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Liver iron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644353/extraintestinal-manifestations-of-celiac-disease-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#1
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet (GFD) on extraintestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the University of Chicago Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extraintestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and >24 months were recorded...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643569/iron-overload-directly-affecting-the-ovaries-in-a-patient-with-diamond-blackfan-anaemia-a-case-report
#2
Mariano Mascarenhas, Victoria Rawnsley, Adam Balen
Iron is a 'one-way' element and the primary point of regulation of body iron stores is at the level of intestinal iron absorption. Repeated blood transfusions for congenital anaemias bypass this regulatory checkpoint and inevitably lead to iron overload in the long-term. Iron overload causes multi-organ dysfunction of the heart, liver, pancreas and joints. It also causes reproductive toxicity primarily through its damaging effect on the anterior pituitary leading to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Another less understood mechanism of reproductive toxicity is direct gonadal damage of excess free iron...
June 23, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643355/ultra-short-echo-time-images-quantify-high-liver-iron
#3
Eamon K Doyle, Kristin Toy, Bertin Valdez, Jonathan M Chia, Thomas Coates, John C Wood
PURPOSE: 1.5T gradient echo-based R2∗ estimates are standard-of-care for assessing liver iron concentration (LIC). Despite growing popularity of 3T, echo time (TE) limitations prevent 3T liver iron quantitation in the upper half of the clinical range (LIC ⪆20 mg/g). In this work, a 3D radial pulse sequence was assessed to double the dynamic range of 3T LIC estimates. THEORY AND METHODS: The minimum TE limits the dynamic range of pulse sequences to estimate R2∗...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642463/acute-loss-of-the-hepatic-endo-lysosomal-system-in-vivo-causes-compensatory-changes-in-iron-homeostasis
#4
Christoph Metzendorf, Anja Zeigerer, Sarah Seifert, Richard Sparla, Bahar Najafi, François Canonne-Hergaux, Marino Zerial, Martina U Muckenthaler
Liver cells communicate with the extracellular environment to take up nutrients via endocytosis. Iron uptake is essential for metabolic activities and cell homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of the endocytic system for maintaining iron homeostasis. We specifically depleted the small GTPase Rab5 in the mouse liver, causing a transient loss of the entire endo-lysosomal system. Strikingly, endosome depletion led to a fast reduction of hepatic iron levels, which was preceded by an increased abundance of the iron exporter ferroportin...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642302/residual-erythropoiesis-protects-against-myocardial-hemosiderosis-in-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-by-lowering-labile-plasma-iron-via-transient-generation-of-apotransferrin
#5
Maciej W Garbowski, Patricia Evans, Evangelia Vlachodimitropoulou, Robert Hider, John B Porter
Cardiosiderosis is a leading cause of mortality in transfusion-dependent thalassemias. Plasma non-transferrin-bound iron and its redox-active component, labile plasma iron, are key sources of iron loading in cardiosiderosis. Risk factors were identified in 73 patients with or without cardiosiderosis. Soluble transferrin receptor-1 levels were significantly lower in patients with cardiosiderosis (odds ratio 21). This risk increased when transfusion-iron loading rates exceeded the erythroid transferrin uptake rate (derived from soluble transferrin receptor-1) by >0...
June 22, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638087/mesoscopic-multimodal-imaging-provides-new-insight-to-tumor-tissue-evaluation-an-example-of-macrophage-imaging-of-hepatic-tumor-using-organosilica-nanoparticles
#6
Michihiro Nakamura, Koichiro Hayashi, Hitoshi Kubo, Masafumi Harada, Keisuke Izumi, Yoshihiro Tsuruo, Toshinobu Yogo
Multimodal imaging using novel multifunctional nanoparticles provides new approach to biomedical field. Thiol-organosilica nanoparticles containing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and rhodamine B (thiol OS-MNP/Rho) were applied to multimodal imaging of hepatic tumor of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of LEC rats revealed tumors in the liver clearly and semi-quantitatively due to a labeling of macrophages in liver. The fluorescent imaging (FI) showed abnormal fluorescent patterns of the liver at the mesoscopic level that was between macroscopic and microscopic level...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636371/iron-oxidation-and-core-formation-in-recombinant-heteropolymeric-human-ferritins
#7
Matthew R Mehlenbacher, Maura Poli, Paolo Arosio, Paolo Santambrogio, Sonia Levi, N Dennis Chasteen, Fadi Bou-Abdallah
In animals, the iron storage and detoxification protein, ferritin, is composed of two functionally and genetically distinct subunit types, H (Heavy) and L (Light), which co-assemble in various ratios with tissue specific distributions to form shell-like protein structures of 24 subunits within which a mineralized iron core is stored. The H-subunit possesses a ferroxidase center (FC) which catalyzes Fe(II) oxidation whereas the L-subunit does not. To assess the role of the L-subunit in iron oxidation and core formation, two human recombinant heteropolymeric ferritins, designated H-rich and L-rich with ratios of ~ 20H:4L and ~ 22L:2H, respectively, were employed and compared to the human homopolymeric H-subunit ferritin (HuHF)...
June 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631037/inclusion-bodies-of-aggregated-hemosiderins-in-liver-macrophages
#8
Hisao Hayashi, Yasuaki Tatsumi, Shinya Wakusawa, Ryota Shigemasa, Ryoji Koide, Ken-Ichi Tsuchida, Natsuko Morotomi, Tetsuji Yamashita, Kotaro Kumagai, Yukiya Ono, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Hidemi Goto, Ayako Kato, Koichi Kato
Hemosiderin formation is a structural indication of iron overload. We investigated further adaptations of the liver to excess iron. Five patients with livers showing iron-rich inclusions larger than 2 µm were selected from our database. The clinical features of patients and structures of the inclusions were compared with those of 2 controls with mild iron overload. All patients had severe iron overload with more than 5000 ng/mL of serum ferritin. Etiologies were variable, from hemochromatosis to iatrogenic iron overload...
June 19, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629515/mutual-cross-talk-between-iron-homeostasis-and-erythropoiesis
#9
Ilona Rybinska, Gaetano Cairo
Iron is necessary for physiological processes essential for the activity of all cells, but the erythropoietic compartment is a privileged iron consumer. In fact, a considerable amount of iron is daily required for hemoglobin synthesis and erythroid cell proliferation. Therefore, a tight link exists between iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. The iron needed for hemoglobin synthesis is mainly ensured by inhibiting hepcidin expression, thereby increasing both ferroportin-mediated iron export from the duodenal absorptive cells and iron release from the reticuloendothelial cells that process old and/or damaged red blood cells...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629118/long-term-dexamethasone-exposure-down-regulates-hepatic-tfr1-and-reduces-liver-iron-concentration-in-rats
#10
Huifang Li, Shuxia Jiang, Chun Yang, Shu Yang, Bin He, Wenqiang Ma, Ruqian Zhao
Exposure to stress is known to cause hepatic iron dysregulation, but the relationship between prolonged stress and liver iron metabolism is not yet fully understood. Thirty 13-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, as follows: the control group (saline-injection) and the dexamethasone group (Dexamethasone (Dex)-injection 0.1 mg/kg/day). After the 21-day stress trial, the results showed that chronic Dex administration not only impaired serum corticosterone (p = 0.00) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p = 0...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622511/metabolic-adaptation-establishes-disease-tolerance-to-sepsis
#11
Sebastian Weis, Ana Rita Carlos, Maria Raquel Moita, Sumnima Singh, Birte Blankenhaus, Silvia Cardoso, Rasmus Larsen, Sofia Rebelo, Sascha Schäuble, Laura Del Barrio, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Sandro Lindig, Michael Bauer, Miguel P Soares
Sepsis is an often lethal syndrome resulting from maladaptive immune and metabolic responses to infection, compromising host homeostasis. Disease tolerance is a defense strategy against infection that preserves host homeostasis without exerting a direct negative impact on pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the iron-sequestering ferritin H chain (FTH) in response to polymicrobial infections is critical to establish disease tolerance to sepsis. The protective effect of FTH is exerted via a mechanism that counters iron-driven oxidative inhibition of the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and in doing so, sustains endogenous glucose production via liver gluconeogenesis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621023/pediatric-liver-transplantation-for-fulminant-hepatic-failure-secondary-to-intentional-iron-overdose
#12
Joanne Lai, Jaime Chu, Ronen Arnon
Acute iron poisoning may lead to life-threatening hepatotoxicity. We present the cases of two pediatric patients with hepatotoxicity following intentional iron ingestion that progressed rapidly to fulminant hepatic failure despite treatment with deferoxamine. Liver transplantation was lifesaving in both patients. These cases emphasize the need for a high index of suspicion for iron ingestion, close monitoring for liver toxicity, and timely consideration for liver transplantation.
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617164/liver-transplantation-using-graft-from-a-donor-with-aplastic-anemia
#13
Soheila Milani, Mohsen Aliakbarian, Ebrahim Khaleghi
Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving procedure in patients with end-stage liver disease. The number of patients in the waiting list for LT has steadily increased over time, so removing liver from deceased donors with unusual disorders could possibly be used for transplantation. We describe a case of LT from a donor with "aplastic anemia" to a patient with liver failure due to hepatitis C. Aplastic anemia is a syndrome of bone marrow failure. Aplastic anemia is one of the most common conditions linked to transfusion dependence, and long-term repeated transfusion inevitably results in iron overload...
June 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615441/iron-transport-proteins-gateways-of-cellular-and-systemic-iron-homeostasis
#14
Mitchell D Knutson
Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron and heme transport proteins that work in concert with ferrireductases, ferroxidases, and chaperones to direct the movement of iron into, within, and out of cells. Systemic iron homeostasis is regulated by the liver-derived peptide hormone, hepcidin. The interface between cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is readily observed in the highly dynamic iron handling of four main cell types: duodenal enterocytes, erythrocyte precursors, macrophages, and hepatocytes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614198/the-almost-normal-liver-biopsy-presentation-clinical-associations-and-outcome
#15
Thomas W Czeczok, John S Van Arnam, Laura D Wood, Michael S Torbenson, Taofic Mounajjed
Liver biopsies obtained for abnormal liver enzymes or unexplained ascites occasionally appear histologically almost normal. The differential diagnosis for these cases is challenging because literature addressing this topic is lacking. We aimed to establish a differential diagnosis and determine clinical associations and outcomes for almost-normal liver biopsies. Ninety-seven histologically almost-normal liver biopsies were collected from 2 institutions. All cases lacked significant inflammation, fatty change, biliary tract disease, vascular disease, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, iron overload, inherited metabolic or storage disorder, viral hepatitis, or fibrosis...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602965/-67-ga-labeled-deferoxamine-derivatives-for-imaging-bacterial-infection-preparation-and-screening-of-functionalized-siderophore-complexes
#16
Joseph A Ioppolo, Deanna Caldwell, Omid Beiraghi, Lisset Llano, Megan Blacker, John F Valliant, Paul J Berti
INTRODUCTION: Deferoxamine (DFO) is a siderophore that bacteria use to scavenge iron and could serve as a targeting vector to image bacterial infection where current techniques have critical limitations. [(67)Ga]-DFO, which is a mimetic of the corresponding iron complex, is taken up by bacteria in culture, however in vivo it clears too rapidly to allow for imaging of infection. In response, we developed several new DFO derivatives to identify those that accumulate in bacteria, and at sites of infection, and that could potentially have improved pharmacokinetics...
June 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596656/assessment-of-heart-and-liver-iron-overload-in-thalassemia-major-patients-using-t2-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Hamid Farhangi, Zahra Badiei, Hasan Mottaghi Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Keramati
Accumulation of excess iron in heart can lead to cardiac dysfunction, which is the most common cause of death in thalassemia major patients. Biopsy is an invasive procedure and therefore not an ideal option to assess iron load. However, standard/usual non-invasive methods, such as ferritin measurement, have some limitations and the results show poor correlations with iron load. Magnetic Response Imaging (MRI-T2*), as a non-invasive and reliable method for iron load assessment in organs such as liver and heart, can be suggested as a favorable alternative...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596277/the-liver-in-regulation-of-iron-homeostasis
#18
Gautam Rishi, V Nathan Subramaniam
The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594937/hyperferritinemia-and-hypergammaglobulinemia-predict-the-treatment-response-to-standard-therapy-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#19
Richard Taubert, Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski, Fatih Noyan, Claudine Lalanne, Danny Jonigk, Jerome Schlue, Till Krech, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christine S Falk, Verena Schlaphoff, Heike Bantel, Luigi Muratori, Michael P Manns, Elmar Jaeckel
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic hepatitis with an increasing incidence. The majority of patients require life-long immunosuppression and incomplete treatment response is associated with a disease progression. An abnormal iron homeostasis or hyperferritinemia is associated with worse outcome in other chronic liver diseases and after liver transplantation. We assessed the capacity of baseline parameters including the iron status to predict the treatment response upon standard therapy in 109 patients with untreated AIH type 1 (AIH-1) in a retrospective single center study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593739/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-to-determine-the-impact-of-iron-depletion-in-dysmetabolic-iron-overload-syndrome-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Arvind R Murali, Ashutosh Gupta, Kyle Brown
AIMS: Iron reduction has been proposed as treatment for dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but results of published trials are conflicting. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of phlebotomy in DIOS and NAFLD. METHODS: We searched multiple databases systematically for studies evaluating impact of phlebotomy in DIOS and NAFLD. We calculated weighted summary estimates using inverse variance method...
June 7, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
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