genetics is to identify the specific phenotypes that drive adaptation. Enzymes offer a particularly promising opportunity to pursue this question, because many enzymes' contributions to organismal fitness depend on a comparatively small number of experimentally accessible properties. Moreover, on first principles the demands of enzyme thermostability stand in opposition to the demands of catalytic activity. This observation, coupled with the fact that enzymes are only marginally thermostable, motivates the widely held hypothesis that mutations conferring functional improvement require compensatory mutations to restore thermostability...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039104/rectal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-hospitalised-neonates-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-fez-morocco
#3
Btissam Arhoune, Bouchra Oumokhtar, Fouzia Hmami, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Mohammed Timinouni, Samira El Fakir, Fouzia Chami, Abdelhak Bouharrou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal carriage and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) isolated from rectal samples of neonates hospitalised in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital in Fez, Morocco. METHODS: From February-July 2013, all neonates hospitalised in the NICU were screened for ESBLE carriage at discharge. ESBLs were identified by double-disk synergy test, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005382/unexpected-huge-dimerization-ratio-in-one-dimensional-carbon-atomic-chains
#4
Yung-Chang Lin, Shigeyuki Morishita, Masanori Koshino, Chao-Hui Yeh, Po-Yuan Teng, Po-Wen Chiu, Hidetaka Sawada, Kazutomo Suenaga
Peierls theory predicted atomic distortion in one-dimensional (1D) crystal due to its intrinsic instability in 1930. Free-standing carbon atomic chains created in situ in transmission electron microscope (TEM)1-3 are an ideal example to experimentally observe the dimerization behavior of carbon atomic chain within a finite length. We report here a surprisingly huge distortion found in the free-standing carbon atomic chains at 773 K, which is 10 times larger than the value expected in the system. Such an abnormally distorted phase only dominates at the elevated temperatures, while two distinct phases, distorted and undistorted, coexist at lower or ambient temperatures...
December 27, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988068/in-vivo-pharmacodynamics-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-implications-for-antimicrobial-efficacy-and-resistance-suppression-with-innovator-and-generic-products
#5
Carlos A Rodriguez, Maria Agudelo, Andres F Zuluaga, Omar Vesga
Recent studies have shown that the pharmacodynamic (PD) index driving the efficacy of β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam is the percentage of time the free inhibitor concentration is above a threshold (fT>threshold). However, data with piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) are scarce. Here we aimed to assess the relationship between fT>threshold and TZP antibacterial efficacy by a population pharmacokinetic study in mice and dose-effect experiments in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model with two isogenic strains of Escherichia coli differentially expressing TEM-1 β-lactamase...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984780/high-rates-of-ctx-m-15-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-wild-boars-and-barbary-macaques-in-algeria
#6
Taous Bachiri, Sofiane Bakour, Rabia Ladjouzi, Leangapichart Thongpan, Jean Marc Rolain, Abdelaziz Touati
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to screen for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild boars and Barbary macaques in Béjaïa and Jijel, Algeria. METHODS: A total of 216 faecal samples collected between September 2014 and August 2015 were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1μg/mL ceftazidime. Isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS)...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956418/chromosome-encoded-broad-spectrum-ambler-class-a-%C3%AE-lactamase-rub-1-from-serratia-rubidaea
#7
Rémy A Bonnin, Jennifer Didi, Ayla Ergani, Sandra Lima, Thierry Naas
Whole genome sequencing of Serratia rubidaea CIP 103234(T) revealed a chromosomally-located Ambler class A β-lactamase gene. The gene was cloned, and the β-lactamase, RUB-1, was characterized. RUB-1 displayed 74% and 73 % amino acid sequence identity with GIL-1 and TEM-1 penicillinases, respectively, and its substrate profile was similar to that of these latter β-lactamases. 5' RACE analysis revealed promoter sequences highly divergent from E. coli σ(70) consensus sequence. This work further illustrates the heterogeneity of ß-lactamases among Serratia spp...
December 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809768/comparison-of-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-obtained-from-drinking-water-sources-in-northern-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Beatus Lyimo, Joram Buza, Murugan Subbiah, Woutrina Smith, Douglas R Call
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health on a global scale. Escherichia coli comprises Gram-negative, fecal-borne pathogenic and commensal bacteria that are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance. AMR E. coli can be ingested via food, water and direct contact with fecal contamination. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of AMR Escherichia coli from select drinking water sources in northern Tanzania...
November 3, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795467/bloodstream-infection-due-to-ctx-m-15-and-tem-1-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-salmonella-enterica-serovar-virchow-st16
#9
Jeong-Hwan Hwang, Gee-Wook Shin, Joo-Hee Hwang, Chang-Seop Lee
A 57-year-old man presented with a high fever and diarrhea. A blood culture showed the presence of a Group C nontyphoidal Salmonella isolate. On Salmonella serotyping, the isolate was Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow. Its sequence type was determined to be ST16 by sequence analysis of seven different housekeeping genes. The blaCTX-M group 1 and blaTEM genes were amplified by multiplex PCR assays for detecting ESBL genes. Sequences of both amplicons were respectively identical to CTX-M-15- and TEM-1-encoding genes...
October 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756125/engineering-specificity-from-broad-to-narrow-design-of-a-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitory-protein-blip-variant-that-exclusively-binds-and-detects-kpc-%C3%AE-lactamase
#10
Dar-Chone Chow, Kacie Rice, Wanzhi Huang, Robert L Atmar, Timothy Palzkill
The β-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) binds and inhibits a wide range of class A β-lactamases including the TEM-1 β-lactamase (Ki = 0.5 nM), which is widely present in Gram-negative bacteria, and the KPC-2 β-lactamase (Ki = 1.2 nM), which hydrolyzes virtually all clinically useful β-lactam antibiotics. The extent to which the specificity of a protein that binds a broad range of targets can be modified to display narrow specificity was explored in this study by engineering BLIP to bind selectively to KPC-2 β-lactamase...
December 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736780/the-type-iii-secretion-system-effector-seoc-of-salmonella-enterica-subsp-salamae-and-s-enterica-subsp-arizonae-adp-ribosylates-src-and-inhibits-opsonophagocytosis
#11
Dominic J Pollard, Joanna C Young, Valentina Covarelli, Silvia Herrera-León, Thomas R Connor, Maria Fookes, Danielle Walker, Aurora Echeita, Nicholas R Thomson, Cedric N Berger, Gad Frankel
Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722717/-light-up-protein-protein-interaction-through-bioorthogonal-incorporation-of-a-turn-on-fluorescent-probe-into-%C3%AE-lactamase
#12
Rui Hu, Hong-Kin Yap, Yik-Hong Fung, Yong Wang, Wing-Lam Cheong, Lok-Yan So, Chui-Shan Tsang, Lawrence Yoon Suk Lee, Warrick Ken Cheung Lo, Jian Yuan, Ning Sun, Yun-Chung Leung, Guoqiang Yang, Kwok-Yin Wong
Fluorescent labeling of biomacromolecules to 'light up' biological events through non-invasive methods is of great importance, but is still challenging in terms of fluorophore properties and the labeling methods used. Herein, we designed and synthesized a biocompatible and conformation sensitive tetraphenylethene derivative EPB with aggregation induced emission (AIE) properties. By introducing EPB into TEM-1 β-lactamase (TEM-1 Bla) through a two-step approach, a conformation-dependent fluorescent sensor EPB104-Bla was genetically engineered, which was applied to monitor the protein-protein interaction (PPI) with β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP)...
October 4, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711435/a-mof-membrane-based-on-the-covalent-bonding-driven-assembly-of-a-nmof-with-an-organic-oligomer-and-its-application-in-membrane-reactors
#13
Wei-Ling Jiang, Luo-Gang Ding, Bing-Jian Yao, Jian-Cheng Wang, Gong-Jun Chen, Yan-An Li, Jian-Ping Ma, Jun Ji, Ying Dong, Yu-Bin Dong
A UiO-66-MOF-based membrane UiO-66-TEM (1) was prepared by the assembly of methacrylamide-decorated UiO-66-NH-Met with a thiol side chain-attached polysiloxane (PSI-SH) via a photoinduced thiol-ene click reaction. The obtained membrane 1 can be a platform to support Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) to generate an Au-MOF-polymer composite membrane Au@UiO-66-TEM (2). 1 and 2 can be used to build highly efficient continuous flow-through membrane reactors for Knoevenagel condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with malononitrile and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction at ambient temperature, respectively...
October 3, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706778/prevalence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-classes-a-c-and-d-among-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-a-tertiary-level-hospital-in-bangkok-thailand
#14
C Katvoravutthichai, K Boonbumrung, R Tiyawisutsri
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infection and it has increasing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. β-lactamase production is the most frequent mechanism for β-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa. We evaluated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa for classes A, C, and D by polymerase chain reaction, and investigated clonal diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We used the disk diffusion method to test 118 non-duplicate clinical isolates of P...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703329/bulgecin-a-as-a-%C3%AE-lactam-enhancer-for-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-containing-various-resistance-mechanisms
#15
Marion J Skalweit, Mei Li
Genetic screening of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSDA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) reveals genes that confer increased susceptibility to β-lactams when disrupted, suggesting novel drug targets. One such target is lytic transglycosylase. Bulgecin A (BlgA) is a natural product of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila and a lytic transglycosolase inhibitor that works synergistically with β-lactams targeting PBP3 for Enterobacteriaceae. BlgA also weakly inhibits di-Zn(2+) metallo-β-lactamases like L1 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694911/massively-parallel-single-nucleotide-mutagenesis-using-reversibly-terminated-inosine
#16
Gabe Haller, David Alvarado, Kevin McCall, Robi D Mitra, Matthew B Dobbs, Christina A Gurnett
Large-scale mutagenesis of target DNA sequences allows researchers to comprehensively assess the effects of single-nucleotide changes. Here we demonstrate the construction of a systematic allelic series (SAS) using massively parallel single-nucleotide mutagenesis with reversibly terminated deoxyinosine triphosphates (rtITP). We created a mutational library containing every possible single-nucleotide mutation surrounding the active site of the TEM-1 β-lactamase gene. When combined with high-throughput functional assays, SAS mutational libraries can expedite the functional assessment of genetic variation...
November 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643815/an-expanded-palette-of-xenon-129-nmr-biosensors
#17
Yanfei Wang, Ivan J Dmochowski
Molecular imaging holds considerable promise for elucidating biological processes in normal physiology as well as disease states, by determining the location and relative concentration of specific molecules of interest. Proton-based magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H MRI) is nonionizing and provides good spatial resolution for clinical imaging but lacks sensitivity for imaging low-abundance (i.e., submicromolar) molecular markers of disease or environments with low proton densities. To address these limitations, hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe NMR spectroscopy and MRI have emerged as attractive complementary methodologies...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635645/identification-of-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-a-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant
#18
Carlo Zanotto, Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Illiano, Valeria Mezzanotte, Francesca Marazzi, Andrea Turolla, Manuela Antonelli, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The emergence and diffusion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been a major public health problem for many years now. In this study, antibiotic-resistance of coliforms and Escherichia coli were investigated after their isolation from samples collected in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in the Milan area (Italy) along different points of the treatment sequence: inflow to biological treatment; outflow from biological treatment following rapid sand filtration; and outflow from peracetic acid disinfection...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598630/first-report-of-tem-104-shv-99-shv-108-and-shv-110-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-iran
#19
Shahram Shahraki-Zahedani, Shahnaz Rigi, Mohammad Bokaeian, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Mehdi Moghadampour
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of TEM- and SHV-type ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. METHODS: A total of 170 non-repetitive K. pneumoniae strains were collected from patients referred to three teaching hospitals of Zahedan. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined for 17 antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591922/removal-of-pb-ii-ions-by-using-magnetic-chitosan-4-pyridin-2-ylimino-methyl-benzaldehyde-schiff-s-base
#20
Yuvaraja Gutha, Venkata Subbaiah Munagapati
A novel crosslinked magnetic chitosan-4-((pyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)benzaldehyde Schiff's Base (m-CSPIB) was prepared by crosslinking of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with chitosan-4-((pyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)benzaldehyde schiff's base and used as an biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous environment. The biopolymer has been characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, (1)H NMR and VSM analysis. Kinetic studies were performed, and the data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data followed Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum monolayer sorption capacity was found to be 104...
December 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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